Michael Faraday FRS (/ˈfæ.rəˌdeɪ/; 22 September 1791 – 25
August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of
electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include
the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and
Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the
most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the
magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that
Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic
field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect
rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between
the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of
electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of
electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed
the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to
his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.
As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate
hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the
Bunsen burner and
the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as
"anode", "cathode", "electrode" and "ion". Faraday ultimately became
the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of
Chemistry at the Royal
Institution, a lifetime position.
Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in
clear and simple language; his mathematical abilities, however, did
not extend as far as trigonometry and were limited to the simplest
James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others and
summarized it in a set of equations which is accepted as the basis of
all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of
lines of force, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in
reality a mathematician of a very high order – one from whom the
mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile
methods." The SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour: the
Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside
Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Physicist Ernest
Rutherford stated, "When we consider the magnitude and extent of his
discoveries and their influence on the progress of science and of
industry, there is no honour too great to pay to the memory of
Faraday, one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time."
1 Personal life
1.1 Early life
1.2 Adult life
1.3 Later life
2 Scientific achievements
Electricity and magnetism
2.4 Faraday cage
Royal Institution and public service
5 Faraday Prizes & Medals
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
"How fortunate for civilization, that Beethoven, Michelangelo, Galileo
and Faraday were not required by law to attend schools where their
total personalities would have been operated upon to make them learn
acceptable ways of participating as members of “the group."
—Joel H. Hildebrand's Education for Creativity in the Sciences
speech at New York University, 1963.
Michael Faraday was born on 22 September 1791 in Newington Butts,
which is now part of the
London Borough of Southwark
London Borough of Southwark but was then a
suburban part of Surrey. His family was not well off. His father,
James, was a member of the Glassite sect of Christianity. James
Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of
Outhgill in Westmorland, where he had been an apprentice to
the village blacksmith. Michael was born in the autumn of that
year. The young Michael Faraday, who was the third of four children,
having only the most basic school education, had to educate
At the age of 14 he became an apprentice to George Riebau, a local
bookbinder and bookseller in Blandford Street. During his
seven-year apprenticeship Faraday read many books, including Isaac
Watts's The Improvement of the Mind, and he enthusiastically
implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein. He
also developed an interest in science, especially in electricity.
Faraday was particularly inspired by the book Conversations on
Chemistry by Jane Marcet.
Portrait of Faraday in his late thirties, ca. 1826
In 1812, at the age of 20 and at the end of his apprenticeship,
Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy
Royal Institution and the Royal Society, and John Tatum,
founder of the City Philosophical Society. Many of the tickets for
these lectures were given to Faraday by William Dance, who was one of
the founders of the Royal Philharmonic Society. Faraday subsequently
sent Davy a 300-page book based on notes that he had taken during
these lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favourable. In
1813, when Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen
trichloride, he decided to employ Faraday as an assistant.
Coincidentally one of the Royal Institution's assistants, John Payne,
was sacked and Sir
Humphry Davy had been asked to find a replacement;
thus he appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal
Institution on 1 March 1813. Very soon Davy entrusted Faraday with
the preparation of nitrogen trichloride samples, and they both were
injured in an explosion of this very sensitive substance.
Michael Faraday, ca. 1861, aged about 70.
In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not
considered a gentleman. When Davy set out on a long tour of the
continent in 1813–15, his valet did not wish to go, so instead,
Faraday went as Davy's scientific assistant and was asked to act as
Davy's valet until a replacement could be found in Paris. Faraday was
forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the
trip. Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat Faraday as an equal
(making him travel outside the coach, eat with the servants, etc.),
and made Faraday so miserable that he contemplated returning to
England alone and giving up science altogether. The trip did, however,
give him access to the scientific elite of Europe and exposed him to a
host of stimulating ideas.
Faraday married Sarah Barnard (1800–1879) on 12 June 1821. They
met through their families at the
Sandemanian church, and he confessed
his faith to the
Sandemanian congregation the month after they were
married. They had no children.
