Michael Bornstein Oren (Hebrew: מיכאל אורן; born Michael
Scott Bornstein; May 20, 1955) is an American-born Israeli historian,
author, politician, former ambassador to the United States
(2009–2013), and current member of the
Knesset for the
and Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister's Office.
Oren has written books, articles, and essays on Middle Eastern
history, and is the author of the
New York Times
New York Times best-selling Power,
Faith and Fantasy and Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the
Modern Middle East, which won the
Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times History Book of
the Year Award and the National Jewish Book Award. Oren has been a
visiting professor at Harvard, Yale, and Georgetown universities in
United States and at Tel Aviv and
Hebrew universities in Israel.
He was a Distinguished Fellow at the
Shalem Center in
Jerusalem and a
contributing editor to The New Republic. The Forward named Oren one of
the five most influential American Jews and The
Jerusalem Post listed
him as one of the world’s ten most influential Jews.
Oren retired as ambassador to the
United States in 2013, replaced by
Ron Dermer. In the 2015 Israeli election, Oren was elected to the
Knesset for the centrist
1 Personal life and background
2 Military service
3 Academic career
5.1 Political commentary
5.2 Middle East history
8 Published work
10 External links
Personal life and background
Oren was born Michael Scott Bornstein in upstate New York, the son of
Marilyn (née Goldstein), a marriage and family therapist, and Lester
Milton Bornstein, a hospital director. His father had served as
an officer in the
U.S. Army who took part in the
D-Day invasion of
Normandy and in the Battle of the Bulge in 1944 and participated in
the Korean War. Oren grew up in West Orange, New Jersey, in a
Conservative Jewish household. He attended West Orange High
School. As the only Jewish boy in a heavily Catholic
neighborhood, he says he experienced antisemitism. In his youth, he
was an activist in
Zionist and Jewish youth groups such as United
Synagogue Youth. A meeting with then–Israeli ambassador to the
United States, Yitzhak Rabin, strengthened Oren's decision to move to
Israel. Reading about Rabin sparked Oren's interest in the Israeli
ambassadorship to Washington, a post he would eventually attain.
Oren won two gold medals at the 1977
Maccabiah Games in rowing, a
sport in which he remains active. At age 15, he made his first
Israel with the youth movement Habonim Dror, working on
Kibbutz Gan Shmuel. In 1973, Oren won first prize in the PBS
National Young Filmmaker’s contest for the film, Comrades in Arms,
which he wrote and directed. In the summer of 1976, he worked as gofer
for Orson Welles.
In 1977 Oren completed his undergraduate degree from Columbia College.
He continued his studies at Columbia, receiving a Masters in
International Affairs in 1978 from the School of International and
Public Affairs, where he was an International Fellow and a DACOR
Fellow. After college, he spent a year as an adviser to the
Israeli delegation to the United Nations.
In 1979 Oren emigrated to Israel. Upon assuming Israeli
citizenship, he changed his last name from "Bornstein" to "Oren",
meaning "pine tree" in Hebrew. (He renounced his American citizenship
in 2009 upon his nomination as ambassador to the United States, since
Israeli law prohibits international representatives from holding dual
A few years later Oren returned to the
United States to continue his
education, studying at Princeton University. In 1986 he earned an M.A.
and a Ph.D. in Near Eastern Studies from Princeton.
In 1982 he married Sally Edelstein, who was born in
San Francisco and
Israel in 1981. They have three children. In an
article published in The Atlantic,
Jeffrey Goldberg profiled Sally's
acquaintance with rock stars Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jefferson
Airplane. Marty Balin, one of the main songwriters of Jefferson
Airplane, wrote two songs about her in the 1960s.
Oren's nephew is comedian Jon Rudnitsky.
In 1979, Oren began his military service in the
Israel Defense Forces.
He served as a paratrooper in the 1982 Lebanon War. His unit was
caught in a Syrian ambush on the second day of the war. His commander
was killed and nearly everyone was wounded. He then joined a unit
stationed in Sidon. A day after his wedding, in the summer of 1982,
Oren returned to Beirut.
