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MIAMI (/maɪˈæmi/ ; Spanish pronunciation: ) is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida
Florida
in the southeastern United States . As the seat of Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
, the municipality is the principal, central, and the most populous city of the Miami metropolitan area and part of the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Miami's metro area is the eighth-most populous and fourth-largest urban area in the U.S., with a population of around 5.5 million.

Miami
Miami
is a major center, and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international trade. In 2012, Miami
Miami
was classified as an Alpha−World City in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami
Miami
ranked seventh in the United States in terms of finance, commerce, culture, entertainment, fashion, education, and other sectors. It ranked 33rd among global cities. In 2008, _ Forbes
Forbes
_ magazine ranked Miami
Miami
"America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, and citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami
Miami
was ranked as the richest city in the United States, and the world's fifth-richest city in terms of purchasing power . Miami
Miami
is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America " and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.

Miami
Miami
has the third tallest skyline in the U.S. with over 300 high-rises . Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami
is home to the largest concentration of international banks in the United States, and many large national and international companies. The Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes , medical centers, and biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami
Port of Miami
, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world. It accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, and is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines. Metropolitan Miami
Miami
is the major tourism hub in the American South, number two in the U.S. after New York City and number 13 in the world, including the popular destination of Miami Beach
Miami Beach
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Geology

* 2.2 Cityscape

* 2.2.1 Neighborhoods

* 2.3 Climate

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Languages * 3.2 Religion * 3.3 Civic engagement

* 4 Economy

* 5 Culture
Culture

* 5.1 Entertainment and performing arts * 5.2 Museums and art * 5.3 Music * 5.4 Cuisine * 5.5 Dialect * 5.6 In popular culture

* 6 Sports * 7 Parks

* 8 Government

* 8.1 City Commission

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Public schools * 9.2 Private schools * 9.3 Colleges and universities * 9.4 Professional training programs

* 10 Media

* 11 Transportation

* 11.1 Airports * 11.2 PortMiami * 11.3 Public transportation * 11.4 Rail * 11.5 Road * 11.6 Bicycling
Bicycling
* 11.7 Walkability

* 12 Notable people

* 13 International relations

* 13.1 Twin and sister cities * 13.2 Cooperation agreements

* 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Miami and Timeline of Miami See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Miami, Florida
Florida
Approximately 400 men voted for Miami's incorporation in 1896 in the building to the left.

The Miami
Miami
area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes. The Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B.C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River.

In 1566 the explorer, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
, claimed it for Spain
Spain
. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in 1567. Spain
Spain
and Great Britain successively "controlled" Florida, and Spain ceded it to the United States
United States
in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida
Florida
Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole
Seminole
. The Miami
Miami
area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole
Seminole
War .

Miami
Miami
is noted as "the only major city in the United States
United States
conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle ", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland
Cleveland
native. The Miami
Miami
area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness. The area was also characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami
Miami
area were the only ones in Florida
Florida
that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler
Henry Flagler
, a railroad tycoon , to expand his Florida
Florida
East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami
Miami
was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. It was named for the nearby Miami
Miami
River , derived from Mayaimi
Mayaimi
, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee
Lake Okeechobee
. The Freedom Tower , built in 1925, is Miami's historical landmark .

Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. :25 Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space. When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J (what would later become NW Fifth Avenue), a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. :33

During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, and Miami
Miami
prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure. The legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami
Miami
police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman." :53

The collapse of the Florida
Florida
land boom of the 1920s , the 1926 Miami Hurricane , and the Great Depression
Great Depression
in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II
World War II
began, Miami, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines . The war brought an increase in Miami's population; by 1940, 172,172 people lived in the city.

After Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
rose to power in Cuba
Cuba
in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population. The city developed businesses and cultural amenities as part of the New South
New South
. In the 1980s and 1990s, South Florida
Florida
weathered social problems related to drug wars, immigration from Haiti
Haiti
and Latin America, and the widespread destruction of Hurricane Andrew . Racial and cultural tensions were sometimes sparked, but the city developed in the latter half of the 20th century as a major international, financial, and cultural center. It is the second-largest US city (after El Paso , Texas
Texas
) with a Spanish-speaking majority, and the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.

Miami
Miami
and its metropolitan area grew from just over 1,000 residents to nearly 5.5 million residents in just 110 years (1896–2006). The city's nickname, _The Magic City_, comes from this rapid growth. Winter visitors remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic.

GEOGRAPHY

The mouth of the Miami
Miami
River at Brickell Key

Miami
Miami
and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida
Florida
Everglades
Everglades
to the west and Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
to the east, which also extends from Florida
Florida
Bay north to Lake Okeechobee
Lake Okeechobee
. The elevation of the area never rises above 40 ft (12 m) and averages at around 6 ft (1.8 m) above mean sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. The highest undulations are found along the coastal Miami Rock Ridge , whose substrate underlies most of the eastern Miami metropolitan region. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands , the largest of which contains Miami Beach
Miami Beach
and South Beach
South Beach
. The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
, a warm ocean current , runs northward just 15 miles (24 km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

GEOLOGY

View from one of the higher points in Miami, west of downtown. The highest natural point in the city of Miami
Miami
is in Coconut Grove , near the bay, along the Miami Rock Ridge at 24 feet (7.3 m) above sea level .

The surface bedrock under the Miami
Miami
area is called _ Miami
Miami
oolite _ or _ Miami
Miami
limestone _. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 50 feet (15 m) thick. Miami
Miami
limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or _ice ages _. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (8 m) above the current level. All of southern Florida
Florida
was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida
Florida
plateau , stretching from the present Miami
Miami
area to what is now the Dry Tortugas
Dry Tortugas
. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami
Miami
limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans . Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation
Wisconsin glaciation
began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet (90 to 110 m) below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida
Florida
just above sea level .