Faraday was a devout Christian; his
Sandemanian denomination was an
offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Well after his marriage, he served
as deacon and for two terms as an elder in the meeting house of his
youth. His church was located at Paul's Alley in the Barbican. This
meeting house relocated in 1862 to
Barnsbury Grove, Islington; this
North London location was where Faraday served the final two years of
his second term as elder prior to his resignation from that
post. Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity
of God and nature pervaded Faraday's life and work."
Three Fellows of the
Royal Society offering the presidency to Faraday,
In June 1832, the
University of Oxford
University of Oxford granted Faraday a Doctor of
Civil Law degree (honorary). During his lifetime, he was offered a
knighthood in recognition for his services to science, which he turned
down on religious grounds, believing that it was against the word of
the Bible to accumulate riches and pursue worldly reward, and stating
that he preferred to remain "plain Mr Faraday to the end". Elected
a member of the
Royal Society in 1824, he twice refused to become
President. He became the first Fullerian Professor of
Royal Institution in 1833.
In 1832, Faraday was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was elected a foreign member of
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1838, and was one of eight
foreign members elected to the
French Academy of Sciences
French Academy of Sciences in 1844.
In 1849 he was elected as associated member to the Royal Institute of
the Netherlands, which two years later became the Royal Netherlands
Academy of Arts and Sciences and he was subsequently made foreign
Michael Faraday's grave at Highgate Cemetery, London
Faraday suffered a nervous breakdown in 1839 but eventually returned
to his investigations into electromagnetism. In 1848, as a result
of representations by the Prince Consort, Faraday was awarded a grace
and favour house in
Hampton Court in Middlesex, free of all expenses
and upkeep. This was the Master Mason's House, later called Faraday
House, and now No. 37
Hampton Court Road. In 1858 Faraday retired to
Having provided a number of various service projects for the British
government, when asked by the government to advise on the production
of chemical weapons for use in the
Crimean War (1853–1856), Faraday
refused to participate citing ethical reasons.
Faraday died at his house at
Hampton Court on 25 August 1867, aged
75. He had some years before turned down an offer of burial in
Westminster Abbey upon his death, but he has a memorial plaque there,
near Isaac Newton's tomb. Faraday was interred in the dissenters'
(non-Anglican) section of Highgate Cemetery.
Equipment used by Faraday to make glass on display at the Royal
Institution in London
Faraday's earliest chemical work was as an assistant to Humphry Davy.
Faraday was specifically involved in the study of chlorine; he
discovered two new compounds of chlorine and carbon. He also conducted
the first rough experiments on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon
that was first pointed out by John Dalton. The physical importance of
this phenomenon was more fully revealed by Thomas Graham and Joseph
Loschmidt. Faraday succeeded in liquefying several gases, investigated
the alloys of steel, and produced several new kinds of glass intended
for optical purposes. A specimen of one of these heavy glasses
subsequently became historically important; when the glass was placed
in a magnetic field Faraday determined the rotation of the plane of
polarisation of light. This specimen was also the first substance
found to be repelled by the poles of a magnet.
Faraday invented an early form of what was to become the Bunsen
burner, which is in practical use in science laboratories around the
world as a convenient source of heat. Faraday worked
extensively in the field of chemistry, discovering chemical substances
such as benzene (which he called bicarburet of hydrogen) and
liquefying gases such as chlorine. The liquefying of gases helped to
establish that gases are the vapours of liquids possessing a very low
boiling point and gave a more solid basis to the concept of molecular
aggregation. In 1820 Faraday reported the first synthesis of compounds
made from carbon and chlorine, C2Cl6 and C2Cl4, and published his
results the following year. Faraday also determined the
composition of the chlorine clathrate hydrate, which had been
Humphry Davy in 1810. Faraday is also
responsible for discovering the laws of electrolysis, and for
popularizing terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion,
terms proposed in large part by William Whewell.
Faraday was the first to report what later came to be called metallic
nanoparticles. In 1847 he discovered that the optical properties of
gold colloids differed from those of the corresponding bulk metal.
This was probably the first reported observation of the effects of
quantum size, and might be considered to be the birth of
Electricity and magnetism
Faraday is best known for his work regarding electricity and
magnetism. His first recorded experiment was the construction of a
voltaic pile with seven ha'penny coins, stacked together with seven
disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt
water. With this pile he decomposed sulfate of magnesia (first letter
to Abbott, 12 July 1812).