Following his regular military service, Oren volunteered to work with
Zionist underground in the Soviet Union. Sent to make contact with
Zionist groups in Ukraine, he was repeatedly arrested by the KGB.
During the Persian
Gulf War he was Israeli liaison officer to the U.S.
Sixth Fleet. He was called up for reserve duty for the 2005 Gaza
disengagement, and participated in the evacuation of settlements.
He served as an officer in the IDF Spokesman's Office during the 2006
Lebanon War. and the 2008–2009 Gaza War.
In February 2009, he delivered a lecture at
Georgetown University on
"The Gaza Operation: A Personal and Historical Perspective". The
Today Show broadcast a special segment, "The Oren Family at War."
In the 1980s and early 1990s, Oren taught at
Hebrew University of
Jerusalem and Tel Aviv University. In 1995, during the government
of Yitzhak Rabin, Oren served as an advisor in inter-religious affairs
at the Ministry of Religious Affairs.
In 2006, Oren was a visiting professor at both
Harvard University and
Yale University, returning to Yale in 2007. Beginning in 2008, he
became a visiting professor at Georgetown University's School of
Foreign Service for the 2008–09 academic year as part of the faculty
associated with the Program for Jewish Civilization.
George W. Bush
George W. Bush appointed Oren to serve on the honorary
delegation to accompany him to
Jerusalem for the celebration of the
60th anniversary of the State of
Israel in May 2008.
While working at a think-tank in Jerusalem, Oren publicly opposed the
2003 Iraq war, believing at the time that America "should not get
involved in state-building in a region where states are only held
together by savage central power."
On May 3, 2009, Oren was appointed as ambassador of
Israel to the
United States by
Israeli Prime Minister
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, succeeding
Sallai Meridor. Ambassador Oren had to give up his United States
citizenship in order to assume this post.
Oren strongly criticized the
United Nations Fact Finding Mission on
the Gaza Conflict report, which determined
Israel was guilty of
possible war crimes. In an October 2009 op-ed in The New Republic, he
Goldstone Report goes further than
Ahmadinejad and the
Holocaust deniers by stripping the Jews not only of the ability and
the need but of the right to defend themselves."
In October 2009, Oren declined an invitation to attend a conference
hosted by J Street, an
Israel advocacy group, which has been critical
Israel government's foreign policy. Oren called
J Street "a
unique problem" and that "it's significantly out of the
mainstream." However, the two have since come to a more congenial
understanding, with Oren stating that "
J Street has now come and
supported Congressman [Howard] Berman's Iran sanction bill; it has
condemned the Goldstone Report; it has denounced the British court's
decision to try
Tzipi Livni for war crimes, which puts
J Street much
more into the mainstream."
Oren has initiated
Israel outreach events for Irish Americans,
Latino and LGBT leadership, and the Chinese embassy. He hosted the
Israeli embassy’s first
On February 8, 2010, Oren spoke at the University of California,
Irvine. During his speech Oren was interrupted by 11 protesters who
shouted, "Michael Oren, propagating murder is not an expression of
free speech," and "How many Palestinians did you kill?" The
outburst and subsequent arrest of the protesters sparked controversy
over whether the protesters were exercising free speech, as they
claimed they were, or whether it was a suppression of free speech
(i.e., of the right of Oren and his audience to a free exchange of
ideas), as university officials claimed. On September 23, 2011, a
jury convicted 10 Muslim students, 7 from UC Irvine and 3 from UC
Riverside, of disrupting Oren's February 2010 speech. The charges
and conviction were criticized by civil liberties advocates, as well
as both Jewish and Muslim student groups.
Oren has lectured at universities across the United States, including
Tufts University, George Washington University, Harvard University,
Emory University, University of California, Davis, University of
Chicago, Northeastern University, Northwestern University, Penn State,
Rice University, Dickinson College, Florida International University,
Columbia University, University of Maryland, American University, the
Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism
Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at the University of
Southern California and the
United States Naval Academy.