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer , a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern Palm Beach County
Palm Beach County
to Florida
Florida
Bay , with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami
Miami
Springs and Hialeah
Hialeah
. Most of the Miami
Miami
metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20 ft (5 to 6 m) beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction, though some underground parking garages exist. For this reason, the mass transit systems in and around Miami
Miami
are elevated or at-grade .

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades
Everglades
, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. Alligators have ventured into Miami
Miami
communities and on major highways.

In terms of land area, Miami
Miami
is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau
US Census Bureau
, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 sq mi (143.1 km2). Of that area, 35.67 sq mi (92.4 km2) is land and 19.59 sq mi (50.7 km2) is water. That means Miami
Miami
comprises over 400,000 people in 35 square miles (91 km2), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the United States, along with New York City, San Francisco, Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

CITYSCAPE

See also: List of tallest buildings in Miami Downtown Miami Skyline (in 2014) as seen from the Rusty Pelican restaurant on Virginia Key
Virginia Key
. Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami
skyline (in 2008) as seen from South Beach
South Beach
. Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami
skyline (in 2009) as seen from the Port
Port
of Miami.

Neighborhoods

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Main article: Neighborhoods in Miami
Neighborhoods in Miami
The Downtown Miami Historic District is the city's largest historic district , with buildings ranging from 1896 to 1939 in the heart of Downtown . Map of Miami
Miami
neighborhoods. The Downtown area has the fastest-growing neighborhoods in the city.

Miami
Miami
is partitioned into many different sections, roughly into North, South, West and Downtown. The heart of the city is Downtown Miami
Miami
and is technically on the eastern side of the city. This area includes Brickell
Brickell
, Virginia Key
Virginia Key
, Watson Island , and PortMiami . Downtown is South Florida
Florida
's central business district, and Florida's largest and most influential central business district. Downtown has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. along Brickell
Brickell
Avenue . Downtown is home to many major banks, courthouses , financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. East of Downtown, across Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
is South Beach
South Beach
. Just northwest of Downtown, is the Civic Center , which is Miami's center for hospitals, research institutes and biotechnology with hospitals such as Jackson Memorial Hospital , Miami
Miami
VA Hospital, and the University of Miami
University of Miami
's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine .

The southern side of Miami
Miami
includes Coral Way , The Roads and Coconut Grove . Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 connecting Downtown with Coral Gables
Coral Gables
, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streets. Coconut Grove was established in 1825 and is the location of Miami's City Hall
City Hall
in Dinner Key , the Coconut Grove Playhouse , CocoWalk , many nightclubs , bars, restaurants and bohemian shops, and as such, is very popular with local college students . It is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads, and a heavy tree canopy. Coconut Grove has many parks and gardens such as Villa Vizcaya
Villa Vizcaya
, The Kampong
The Kampong
, The Barnacle Historic State Park , and is the home of the Coconut Grove Convention Center and numerous historic homes and estates.

The western side of Miami
Miami
includes Little Havana
Little Havana
, West Flagler, and Flagami , and is home to many of the city's traditionally immigrant neighborhoods. Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhood, today western Miami
Miami
is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and Cuba
Cuba
, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities.

The northern side of Miami
Miami
includes Midtown , a district with a great mix of diversity with many West Indians , Hispanics , European Americans , bohemians , and artists. Edgewater , and Wynwood , are neighborhoods of Midtown and are made up mostly of high-rise residential towers and are home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts . The wealthier residents usually live in the northeastern part, in Midtown, the Design District , and the Upper East Side , with many sought after 1920s homes and home of the MiMo Historic District , a style of architecture originated in Miami
Miami
in the 1950s. The northern side of Miami
Miami
also has notable African American and Caribbean
Caribbean
immigrant communities such as Little Haiti
Little Haiti
, Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater ), and Liberty City
Liberty City
.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Miami

Miami
Miami
has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification _Am_) with a marked drier season in the winter. Its sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer , and proximity to the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
shape its climate. With January averaging 68.2 °F (20.1 °C), winter features highs generally ranging between 73–80 °F (23–27 °C). Cool air usually settles after the passage of a cold front , which produces much of the little amount of rainfall during the season. Lows fall below 50 °F (10 °C), an average of 10–15 nights during the winter season following the passage of cold fronts. Typical summer afternoon thunderstorm rolling in from the Everglades
Everglades
.

The wet season begins some time in May, ending in mid-October. During this period, temperatures are in the mid 80s to low 90s (29–35 °C), accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved by afternoon thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean , which then allow lower temperatures, but conditions still remain very muggy. Much of the year's 55.9 inches (1,420 mm) of rainfall occurs during this period. Dew points in the warm months range from 71.9 °F (22.2 °C) in June to 73.7 °F (23.2 °C) in August.

Extremes range from 27 °F (−2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917 to 100 °F (38 °C) on July 21, 1940. While Miami
Miami
has never officially recorded snowfall at any official weather station since records have been kept, snow flurries fell in some parts of Miami
Miami
on January 19, 1977.

Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. The most likely time for Miami
Miami
to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season, which is mid-August through the end of September. Although tornadoes are uncommon in the area, one struck in 1925 and again in 1997 .

Miami
Miami
falls under the USDA
USDA
10b/11a Plant Hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
.