Electromagnetic rotation experiment of Faraday, ca. 1821
In 1821, soon after the Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian
Ørsted discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and
William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston tried, but failed, to design
an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the
two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called
"electromagnetic rotation". One of these, now known as the homopolar
motor, caused a continuous circular motion that was engendered by the
circular magnetic force around a wire that extended into a pool of
mercury wherein was placed a magnet; the wire would then rotate around
the magnet if supplied with current from a chemical battery. These
experiments and inventions formed the foundation of modern
electromagnetic technology. In his excitement, Faraday published
results without acknowledging his work with either Wollaston or Davy.
The resulting controversy within the
Royal Society strained his mentor
relationship with Davy and may well have contributed to Faraday's
assignment to other activities, which consequently prevented his
involvement in electromagnetic research for several years.
One of Faraday's 1831 experiments demonstrating induction. The liquid
battery (right) sends an electric current through the small coil (A).
When it is moved in or out of the large coil (B), its magnetic field
induces a momentary voltage in the coil, which is detected by the
From his initial discovery in 1821, Faraday continued his laboratory
work, exploring electromagnetic properties of materials and developing
requisite experience. In 1824, Faraday briefly set up a circuit to
study whether a magnetic field could regulate the flow of a current in
an adjacent wire, but he found no such relationship. This
experiment followed similar work conducted with light and magnets
three years earlier that yielded identical results. During the
next seven years, Faraday spent much of his time perfecting his recipe
for optical quality (heavy) glass, borosilicate of lead, which he
used in his future studies connecting light with magnetism. In his
spare time, Faraday continued publishing his experimental work on
optics and electromagnetism; he conducted correspondence with
scientists whom he had met on his journeys across Europe with Davy,
and who were also working on electromagnetism. Two years after the
death of Davy, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in
which he discovered electromagnetic induction, recording in his
laboratory diary on 28 October 1831 he was; "making many experiments
with the great magnet of the Royal Society".
A diagram of Faraday's iron ring-coil apparatus
Built in 1831, the
Faraday disk was the first electric generator. The
horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk
(D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current
radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed
out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external
circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.
Faraday's breakthrough came when he wrapped two insulated coils of
wire around an iron ring, and found that upon passing a current
through one coil a momentary current was induced in the other coil.
This phenomenon is now known as mutual induction. The iron
ring-coil apparatus is still on display at the Royal Institution. In
subsequent experiments, he found that if he moved a magnet through a
loop of wire an electric current flowed in that wire. The current also
flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. His
demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an
electric field; this relation was modelled mathematically by James
Clerk Maxwell as Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the
four Maxwell equations, and which have in turn evolved into the
generalization known today as field theory. Faraday would later
use the principles he had discovered to construct the electric dynamo,
the ancestor of modern power generators and the electric motor.
Faraday (right) and John Daniell (left), founders of electrochemistry.
In 1832, he completed a series of experiments aimed at investigating
the fundamental nature of electricity; Faraday used "static",
batteries, and "animal electricity" to produce the phenomena of
electrostatic attraction, electrolysis, magnetism, etc. He concluded
that, contrary to the scientific opinion of the time, the divisions
between the various "kinds" of electricity were illusory. Faraday
instead proposed that only a single "electricity" exists, and the
changing values of quantity and intensity (current and voltage) would
produce different groups of phenomena.
Near the end of his career, Faraday proposed that electromagnetic
forces extended into the empty space around the conductor. This
idea was rejected by his fellow scientists, and Faraday did not live
to see the eventual acceptance of his proposition by the scientific
community. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged
bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic
fields; that conceptual model was crucial for the successful
development of the electromechanical devices that dominated
engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.
Faraday holding a type of glass bar he used in 1845 to show magnetism
affects light in dielectric material.