Gaza flotilla raid
Gaza flotilla raid in May 2010, Oren wrote an op-ed in
The New York Times, "An Assault, Cloaked in Peace", in which he
accused the organizers of the flotilla of attempting to "create a
provocation" in order to "put international pressure on
Israel to drop
the Gaza embargo". He further made the claim that the
Mavi Marmara was
"a vessel too large to be neutralized by technical means".
Oren attempted to influence a critical 2012 CBS report by Bob Simon
about Palestinian Christians in Israel, with some calling his
interference an attempt to silence the American media. Oren
responded that at no point had he tried to prevent the 60 Minutes
report, rather that he offered suggestions for balancing the
On July 5, 2013, he announced that he would be leaving his post as
ambassador to the
United States in fall 2013. According to the
Israeli daily Haaretz, insiders say that Oren wanted to keep his job,
but was removed because Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's senior
Ron Dermer wanted the envoy post.
Oren has received four honorary doctorates and has delivered
commencement speeches at Brandeis, Monmouth University, and
Yeshiva University. In 2011, he received the Outstanding Achievers
with Learning Disabilities Award from the Lab School of Washington,
D.C. He delivered the keynote address at 2012 Equality Forum on
LGBT rights in Israel.
Oren has written many articles commenting on current political issues.
Before assuming his diplomatic post, he published frequently in the
New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and The New Republic, where
he was a contributing editor. He appeared on Charlie Rose, The
Daily Show, the Today Show, and he John Batchelor Show. As
ambassador, he has published nearly forty op-eds and has given dozens
of television interviews, including Bill Maher, Colbert Report, The
View, and The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer.
His two full-length articles "Israel: The Ultimate Ally" and
"Israel's Resilient Democracy", were published in Foreign Policy
In July 2014 Oren argued against a ceasefire and for the continuation
of the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, calling on the international
community to leave
Israel alone to defang and deprive Hamas of its
heavy arms and make it pay a "prohibitive cost."
On June 15, 2015 Oren gave a speech at the Leonardo Hotel in
Jerusalem, in which he said that the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions
(BDS) movement poses a "strategic threat" to Israel, which needs to
fight it "like a war, which it is". He also warned that the U.S. is
gambling with Israel's future over Iran, saying that the U.S. "can
afford to make a mistake" with them, while "
Israel has zero room for
error", adding: "The
United States has the most powerful army in all
of history, they're thousands of miles away from Iran, and they don't
feel any direct threat.
Israel is in Iran's backyard, and faces a
clear and direct threat from Iranian proxies such as Hezbollah and
Hamas. The IDF is a strong military force, but does not have the
capacity and magnitude the US Army has to deter aggression."
Also during June 2015, an op-ed piece by Oren published in the Wall
Street Journal claimed that
Barack Obama had deliberately sabotaged
US-Israeli relations, resulting in
Kulanu leader Moshe Kahlon
distancing himself and the party from Oren's stated views. Shortly
afterwards another article by Oren was published by Foreign Policy,
which argued that Obama's outreach to the Muslim world as highlighted
Cairo speech was partly rooted in "abandonment" by his father
and stepfather. Oren was criticised by
Abe Foxman of the
Anti-Defamation League, who said that Oren's theorising "veers into
the realm of conspiracy theories... with an element of amateur
psychoanalysis", and characterised the
Foreign Policy article as
In 2015, Oren published Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli
Divide (June 2015), which aimed to describe the recent state of
Israel–US relations. The book has received both praise and
criticism, including a negative review by Philip Gordon, the White
House's "point man" for the Middle East during Oren's time as
ambassador, titled "Bibi's man in D.C., still spinning for the
boss." In response to its controversial reception, Oren stated:
"So far a lot of things have been said about me. ... I obviously
touched a nerve."
Noah Efron wrote in
Haaretz that the book, which
continued the self-professed "armchair psychoanalyzing" of the U.S.
President, "meshes snugly with the racist fantasies of rabid
right-wing bloggers and so-called birthers who see in Barack Obama’s
African father and Indonesian stepfather indications that he is not a
real American." Efron also chided Oren for failing to assign any
responsibility to Israeli for the decline in US-
calling the book "profoundly un-Zionist."