CLIMATE DATA FOR MIAMI (MIA ), 1981−2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1895−PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 88 (31) 89 (32) 93 (34) 96 (36) 96 (36) 98 (37) 100 (38) 98 (37) 97 (36) 95 (35) 91 (33) 89 (32) 100 (38)

MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 84.3 (29.1) 85.5 (29.7) 87.9 (31.1) 90.2 (32.3) 92.3 (33.5) 94.0 (34.4) 94.6 (34.8) 95.0 (35) 93.1 (33.9) 90.7 (32.6) 86.9 (30.5) 84.8 (29.3) 96.1 (35.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 76.4 (24.7) 78.1 (25.6) 80.3 (26.8) 83.2 (28.4) 87.0 (30.6) 89.5 (31.9) 90.9 (32.7) 91.0 (32.8) 89.3 (31.8) 86.2 (30.1) 81.7 (27.6) 77.9 (25.5) 84.3 (29.1)

DAILY MEAN °F (°C) 68.2 (20.1) 70.2 (21.2) 72.6 (22.6) 75.8 (24.3) 79.9 (26.6) 82.7 (28.2) 84.1 (28.9) 84.2 (29) 82.9 (28.3) 79.9 (26.6) 74.9 (23.8) 70.5 (21.4) 77.2 (25.1)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 59.9 (15.5) 62.3 (16.8) 64.9 (18.3) 68.3 (20.2) 72.9 (22.7) 76.0 (24.4) 77.3 (25.2) 77.4 (25.2) 76.5 (24.7) 73.5 (23.1) 68.1 (20.1) 63.0 (17.2) 70.0 (21.1)

MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 43.1 (6.2) 46.6 (8.1) 50.6 (10.3) 57.3 (14.1) 65.3 (18.5) 70.7 (21.5) 72.3 (22.4) 72.3 (22.4) 72.1 (22.3) 63.8 (17.7) 54.9 (12.7) 46.3 (7.9) 40.1 (4.5)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) 28 (−2) 27 (−3) 32 (0) 39 (4) 50 (10) 60 (16) 66 (19) 67 (19) 62 (17) 45 (7) 36 (2) 30 (−1) 27 (−3)

AVERAGE RAINFALL INCHES (MM) 1.62 (41.1) 2.25 (57.2) 3.00 (76.2) 3.14 (79.8) 5.34 (135.6) 9.67 (245.6) 6.50 (165.1) 8.88 (225.6) 9.86 (250.4) 6.33 (160.8) 3.27 (83.1) 2.04 (51.8) 61.9 (1,572.3)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 6.9 6.5 7.0 6.4 10.0 16.4 16.9 18.9 17.9 12.7 8.4 7.2 135.2

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 72.7 70.9 69.5 67.3 71.6 76.2 74.8 76.2 77.8 74.9 73.8 72.5 73.2

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 219.8 216.9 277.2 293.8 301.3 288.7 308.7 288.3 262.2 260.2 220.8 216.1 3,154

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 66 69 75 77 72 70 73 71 71 73 68 66 71

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990), The Weather Channel

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1900 1,681

1910 5,471

225.5%

1920 29,571

440.5%

1930 110,637

274.1%

1940 172,172

55.6%

1950 249,276

44.8%

1960 291,688

17.0%

1970 334,859

14.8%

1980 346,681

3.5%

1990 358,548

3.4%

2000 362,470

1.1%

2010 399,457

10.2%

EST. 2016 453,579

13.5%

U.S. Decennial Census

The city proper is home to less than one-thirteenth of the population of South Florida. Miami
Miami
is the 42nd-most populous city in the United States. The Miami metropolitan area
Miami metropolitan area
, which includes Miami-Dade , Broward and Palm Beach counties, had a combined population of more than 5.5 million people, ranked seventh largest in the United States, and is the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. As of 2008 , the United Nations
United Nations
estimates that the Miami
Miami
Urban Agglomeration is the 44th-largest in the world. Map of racial distribution in Miami, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WHITE, HISPANIC, BLACK, ASIAN

The 2010 US Census file for Hispanic or Latino origin reports that 34.4% of the population were of Cuban origin, 15.8% shared a Central American background (7.2% Nicaraguan , 5.8% Honduran , 1.2% Salvadoran , and 1.0% Guatemalan ), 8.7% were of South American
South American
descent (3.2% Colombian , 1.4% Venezuelan , 1.2% Peruvian , 1.2% Argentinean , and 0.7% Ecuadorian ), 4.0% had other Hispanic or Latino origins (0.5% Spaniard
Spaniard
), 3.2% descended from Puerto Ricans , 2.4% were Dominican , and 1.5% had Mexican ancestry.

As of 2010 , those of African ancestry accounted for 19.2% of Miami's population, which includes African Americans . Out of the 19.2%, 5.6% were West Indian
West Indian
or Afro-Caribbean American
Afro-Caribbean American
(4.4% Haitian , 0.4% Jamaican , 0.4% Bahamian , 0.1% British West Indian
West Indian
, and 0.1% Trinidadian and Tobagonian , 0.1% Other or Unspecified West Indian
West Indian
), 3.0% were Black Hispanics , and 0.4% were Subsaharan African .

As of 2010 , those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 11.9% of Miami's population. Out of the 11.9%, 1.7% were German, 1.6% Italian, 1.4% Irish, 1.0% English, 0.8% French, 0.6% Russian, and 0.5% were Polish.

As of 2010 , those of Asian ancestry accounted for 1.0% of Miami's population. Out of the 1.0%, 0.3% were Indian people
Indian people
/Indo-Caribbean American (1,206 people), 0.3% Chinese (1,804 people), 0.2% Filipino (647 people), 0.1% were other Asian (433 people), 0.1% Japanese (245 people), 0.1% Korean (213 people), and 0.0% were Vietnamese (125 people).

In 2010, 1.9% of the population considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity.) And 0.5% were of Arab ancestry, as of 2010 .