In 1845, Faraday discovered that many materials exhibit a weak
repulsion from a magnetic field: a phenomenon he termed
Faraday also discovered that the plane of polarization of linearly
polarized light can be rotated by the application of an external
magnetic field aligned with the direction in which the light is
moving. This is now termed the Faraday effect. In Sept 1845 he
wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a
magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of
Later on in his life, in 1862, Faraday used a spectroscope to search
for a different alteration of light, the change of spectral lines by
an applied magnetic field. The equipment available to him was,
however, insufficient for a definite determination of spectral change.
Pieter Zeeman later used an improved apparatus to study the same
phenomenon, publishing his results in 1897 and receiving the 1902
Nobel Prize in
Physics for his success. In both his 1897 paper and
his Nobel acceptance speech, Zeeman made reference to Faraday's
In his work on static electricity, Faraday's ice pail experiment
demonstrated that the charge resided only on the exterior of a charged
conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed
within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute
such that the interior fields emanating from them cancel one another.
This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday
Royal Institution and public service
Michael Faraday meets Father Thames, from Punch (21 July 1855)
Faraday had a long association with the
Royal Institution of Great
Britain. He was appointed Assistant Superintendent of the House of the
Royal Institution in 1821. He was elected a member of the Royal
Society in 1824. In 1825, he became Director of the Laboratory of
the Royal Institution. Six years later, in 1833, Faraday became
the first Fullerian Professor of
Chemistry at the
Royal Institution of
Great Britain, a position to which he was appointed for life without
the obligation to deliver lectures. His sponsor and mentor was John
'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the position at the Royal Institution
Beyond his scientific research into areas such as chemistry,
electricity, and magnetism at the Royal Institution, Faraday undertook
numerous, and often time-consuming, service projects for private
enterprise and the British government. This work included
investigations of explosions in coal mines, being an expert witness in
court, and along with two engineers from
Chance Brothers c.1853, the
preparation of high-quality optical glass, which was required by
Chance for its lighthouses. In 1846, together with Charles Lyell, he
produced a lengthy and detailed report on a serious explosion in the
colliery at Haswell County Durham, which killed 95 miners. Their
report was a meticulous forensic investigation and indicated that coal
dust contributed to the severity of the explosion. The report should
have warned coal owners of the hazard of coal dust explosions, but the
risk was ignored for over 60 years until the Senghenydd Colliery
Disaster of 1913.
Lighthouse lantern room from mid-1800s
As a respected scientist in a nation with strong maritime interests,
Faraday spent extensive amounts of time on projects such as the
construction and operation of lighthouses and protecting the bottoms
of ships from corrosion. His workshop still stands at Trinity Buoy
Wharf above the Chain and Buoy Store, next to London's only lighthouse
where he carried out the first experiments in electric lighting for
Faraday was also active in what would now be called environmental
science, or engineering. He investigated industrial pollution at
Swansea and was consulted on air pollution at the Royal Mint. In July
1855, Faraday wrote a letter to
The Times on the subject of the foul
condition of the River Thames, which resulted in an often-reprinted
cartoon in Punch. (See also The Great Stink).
Faraday assisted with the planning and judging of exhibits for the
Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. He also advised the National
Gallery on the cleaning and protection of its art collection, and
served on the National Gallery Site Commission in 1857.
Education was another of Faraday's areas of service; he lectured on
the topic in 1854 at the Royal Institution, and in 1862 he appeared
before a Public Schools Commission to give his views on education in
Great Britain. Faraday also weighed in negatively on the public's
fascination with table-turning, mesmerism, and seances, and in so
doing chastised both the public and the nation's educational
Michael Faraday delivering a
Christmas Lecture at the Royal
Institution in 1856.
Before his famous Christmas lectures, Faraday delivered chemistry
lectures for the City Philosophical Society from 1816 to 1818 in order
to refine the quality of his lectures. Between 1827 and 1860 at
Royal Institution in London, Faraday gave a series of nineteen
Christmas lectures for young people, a series which continues today.