Middle East history
Power, Faith and Fantasy, a history of American involvement in the
Middle East, was published by Norton and quickly became a New York
Power, Faith and Fantasy earned positive reviews
from Newsweek, The Washington Post,
The New York Times
The New York Times Book Review,
San Francisco Chronicle, and the Willamette
Six Days of War
Six Days of War is an historical account of the events of the
Six-Day War between
Israel and its Arab neighbors. The book was widely
praised by critics and won the
Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times Book Prize for
History and the National Jewish Book Award. It spent seven weeks on
New York Times
New York Times bestseller list.
The New York Times
The New York Times Book Review
wrote positively of Six Days of War, as did the Washington Post,
which called it "not only the best book so far written on the Six Day
War, it is likely to remain the best". Oren's Ph.D. thesis, "The
Origins of the Second Arab-
Israel War: Israel, Egypt, and the Great
Powers, 1952-1956," was published in 1992.
Oren has written two works of fiction. Sand Devil, published in 2000,
is a trilogy of novellas set in the
Negev desert. Reunion, based on
his father’s stories from World War II, appeared in 2004.
Oren was given the fourth spot on the list of the new
before Israel's 2015 elections, adding foreign policy credentials to a
party that campaigned almost exclusively on economic issues. He
was elected and, on March 31, sworn in as a Member of Israel's 20th
Knesset, serving on its Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee. On
August 1, 2016, it was announced that Oren would be appointed as
deputy minister in charge of public diplomacy.
Oren supported the creation of a new Israeli national holiday, Yom
Aliyah (Hebrew: יום העלייה,
Aliyah Day) to be celebrated
annually on the tenth of the
Hebrew month of
Nisan (Hebrew: י’
ניסן). On 21 June 2016 the
Knesset voted in favor of adding
Aliyah to the national calendar. The Yom Ha
Aliyah bill was
Knesset members from different parties in a rare
instance of cooperation across the political spectrum. The day
chosen for Yom Ha
Aliyah is, according to the biblical narrative, the
Joshua and the Israelites crossed the Jordan River at
the Promised Land. It was thus the first documented "mass Aliyah".
Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East.
Presidio Press. (2002) ISBN 978-0-345-46192-6.
Reunion. New York: Plume. (2003) ISBN 978-1-931561-26-6.
Power, Faith and Fantasy: The
United States in the Middle East, 1776
to 2006. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. (2007)
New Essays on Zionism. Shalem Press. (2007)
ISBN 978-965-7052-44-0 (editor, with David Hazony and Yoram
Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide. Random House.
(2015) ISBN 978-081-2996-41-8.
^ a b c d "Israeli Ambassador Draws on American Roots".
^ Oren, Michael (May 27, 2017). "
Michael Oren Dating". Maariv.
Retrieved May 27, 2017.
Michael Oren appointed Deputy Minister of the Prime Minister's
Jerusalem Post JPost.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
Michael Oren appointed to US envoy role",
Jerusalem Post, May 2,
^ a b "
Ron Dermer officially named Israel's U.S. ambassador". JTA.
July 9, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
^ "Mr. Oren goes to
Jerusalem (from Washington)". Ha'aretz. March 20,
2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
^ a b Ginsberg, Johanna. "Former New Jerseyan to be Israel's Envoy to
Michael Oren was Mountain High and Princeton grad", New
Jersey Jewish News, May 7, 2009. Accessed November 19, 2012.
^ Turk Rosenblatt, Judith (1987). Who's Who in World Jewry: A
Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews. Who's Who in World Jewry.
p. 64. ISBN 0961827203.
^ a b c d "Enjoying Every Minute",
Haaretz Archived September 30,
2009, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Bumiller, Elisabeth. "Israeli Diplomat Is Man in Middle", New York
Times, September 17, 2012. Accessed November 19, 2012. "Raised in a
conservative Jewish family in West Orange, N.J., Mr. Oren worked on a
kibbutz at 15, was educated at Princeton and Columbia, immigrated to
Israel and spent multiple tours in the Israeli Army...."