As of 2010 , there were 158,317 households of which 14.0% were vacant. 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 18.1% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older (4.0% male and 7.3% female.) The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.15.

In 2010, the city population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males.

As of 2010 , the median income for a household in the city was $29,621, and the median income for a family was $33,379. Males had a median income of $27,849 versus $24,518 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,745. About 22.2% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line , including 37.1% of those under age 18 and 32.8% of those aged 65 or over.

In 2010, 58.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 41.1% being naturalized American citizens . Of foreign-born residents, 95.4% were born in Latin America, 2.4% were born in Europe, 1.4% born in Asia, 0.5% born in Africa, 0.2% in North America, and 0.1% were born in Oceania.

In 2004, the United Nations
United Nations
Development Program (UNDP) reported that Miami
Miami
had the highest proportion of foreign-born residents of any major city worldwide (59%), followed by Toronto (50%).

In 1960, non-Hispanic whites represented 80% of Miami-Dade county's population. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Miami's population as 45.3% Hispanic, 32.9% non-Hispanic White, and 22.7% Black. Miami's explosive population growth has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country, primarily up until the 1980s, as well as by immigration , primarily from the 1960s to the 1990s. Today, immigration to Miami
Miami
has slowed significantly and Miami's growth today is attributed greatly to its fast urbanization and high-rise construction, which has increased its inner city neighborhood population densities, such as in Downtown , Brickell
Brickell
, and Edgewater , where one area in Downtown alone saw a 2,069% increase in population in the 2010 Census. Miami
Miami
is regarded as more of a multicultural mosaic , than it is a melting pot , with residents still maintaining much of, or some of their cultural traits . The overall culture of Miami
Miami
is heavily influenced by its large population of Hispanics and blacks mainly from the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands.

MIAMI DEMOGRAPHICS

2010 CENSUS MIAMI MIAMI-DADE COUNTY FLORIDA

Total population 399,457 2,496,435 18,801,310

Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010 +10.2% +10.8% +17.6%

Population density 11,135.9/sq mi 1,315.5/sq mi 350.6/sq mi

White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic
White Hispanic
) 72.6% 73.8% 75.0%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 70.0% 65.0% 22.5%

Black or African-American 19.2% 18.9% 16.0%

(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian ) 11.9% 15.4% 57.9%

Asian 1.0% 1.5% 2.4%

Native American or Native Alaskan
Native Alaskan
0.3% 0.2% 0.4%

Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
0.0% 0.0% 0.1%

Two or more races (Multiracial) 2.7% 2.4% 2.5%

Some Other Race 4.2% 3.2% 3.6%

HISTORIC ETHNIC MAKEUP OF MIAMI

YEAR White (includes White Hispanics ) HISPANIC BLACK Non-Hispanic White OTHER ASIAN (of any race)

1910 58.7% – 41.3% – 0.1% –

1920 68.5% – 31.3% – 0.1% –

1930 77.3% – 22.7% – 0.1% –

1940 78.5% – 21.4% – 0.1% –

1950 83.7% – 16.2% – 0.1% –

1960 77.4% 17.6% 22.4% – 0.1% –

1970 76.6% 44.6% 22.7% 41.7% 0.4% 0.3%

1980 66.6% 55.9% 25.1% 19.4% 7.8% 0.5%

1990 65.6% 62.5% 27.4% 12.2% 6.4% 0.6%

2000 66.6% 65.8% 22.3% 11.8% 5.6% 0.7%

2010 72.6% 70.0% 19.2% 11.9% 4.2% 1.0%

LANGUAGES

As of 2010 , 70.2% of Miami's population age five and over spoke only Spanish at home while 22.7% of the population spoke English at home. About 6.3% spoke other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
at home. About 0.4% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages /Oceanic languages at home. The remaining 0.3% of the population spoke other languages at home. In total, 77.3% spoke another language other than English.

As of 2000, 66.75% of residents spoke Spanish at home, while those who only spoke English made up 25.45%. Speakers of Haitian Creole (French-based ) were 5.20%, French speakers comprised 0.76% of the population, and Portuguese at 0.41%. Among U.S. cities, Miami
Miami
has one of the highest proportions of residents who speak languages other than English at home (74.55% in 2000).

Due to English-speakers moving away from the area, the percentage of residents who speak only English is expected to continue to decline.

RELIGION

Plymouth Congregational Church in Coconut Grove .

Christianity
Christianity
is the most prevalently practiced religion in Miami (68%), according to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
, with 39% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant
Protestant
, and 27% professing Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
beliefs. followed by Judaism
Judaism
(8%); Islam
Islam
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, and a variety of other religions have smaller followings; atheism or no self-identifying organized religious affiliation was practiced by 24%.

There has been a Norwegian Seamen\'s church in Miami
Miami
since the early 1980s. In November 2011, Crown Princess Mette-Marit opened a new building for the church. The church was built as a center for the 10,000 Scandinavians that live in Florida. Around 4,000 of them are Norwegian . The church is also an important place for the 150 Norwegians
Norwegians
that work at Disney World
Disney World
.

CIVIC ENGAGEMENT

Organizations such as the Miami-Dade Salvation Army
Salvation Army
and its iconic Red Kettle Christmas Campaign, Hands On Miami , City Year Miami, Human Services Coalition of South Florida, and Citizens for a Better South Florida, among many other organizations have been working to engage Miamians in volunteerism.

ECONOMY

_ It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article. (Discuss ) (November 2015)_

Downtown is South Florida
Florida
's main hub for finance, commerce and international business . Brickell
Brickell
Avenue has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. As seen in 2006, the high-rise construction in Miami
Miami
has inspired popular opinion of "Miami manhattanization " Brickell
Brickell
Avenue in Downtown Miami's Brickell Financial District PortMiami is the world's largest cruise ship port, and is the headquarters of many of the world's largest cruise companies

Miami
Miami
is a major center of commerce, finance, and boasts a strong international business community. According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) in 2010 and based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Miami
Miami
is considered a "Alpha minus world city ". Miami
Miami
has a Gross Metropolitan Product of $257 billion and is ranked 20th worldwide in GMP, and 11th in the United States.

Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including but not limited to: Akerman Senterfitt , Alienware
Alienware
, Arquitectonica
Arquitectonica
, Arrow Air
Arrow Air
, Bacardi
Bacardi
, Benihana , Brightstar Corporation , Burger King
Burger King
, Celebrity Cruises
Celebrity Cruises
, Carnival Corporation
Carnival Corporation
, Carnival Cruise Lines
Carnival Cruise Lines
, Crispin Porter + Bogusky , Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company , Espírito Santo Financial Group , Fizber.com , Greenberg Traurig , Holland & Knight , Inktel Direct , Interval International , Lennar , Navarro Discount Pharmacies , Norwegian Cruise Lines , Oceania Cruises
Oceania Cruises
, Perry Ellis International
Perry Ellis International
, RCTV International , Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines
Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines
, Ryder
Ryder
Systems , Seabourn Cruise Line , Sedano\'s , Telefónica
Telefónica
USA , UniMÁS
UniMÁS
, Telemundo
Telemundo
, Univision
Univision
, U.S. Century Bank , Vector Group , and World Fuel Services . Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami
Miami
serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for more than 1400 multinational corporations, including AIG
AIG
, American Airlines
American Airlines
, Cisco , Disney , Exxon
Exxon
, FedEx
FedEx
, Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods
, LEO Pharma Americas , Microsoft
Microsoft
, Yahoo
Yahoo
, Oracle , SBC Communications , Sony
Sony
, Symantec
Symantec
, Visa International
Visa International
, and Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
.

Miami
Miami
is a major television production center, and the most important city in the U.S. for Spanish language media. Univisión
Univisión
, Telemundo and UniMÁS
UniMÁS
have their headquarters in Miami, along with their production studios. The Telemundo
Telemundo
Television Studios produces much of the original programming for Telemundo, such as their telenovelas and talk shows. In 2011, 85% of Telemundo's original programming was filmed in Miami. Miami
Miami
is also a major music recording center, with the Sony
Sony
Music Latin and Universal Music Latin Entertainment headquarters in the city, along with many other smaller record labels . The city also attracts many artists for music video and film shootings.

Since 2001, Miami
Miami
has been undergoing a large building boom with more than 50 skyscrapers rising over 400 feet (122 m) built or currently under construction in the city. Miami\'s skyline is ranked third-most impressive in the U.S., behind New York City and Chicago , and 19th in the world according to the Almanac of Architecture and Design. The city currently has the eight tallest (as well as thirteen of the fourteen tallest) skyscrapers in the state of Florida, with the tallest being the 789-foot (240 m) Four Seasons Hotel "> , PortMiami accounts for 176,000 jobs and has an annual economic impact in Miami of $18 billion. It is the 11th-largest cargo container port in the United States. In 2010, a record 4.33 million passengers traveled through PortMiami. One in seven of all the world's cruise passengers start from Miami. The Civic Center has the country's second-largest concentration of medical and research facilities. It is the center of Miami's growing biotechnology sectors.

Tourism is also an important industry in Miami. Along with finance and business, the beaches, conventions, festivals and events draw over 38 million visitors annually into the city, from across the country and around the world, spending $17.1 billion. The Art Deco District in South Beach
South Beach
, is reputed as one of the most glamorous in the world for its nightclubs, beaches, historical buildings, and shopping. Annual events such as the Sony
Sony
Ericsson Open , Art Basel
Art Basel
, Winter Music Conference , South Beach
South Beach
Wine "> Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts , the second-largest performing arts center in the United States.

In addition to such annual festivals like Calle Ocho Festival and Carnaval Miami, Miami
Miami
is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers. The newest addition to the Miami
Miami
arts scene is the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts , the second-largest performing arts center in the United States
United States
after the Lincoln Center
Lincoln Center
in New York City, and is the home of the Florida Grand Opera . Within it are the Ziff Ballet Opera House, the center's largest venue, the Knight Concert Hall, the Carnival Studio Theater and the Peacock Rehearsal Studio. The center attracts many large-scale operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals from around the world and is Florida's grandest performing arts center. Other performing arts venues in Miami
Miami
include the Gusman Center for the Performing Arts , Coconut Grove Playhouse , Colony Theatre, Lincoln Theatre, New World Center , Actor's Playhouse at the Miracle Theatre, Jackie Gleason Theatre , Manuel Artime Theater , Ring Theatre , Playground Theatre, Wertheim Performing Arts Center , the Fair Expo Center and the Bayfront Park
Bayfront Park
Amphitheater for outdoor music events.

The city attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players. Miami
Miami
has numerous orchestras, symphonies and performing art conservatories. Some of these include the Florida
Florida
Grand Opera , FIU School of Music, Frost School of Music , Miami City Ballet
Miami City Ballet
, Miami Conservatory , Miami
Miami
Wind Symphony , New World School of the Arts , New World Symphony Orchestra , as well as the music, theater and art schools of the city's many universities and schools.

Miami
Miami
is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world. Miami
Miami
is also host to many fashion shows and events, including the annual Miami Fashion Week and the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami held in the Wynwood Art District
Wynwood Art District
.