The objective of Faraday's Christmas lectures was to present science
to the general public in the hopes of inspiring them and generating
revenue for the Royal Institution. They were notable events on the
social calendar among London's gentry. Over the course of several
letters to his close friend Benjamin Abbott, Faraday outlined his
recommendations on the art of lecturing: Faraday wrote "a flame should
be lighted at the commencement and kept alive with unremitting
splendour to the end". His lectures were joyful and juvenile, he
delighted in filling soap bubbles with various gasses (in order to
determine whether or not they are magnetic) in front of his audiences
and marveled at the rich colors of polarized lights, but the lectures
were also deeply philosophical. In his lectures he urged his audiences
to consider the mechanics of his experiments: "you know very well that
ice floats upon water ... Why does the ice float? Think of that,
and philosophise". His subjects consisted of
Electricity, and included: 1841 The Rudiments of Chemistry, 1843 First
Principles of Electricity, 1848 The Chemical History of a Candle, 1851
Attractive Forces, 1853 Voltaic Electricity, 1854 The
Combustion, 1855 The Distinctive Properties of the Common Metals, 1857
Static Electricity, 1858 The Metallic Properties, 1859 The Various
Forces of Matter and their Relations to Each Other.
See also: List of things named after Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday statue in Savoy Place, London. Sculptor John Henry
A statue of Faraday stands in Savoy Place, London, outside the
Institution of Engineering and Technology. Also in London, the Michael
Faraday Memorial, designed by brutalist architect
Rodney Gordon and
completed in 1961, is at the Elephant & Castle gyratory system,
near Faraday's birthplace at Newington Butts. Faraday School is
Trinity Buoy Wharf
Trinity Buoy Wharf where his workshop still stands above
the Chain and Buoy Store, next to London's only lighthouse.
Faraday Gardens is a small park in Walworth, London, not far from his
birthplace at Newington Butts. This park lies within the local council
ward of Faraday in the London Borough of Southwark. Michael Faraday
Primary school is situated on the
Aylesbury Estate in Walworth.
A building at London South Bank University, which houses the
institute's electrical engineering departments is named the Faraday
Wing, due to its proximity to Faraday's birthplace in Newington Butts.
A hall at
Loughborough University was named after Faraday in 1960.
Near the entrance to its dining hall is a bronze casting, which
depicts the symbol of an electrical transformer, and inside there
hangs a portrait, both in Faraday's honour. An eight-story building at
the University of Edinburgh's science & engineering campus is
named for Faraday, as is a recently built hall of accommodation at
Brunel University, the main engineering building at Swansea
University, and the instructional and experimental physics building at
Northern Illinois University. The former UK Faraday Station in
Antarctica was named after him.
"Without such freedom there would have been no Shakespeare, no Goethe,
no Newton, no Faraday, no Pasteur and no Lister."
—Albert Einstein's speech on intellectual freedom at the Royal
Albert Hall, London after having fled Nazi Germany, 3 October
Streets named for Faraday can be found in many British cities (e.g.,
London, Fife, Swindon, Basingstoke, Nottingham, Whitby, Kirkby,
Crawley, Newbury, Swansea,
Aylesbury and Stevenage) as well as in
France (Paris), Germany (Berlin-Dahlem, Hermsdorf), Canada (Quebec;
Deep River, Ontario; Ottawa, Ontario), and the United States (Reston,
Royal Society of Arts blue plaque, unveiled in 1876, commemorates
Faraday at 48 Blandford Street in London's Marylebone district.
From 1991 until 2001, Faraday's picture featured on the reverse of
Series E £20 banknotes issued by the Bank of England. He was
portrayed conducting a lecture at the
Royal Institution with the
magneto-electric spark apparatus. In 2002, Faraday was ranked
number 22 in the BBC's list of the
100 Greatest Britons
100 Greatest Britons following a
Faraday Institute for Science and Religion derives its name from
the scientist, who saw his faith as integral to his scientific
research. The logo of the Institute is also based on Faraday's
discoveries. It was created in 2006 by a $2,000,000 grant from the
John Templeton Foundation
John Templeton Foundation to carry out academic research, to foster
understanding of the interaction between science and religion, and to
engage public understanding in both these subject areas.
Faraday's life and contributions to electromagnetics was the principal
topic of the tenth episode, titled "The Electric Boy", of the 2014
American science documentary series, Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey,
which was broadcast on Fox and the National Geographic Channel.