^ "Commemoration of Prime Minister Rabin's z"l 90th Birthday", Embassy
of Israel, February 29, 2012 Archived March 8, 2012, at the Wayback
C-SPAN Transcript of 2002 Interview with Michael Oren
^ "Michael B. Oren". www.writersreps.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ "An interview with Michael Oren"[permanent dead link], The Jerusalem
Post, January 18, 2007.
^ "Princeton - Weekly Bulletin 11/18/02 - Nassau Notes".
www.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ "Israels new ambassador to U.S. has strong S.F. ties". J.
2009-05-08. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
Michael Oren Biography
^ Goldberg, Jeffrey. "Six Degrees of Sally Oren". The Atlantic.
Michael Oren congratulates nephew on joining cast of SNL". The
Jerusalem Post JPost.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ a b c d e Archived index at the Wayback Machine. Michael Oren's
^ "Oren's work with the
Zionist underground", Haaretz, September 27,
^ "Israeli Soldier Oren Shares Gaza Story News The Harvard
Crimson". www.thecrimson.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ Oren in the Spokesman's Office during the 2008–09 Israel–Gaza
conflict, The New Republic, January 4, 2009.
^ Michael Oren, Gaza Lecture Part 1, January 28, 2009 on YouTube
^ Today Show Segment on Oren Family at War, April 6, 2012
^ "Center for Jewish Civilization Georgetown University".
pjc.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ "Georgetown University". explore.georgetown.edu. Archived from the
original on 2016-12-28. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ "Bush Visit May Boost Olmert - The New York Sun". www.nysun.com.
^ DEPARTING AS AMBASSADOR, MICHAEL OREN IS STILL WORKING TO BRIDGE
OBAMA-BIBI GAP By Lee Smith September 25, 2013, Tablet Magazine
^ Mark Landler (25 September 2009). "Israeli Ambassador Draws on
American Roots". The New York Times.
^ Michael B. Oren (10 June 2009). "Deep Denial: Why The Holocaust
Still Matters". The New Republic.
^ [permanent dead link]
^ Ambassador Oren Celebrates Irish Culture on YouTube, March 30, 2011
^ Ambassador Oren holds Hispanic outreach event, December 15, 2011
^ Ambassador Oren Hosts
Iftar Dinner, Huffington Post, August 25, 2011
^ Raja Abdulrahim (February 9, 2010). "11 students arrested after
disrupting Israeli ambassador's speech at UC Irvine". Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
^ Natasha Mozgovaya (9 February 2010). "Muslim students scream
Israel envoy speech in Irvine, California. Afterwards
the students were peacefully escorted out of the hall, given
citations, and let go". Ha'aretz. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
^ "On campus, is heckling free speech? Or just rude? - USATODAY.com".
www.usatoday.com. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ a b "US court: Students guilty of disrupting Israeli envoy".
Michael Oren Speaks to the U.S. Naval Academy, February 23, 2012
^ Michael B. Oren (June 2, 2010). "An Assault, Cloaked in Peace". The
New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
^ "Christians of the Holy Land". CBS News. Retrieved April 22,
^ a b Mozgovaya, Natasha (3 May 2012). "Obama corrects controversial
Jewish Heritage Month proclamation". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 May
^ Ambassador Oren's Letter to 60 Minutes, BuzzFeed, April 26, 2012
^ JTA (July 10, 2013). "American Jewish groups welcome choice of
Netanyahu's right hand man as U.S. envoy". Haaretz. Retrieved July 10,
^ Michael Oren's Address to Brandeis, Brandeis, May 23, 2010]
^ Michael Oren's Address to Monmouth University Archived 2012-12-14 at
Archive.is, Monmouth University, January 13, 2012
^ Ambassador Michael B. Oren Addresses Yeshiva University Archived
2014-12-16 at the Wayback Machine. Yeshiva University, June 1, 2010
^ Ambassador Oren's Address to the Lab School, Embassy of Israel
^ Ambassador Oren's Speech to the Equality Forum on LGBT Rights in
Israel, Embassy of Israel, May 5, 2012
^ From The TNR Archives: Michael B. Oren,
The New Republic
The New Republic website,
April 21, 2009.