MUSEUMS AND ART

The city is home to numerous museums as well, many of which are in Downtown . These include the Frost Art Museum
Frost Art Museum
, HistoryMiami , Miami Art Museum , Miami
Miami
Children\'s Museum , Miami Science Museum , Vizcaya Museum and Gardens , and the Miami-Dade Cultural Center, home of the Miami
Miami
Main Library . Miami
Miami
is also the home of the world's largest art exhibition, dubbed the "Olympics of Art", Art Basel
Art Basel
Miami
Miami
. The event is held annually in December, and attracts thousands of visitors from around the world.

MUSIC

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The city is a major music production city and attracts many annual music festivals, such as Ultra Music Festival
Ultra Music Festival

Miami
Miami
music is varied. Cubans brought the conga and rumba , while Haitians and the rest of the French West Indies have brought kompa and zouk to Miami
Miami
from their homelands instantly popularizing them in American culture
American culture
. Dominicans brought bachata , and merengue , while Colombians brought vallenato and cumbia , and Brazilians brought samba . West Indians and Caribbean
Caribbean
people have brought, reggae , soca , calypso , and steel pan to the area as well.

In the early 1970s, the Miami
Miami
disco sound came to life with TK Records , featuring the music of KC and the Sunshine Band
KC and the Sunshine Band
, with such hits as "Get Down Tonight", "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty" and "That's the Way (I Like It)"; and the Latin-American disco group, Foxy (band) , with their hit singles "Get Off" and "Hot Number". Miami-area natives George McCrae and Teri DeSario were also popular music artists during the 1970s disco era. The Bee Gees
Bee Gees
moved to Miami
Miami
in 1975 and have lived here ever since then. Miami-influenced, Gloria Estefan
Gloria Estefan
and the Miami Sound Machine , hit the popular music scene with their Cuban-oriented sound and had hits in the 1980s with "Conga" and "Bad Boys".

Miami
Miami
is also considered a "hot spot" for dance music , Freestyle , a style of dance music popular in the 1980s and 90s was heavily influenced by Electro , hip-hop, and disco. Many popular Freestyle acts such as Pretty Tony, Debbie Deb , Stevie B , and Exposé , originated in Miami. Indie /folk acts Cat Power
Cat Power
and Iron "> A cortadito is a popular espresso beverage found in cafeterias around Miami. It is particularly popular for breakfast or in the afternoon with a pastelito .

The cuisine of Miami
Miami
is a reflection of its diverse population, with a heavy influence especially from Caribbean
Caribbean
cuisine and from Latin American cuisine
American cuisine
. By combining the two with American cuisine
American cuisine
, it has spawned a unique South Florida
Florida
style of cooking known as Floribbean cuisine . Floribbean cuisine is widely available throughout Miami
Miami
and South Florida, and can be found in restaurant chains such as Pollo Tropical .

Cuban immigrants in the 1960s brought the Cuban sandwich
Cuban sandwich
, medianoche , Cuban espresso , and croquetas , all of which have grown in popularity to all Miamians, and have become symbols of the city's varied cuisine. Today, these are part of the local culture, and can be found throughout the city in window cafés, particularly outside of supermarkets and restaurants. Restaurants such as Versailles restaurant in Little Havana
Little Havana
are landmark eateries of Miami. Located on the Atlantic Ocean, and with a long history as a seaport , Miami
Miami
is also known for its seafood, with many seafood restaurants located along the Miami
Miami
River , and in and around Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
. Miami
Miami
is also the home of restaurant chains such as Burger King
Burger King
, Tony Roma\'s and Benihana .

DIALECT

Main article: Miami accent

The Miami
Miami
area has a unique dialect, (commonly called the "Miami accent") which is widely spoken. The dialect developed among second- or third-generation Hispanics , including Cuban-Americans , whose first language was English (though some non-Hispanic white , black , and other races who were born and raised the Miami
Miami
area tend to adopt it as well.) It is based on a fairly standard American accent but with some changes very similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic (especially the New York area dialect , Northern New Jersey English , and New York Latino English .) Unlike Virginia Piedmont , Coastal Southern American, and Northeast American dialects and Florida
Florida
Cracker dialect (see section below), " Miami
Miami
accent" is rhotic ; it also incorporates a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish (wherein rhythm is syllable-timed ). However, this is a native dialect of English, not learner English or interlanguage ; it is possible to differentiate this variety from an interlanguage spoken by second-language speakers in that " Miami
Miami
accent" does _not_ generally display the following features: there is no addition of /ɛ/ before initial consonant clusters with /s/, speakers do not confuse of /dʒ/ with /j/, (e.g., _Yale_ with _jail_), and /r/ and /rr/ are pronounced as alveolar approximant instead of alveolar tap or alveolar trill in Spanish.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

_ This section APPEARS TO CONTAIN TRIVIAL, MINOR, OR UNRELATED REFERENCES TO POPULAR CULTURE . Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible, otherwise delete it. (March 2017)_

_ View of the "Moon over Miami"_, a famous phrase that has inspired many pop culture items, including a movie , TV series , and song . See also: List of films and television shows set in Miami and Miami
Miami
(song)

The video game _Scarface: The World Is Yours _ takes place in Miami. The game is based on and is a quasi-sequel to the 1983 motion picture _ Scarface
Scarface
_ starring Al Pacino
Al Pacino
reprising his role as Tony Montana , with André Sogliuzzo providing Montana's voice. The game begins in the film's final scene, with Tony Montana's mansion being raided by Alejandro Sosa's ( Robert Davi ) assassins.