Faraday Prizes & Medals
In honor and remembrance of his great scientific contributions,
several institutions have created prizes and awards in his name. This
The IET Faraday Medal
Royal Society of London
Michael Faraday Prize
The Institute of
Faraday Medal and Prize
Royal Society of
Chemistry Faraday Lectureship Prize
Michael Faraday in his laboratory, ca. 1850s.
Michael Faraday's study at the Royal Institution.
Michael Faraday's flat at the Royal Institution.
Harriet Jane Moore
Harriet Jane Moore who documented Faraday's life in
Chemische Manipulation, 1828
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
By Michael Faraday
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Faraday's books, with the exception of Chemical Manipulation, were
collections of scientific papers or transcriptions of lectures.
Since his death, Faraday's diary has been published, as have several
large volumes of his letters and Faraday's journal from his travels
with Davy in 1813–1815.
Faraday, Michael (1827). Chemical Manipulation, Being Instructions to
Students in Chemistry. John Murray. 2nd ed. 1830, 3rd ed. 1842
Faraday, Michael (1839). Experimental Researches in Electricity, vols.
i. and ii. Richard and John Edward Taylor. ; vol. iii. Richard
Taylor and William Francis, 1855
Faraday, Michael (1859). Experimental Researches in
Physics. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 0-85066-841-7.
Faraday, Michael (1861). W. Crookes, ed. A Course of Six Lectures on
the Chemical History of a Candle. Griffin, Bohn & Co.
Faraday, Michael (1873). W. Crookes, ed. On the Various Forces in
Nature. Chatto and Windus.
Faraday, Michael (1932–1936). T. Martin, ed. Diary.
ISBN 0-7135-0439-0. – published in eight volumes; see
also the 2009 publication of Faraday's diary
Faraday, Michael (1991). B. Bowers and L. Symons, ed. Curiosity
Perfectly Satisfyed: Faraday's Travels in Europe 1813–1815.
Institution of Electrical Engineers.
Faraday, Michael (1991). F. A. J. L. James, ed. The Correspondence of
Michael Faraday. 1. INSPEC, Inc. ISBN 0-86341-248-3. –
volume 2, 1993; volume 3, 1996; volume 4, 1999
Faraday, Michael (2008). Alice Jenkins, ed. Michael Faraday's Mental
Exercises: An Artisan Essay Circle in Regency London. Liverpool, UK:
Liverpool University Press.
Course of six lectures on the various forces of matter, and their
relations to each other London; Glasgow: R. Griffin, 1860.
The Liquefaction of Gases, Edinburgh: W. F. Clay, 1896.
The letters of Faraday and Schoenbein 1836–1862. With notes,
comments and references to contemporary letters London: Williams &
Norgate 1899. (Digital edition by the University and State Library
Faraday (Unit of electrical charge)
Farad (Unit of electrical capacitance)
Hans Christian Ørsted
Lines of force
Timeline of hydrogen technologies
Timeline of low-temperature technology
^ a b c Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Faraday, Michael".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
pp. 173–175. . the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ a b c d "Archives
Michael Faraday biography – The IET".
^ The Scientific Papers of
James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell Volume 1 page 360;
Courier Dover 2003, ISBN 0-486-49560-4
^ Gleeson-White, Jane (10 November 2003). "Einstein's Heroes (book
review)". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
^ Rao, C.N.R. (2000). Understanding Chemistry. Universities Press.
ISBN 81-7371-250-6. p. 281.
^ Gene Currivan (16 Jun 1963). "I.Q. Tests Called Harmful to Pupil",
New York Times
^ a b c James, Frank A. J. L. (2011) . "Faraday, Michael
(1791–1867)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.).
Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9153.
(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
^ For a concise account of Faraday's life including his childhood, see
pages 175–83 of EVERY SATURDAY: A JOURNAL OF CHOICE READING, Vol III
published at Cambridge in 1873 by Osgood & Co.
^ The implication is that James discovered job opportunities elsewhere
through membership of this sect. James joined the London meeting house
on 20 February 1791, and moved his family shortly thereafter. See
Cantor, pp. 57–8.
^ "Michael Faraday." History of Science and Technology. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 4 June 2007
^ Plaque #19 on Open Plaques.