^ Daily Show Interview with Michael Oren, The Daily Show.
^ The Ultimate Ally, Foreign Policy, May 2011.
^ Israel's Resilient Democracy, Foreign Policy, April 5, 2012.
^ "Ex Israeli ambassador slams ceasefir".
Israel Herald. Retrieved 28
^ Heilbrunn, Jacob (6 July 2015). "Michael B. Oren's 'Ally: My Journey
Across the American-Israeli Divide'". nytimes.com. Retrieved 19 July
^ Oren, Michael (19 June 2015). "How Obama Opened His Heart to the
'Muslim World'". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
^ Lewis, Avi (22 June 2015). "ADL demands
Michael Oren walk back
'unjustified attack' on Obama". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 19 July
^ With ‘Ally,’
Michael Oren lifts the veil on U.S.-Israel
relations June 21, 2015 by Ben Cohen / JNS.org
^ Michael Oren, were you disappointed by the state of American Jewry?
A conversation by Shmuel Rosner, Jewish Journal, June 22nd 2015
^ Gordon, Philip (June 26, 2015). "Bibi's man in D.C., still spinning
for the boss". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
^ Michael Oren: I obviously touched a nerve
Israel Hayom, Newsletter
Friday June 26, 2015
^ a b Efron, Noah (2015-07-06). "Michael Oren's 'Ally' a Profoundly
Zionist Book". Haaretz. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
Newsweek review Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "How America Met the Mideast". The Washington Post. 2007-01-21.
ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ Rodenbeck, Max (2007-01-28). "Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in
the Middle East, 1776 to the Present. By Michael B. Oren - Books -
Review". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved
^ "America and the Mideast, long before the Bushes". SFGate. Retrieved
^ wweek.com review Archived 2007-04-03 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "BEST SELLERS: August 18, 2002". The New York Times. 2002-08-18.
^ Bernstein, Richard (July 17, 2002). "Short Conflict, Far-Reaching
Consequences". New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
^ "Washington Post: Breaking News, World, US, DC News & Analysis".
Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
^ Aron Heller, NETANYAHU'S FORMER US ENVOY NOW AMONG HIS ISRAELI
RIVALS, Associated Press, 9 March 2015
^ Times of Israel, "
Michael Oren named deputy minister in charge of
public diplomacy," August 1, 2016,
Israel approves holiday to celebrate contribution of immigrants
Jewish News, 22 June 2014
^ New National Holiday in
Israel JWire, 22 June 2016
Israel approves holiday to celebrate contribution of immigrants
Haaretz, 24 June 2016
^ Yehoshua -
Joshua - Chapter 4 Chabad
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Michael Oren.
Michael Oren on the
Ambassador Michael B. Oren
Profile feature at New York Times
Interview at Uncommon Knowledge (June 23, 2003)
Interview at USA Today (May 28, 2005)
Article at The Harvard Crimson
Feature at The Yale Daily News
Program for Jewish Civilization at Georgetown University
Appearances on C-SPAN
Booknotes interview with Oren on Six Days of War, August 25, 2002.
Ambassadors of the State of
Israel to the
United States of America
Eliahu Eilat (1948–50)
Abba Eban (1950–59)
Avraham Harman (1959–68)
Yitzhak Rabin (1968–73)
Simcha Dinitz (1973–79)
Ephraim Evron (1979–82)
Moshe Arens (1982–83)
Meir Rosenne (1983–87)
Moshe Arad (1987–90)
Zalman Shoval (1990–93)
Itamar Rabinovich (1993–96)
Eliahu Ben-Elissar (1996–98)
Zalman Shoval (1998–2000)
David Ivry (2000–02)
Danny Ayalon (2002–06)
Sallai Meridor (2006–09)
Michael Oren (2009–13)
Ron Dermer (2013–)
Current members of the Knesset
Governing coalition (ministers in bold)
The Jewish Home
United Torah Judaism
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