SPORTS

American Airlines Arena
American Airlines Arena
, home of the Miami Heat
Miami Heat
See also: Sport in Miami Miami
Miami
Jai Alai fronton, known as "The Yankee Stadium of Jai Alai"

Miami's main four sports teams are the Miami Dolphins
Miami Dolphins
of the National Football League , the Miami Heat
Miami Heat
of the National Basketball Association , the Miami Marlins
Miami Marlins
of Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
, and the Florida
Florida
Panthers of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
. As well as having all four major professional teams, Miami
Miami
is also home to the Major League Soccer expansion team led by David Beckham
David Beckham
, Sony
Sony
Ericsson Open for professional tennis, numerous greyhound racing tracks, marinas , jai alai venues, and golf courses. The city streets has hosted professional auto races, the Miami Indy Challenge and later the Grand Prix Americas . The Homestead-Miami Speedway
Homestead-Miami Speedway
oval hosts NASCAR national races.

The Heat and the Marlins play within Miami's city limits. The Heat play at the American Airlines Arena
American Airlines Arena
in Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami
. The Miami Marlins home ballpark is Marlins Park
Marlins Park
, located in Little Havana
Little Havana
on the site of the old Orange Bowl stadium.

The Miami Dolphins
Miami Dolphins
play at Hard Rock Stadium
Hard Rock Stadium
in suburban Miami Gardens . The Florida
Florida
Panthers play in nearby Sunrise at the BB the Miami
Miami
metro area has hosted the game a total of ten times (five Super Bowls at the current Hard Rock Stadium, including Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLI and five at the Miami Orange Bowl
Miami Orange Bowl
), tying New Orleans for the most games.

Miami
Miami
is also the home of many college sports teams. The two largest are the University of Miami
University of Miami
Hurricanes , whose football team plays at Hard Rock Stadium
Hard Rock Stadium
, and Florida
Florida
International University Panthers whose football team plays at FIU Stadium
FIU Stadium
.

The following table shows the Miami
Miami
area major professional teams and Division I teams with an average attendance of more than 10,000:

MAJOR PROFESSIONAL AND D-I COLLEGE TEAMS (attendance > 10,000) CLUB SPORT LEAGUE VENUE (CAPACITY) ATTENDANCE LEAGUE CHAMPIONSHIPS

Miami Dolphins
Miami Dolphins
Football National Football League
National Football League
Hard Rock Stadium
Hard Rock Stadium
(80,120) 70,035 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
(2) — 1972, 1973

Miami Hurricanes
Miami Hurricanes
Football NCAA D-I (ACC ) Hard Rock Stadium
Hard Rock Stadium
(80,120) 53,837 National titles (5) — 1983, 1987, 1989, 1991, 2001

Miami Marlins
Miami Marlins
Baseball
Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Marlins Park
Marlins Park
(36,742) 21,386 World Series
World Series
(2) — 1997, 2003

Miami Heat
Miami Heat
Basketball
Basketball
National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
American Airlines Arena
American Airlines Arena
(19,600) 19,710 NBA Finals
NBA Finals
(3) — 2006, 2012, 2013

FIU Panthers
FIU Panthers
Football NCAA D-I ( Conference USA
Conference USA
) FIU Stadium
FIU Stadium
(23,500) 15,453 None

Florida
Florida
Panthers Hockey National Hockey League
National Hockey League
BB"> The Barnacle Historic State Park , built in 1891 in Miami's Coconut Grove neighborhood.

Miami's tropical weather allows for year-round outdoor activities. The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoor activities. Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
has numerous coral reefs that make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city. The largest and most popular parks are Bayfront Park
Bayfront Park
and Bicentennial Park (located in the heart of Downtown and the location of the American Airlines Arena
American Airlines Arena
and Bayside Marketplace ), Tropical Park , Peacock Park
Peacock Park
, Morningside Park, Virginia Key
Virginia Key
, and Watson Island .

Other popular cultural destinations in or near Miami
Miami
include Zoo Miami
Miami
, Jungle Island
Jungle Island
, Miami Seaquarium
Miami Seaquarium
, Monkey Jungle , Coral Castle , St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church , Charles Deering Estate , Fairchild Botanical Gardens , and Key Biscayne
Key Biscayne
.

GOVERNMENT

Miami
Miami
City Hall
City Hall
at Dinner Key in Coconut Grove . The city's primary administrative offices are held here. Miami-Dade County Courthouse
Courthouse
Main article: Government of the City of Miami

The government of the City of Miami
Miami
(proper ) uses the mayor-commissioner type of system. The city commission consists of five commissioners that are elected from single member districts. The city commission constitutes the governing body with powers to pass ordinances, adopt regulations, and exercise all powers conferred upon the city in the city charter. The mayor is elected at large and appoints a city manager. The City of Miami
Miami
is governed by Mayor Tomás Regalado and 5 City commissioners that oversee the five districts in the city. The commission's regular meetings are held at Miami
Miami
City Hall , which is located at 3500 Pan American Drive on Dinner Key in the neighborhood of Coconut Grove .

CITY COMMISSION

See also: List of mayors of Miami

* TOMáS REGALADO – MAYOR OF THE CITY OF MIAMI * WIFREDO "WILLY" GORT – MIAMI COMMISSIONER, DISTRICT 1

Allapattah and Grapeland Heights

* KEN RUSSELL – MIAMI COMMISSIONER, DISTRICT 2 (VICE-CHAIRMAN)

Brickell
Brickell
, Coconut Grove , Coral Way , Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami
, Edgewater , Midtown Miami
Midtown Miami
, Omni , Park West and the Upper Eastside
Upper Eastside

* FRANK CAROLLO – MIAMI COMMISSIONER, DISTRICT 3

Coral Way , Little Havana
Little Havana
and The Roads

* FRANCIS SUáREZ – MIAMI COMMISSIONER, DISTRICT 4

Coral Way , Flagami and West Flagler

* KEON HARDEMON – MIAMI COMMISSIONER, DISTRICT 5 (CHAIRMAN)

Buena Vista , Design District , Liberty City
Liberty City
, Little Haiti
Little Haiti
, Little River , Lummus Park , Overtown , Spring Garden and Wynwood

* DANIEL J. ALFONSO – CITY MANAGER * VICTORIA MéNDEZ – CITY ATTORNEY * TODD B. HANNON – CITY CLERK

EDUCATION

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PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Main article: Miami-Dade County Public Schools
Miami-Dade County Public Schools
Miami
Miami
Senior High School , Miami's oldest continuously used high school structure Florida
Florida
International University has the largest enrollment of any university in South Florida
Florida
, and is one of the state's primary research universities.