^ Jenkins, Alice (2008). Michael Faraday's Mental Exercises: An
Artisan Essay-Circle in Regency London. Oxford University Press.
^ Lienhard, John H. (1992). "Michael Faraday". The Engines of Our
Ingenuity. Episode 741. No 741:
Michael Faraday (transcript). NPR.
KUHF-FM Houston. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Lienhard, John H. (1992). "Jane Marcet's Books". The Engines of Our
Ingenuity. Episode 744. No 744: Jane Marcet's Books (transcript). NPR.
KUHF-FM Houston. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Thomas, p. 17
^ The register at St. Faith-in-the-Virgin near St. Paul's Cathedral,
records 12 June as the date their licence was issued. The witness was
Sarah's father, Edward. Their marriage was 16 years prior to the
Marriage and Registration Act of 1837. See Cantor, p. 59.
^ Cantor, pp. 41–43, 60–4, and 277-80.
^ Paul's Alley was located 10 houses south of the Barbican. See page
330 Elmes's (1831) Topographical Dictionary of the British Metropolis.
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connection between light and electromagnetic phenomenon 10 September
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^ Thompson, p. 100.
^ Faraday's initial induction lab work occurred in late November 1825.
His work was heavily influenced by the ongoing research of fellow
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diary entries. Cantor, pp. 235–44.
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Scientists whose names are used as SI units
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Louis Harold Gray
James Prescott Joule
Werner von Siemens
Rolf Maximilian Sievert
Wilhelm Eduard Weber
Scientists whose names are used as non SI units · Scientists whose
names are used in physical constants
Scientists whose names are used in physical constants
Isaac Newton (gravitational constant)
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (Coulomb's constant)
Amedeo Avogadro (Avogadro constant)
Michael Faraday (Faraday constant)
Johann Josef Loschmidt
Johann Jakob Balmer
Joseph Stefan (Stefan–Boltzmann constant)
Ludwig Boltzmann (Boltzmann constant, Stefan–Boltzmann constant)
Johannes Rydberg (Rydberg constant)
Joseph John Thomson
Max Planck (Planck constant, reduced Planck constant, Planck length,
Niels Bohr (Bohr radius)
Edwin Hubble (Hubble constant)
Brian David Josephson
Klaus von Klitzing
List of scientists whose names are used as SI units
List of scientists whose names are used as SI units and non SI units
Copley Medallists (1801–1850)
Astley Cooper (1801)
William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston (1802)
Richard Chenevix (1803)
Smithson Tennant (1804)
Humphry Davy (1805)
Thomas Andrew Knight
Thomas Andrew Knight (1806)
Everard Home (1807)
William Henry (1808)
Edward Troughton (1809)
Benjamin Collins Brodie (1811)
William Thomas Brande
William Thomas Brande (1813)
James Ivory (1814)
David Brewster (1815)
Henry Kater (1817)
Robert Seppings (1818)
Hans Christian Ørsted
Hans Christian Ørsted (1820)
Edward Sabine /
John Herschel (1821)
William Buckland (1822)
John Pond (1823)
John Brinkley (1824)
François Arago / Peter Barlow (1825)
James South (1826)
William Prout / Henry Foster (1827)
George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy (1831)
Michael Faraday /
Siméon Denis Poisson
Siméon Denis Poisson (1832)
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana (1834)
William Snow Harris
William Snow Harris (1835)
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Jöns Jacob Berzelius /
Francis Kiernan (1836)
Antoine César Becquerel
Antoine César Becquerel /
John Frederic Daniell
John Frederic Daniell (1837)
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss /
Michael Faraday (1838)
Robert Brown (1839)
Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig /
Jacques Charles François Sturm
Jacques Charles François Sturm (1840)
Georg Ohm (1841)
James MacCullagh (1842)
Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1843)
Carlo Matteucci (1844)
Theodor Schwann (1845)
Urbain Le Verrier
Urbain Le Verrier (1846)
John Herschel (1847)
John Couch Adams
John Couch Adams (1848)
Roderick Murchison (1849)
Peter Andreas Hansen
Peter Andreas Hansen (1850)
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