Public schools in Miami
Miami
are governed by Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
Public Schools , which is the largest school district in Florida
Florida
and the fourth-largest in the United States. As of September 2008 it has a student enrollment of 385,655 and over 392 schools and centers. The district is also the largest minority public school system in the country, with 60% of its students being of Hispanic origin, 28% Black or West Indian American
West Indian American
, 10% White (non-Hispanic) and 2% non-white of other minorities.

Miami
Miami
is home to some of the nation's best high schools, such as Design and Architecture High School , ranked the nation's best magnet school , MAST Academy , Coral Reef High School , ranked 20th-best public high school in the U.S., Miami Palmetto High School
Miami Palmetto High School
, and the New World School of the Arts . M-DCPS is also one of a few public school districts in the United States
United States
to offer optional bilingual education in Spanish, French, German, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
, and Mandarin Chinese .

PRIVATE SCHOOLS

Miami
Miami
is home to several well-known Roman Catholic, Jewish and non-denominational private schools. The Archdiocese of Miami operates the city's Catholic private schools, which include: St. Hugh Catholic School, St. Agatha Catholic School, St. Theresa School , Immaculata-Lasalle High School , Monsignor Edward Pace High School , Archbishop Curley-Notre Dame High School , St. Brendan High School , amongst numerous other Catholic elementary and high schools.

Catholic preparatory schools operated by religious orders are Christopher Columbus High School and Belen Jesuit Preparatory School for boys and Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Lourdes Academy for girls.

Non-denominational private schools in Miami
Miami
are Ransom Everglades
Everglades
, Gulliver Preparatory School
Gulliver Preparatory School
, and Miami Country Day School . Other schools in the area include Samuel Scheck Hillel Community Day School , Dade Christian School , Palmer Trinity School , and Westminster Christian School .

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Founded in 1925, the University of Miami
University of Miami
is the oldest college in Florida
Florida
south of Winter Park .

Miami
Miami
has over 200,000 students enrolled in local colleges and universities, placing it seventh in the nation in per capita university enrollment. In 2010, the city's four largest colleges and universities (MDC, FIU, UM, and Barry) graduated 28,000 students.

Colleges and universities in and around Miami:

* Barry University
Barry University
(private) * Carlos Albizu University
Carlos Albizu University
(private) * Florida
Florida
International University (FIU) (public) * Florida
Florida
Memorial University (private) * Johnson and Wales University
Johnson and Wales University
(private) * Keiser University
Keiser University
(private) * Manchester Business School
Manchester Business School
(satellite location, UK public) * Miami Culinary Institute (public) * Miami Dade College
Miami Dade College
(public) * Miami
Miami
International University of Art "> Former headquarters of The Miami Herald
The Miami Herald

Miami
Miami
has one of the largest television markets in the nation and the second largest in the state of Florida. Miami
Miami
has several major newspapers, the main and largest newspaper being _ The Miami Herald
The Miami Herald
_. _ El Nuevo Herald _ is the major and largest Spanish-language newspaper. _The Miami
Miami
Herald_ and _El Nuevo Herald_ are Miami's and South Florida's main, major and largest newspapers. The papers left their longtime home in downtown Miami
Miami
in 2013. The newspapers are now headquartered at the former home of U.S. Southern Command in Doral .

Other major newspapers include _ Miami Today _, headquartered in Brickell
Brickell
, _ Miami New Times
Miami New Times
_, headquartered in Midtown , _ Miami
Miami
Sun Post _, _South Florida
Florida
Business Journal _, _ Miami
Miami
Times_, and _ Biscayne Boulevard Times_. An additional Spanish-language newspapers, _Diario Las Americas_ also serve Miami. _The Miami
Miami
Herald_ is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million readers and is headquartered in Downtown in Herald Plaza. Several other student newspapers from the local universities, such as the oldest, the University of Miami
University of Miami
's _ The Miami Hurricane _, Florida
Florida
International University 's _The Beacon _, Miami-Dade College 's _The Metropolis_, Barry University
Barry University
's _The Buccaneer_, amongst others. Many neighborhoods and neighboring areas also have their own local newspapers such as the _Aventura News_, _ Coral Gables
Coral Gables
Tribune_, _ Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
Tribune_, and the _Palmetto Bay News_.

A number of magazines circulate throughout the greater Miami
Miami
area, including _ Miami Monthly _, Southeast Florida's only city/regional; _Ocean Drive_, a hot-spot social scene glossy, and _South Florida Business Leader._

Miami
Miami
is also the headquarters and main production city of many of the world's largest television networks, record label companies, broadcasting companies and production facilities, such as Telemundo
Telemundo
, TeleFutura
TeleFutura
, Galavisión , Mega TV , Univisión
Univisión
, Univision Communications, Inc. , Universal Music Latin Entertainment , RCTV International and Sunbeam Television
Sunbeam Television
. In 2009, Univisión
Univisión
announced plans to build a new production studio in Miami, dubbed 'Univisión Studios'. Univisión
Univisión
Studios is currently headquartered in Miami, and will produce programming for all of Univisión
Univisión
Communications' television networks.

Miami
Miami
is the twelfth largest radio market and the seventeenth largest television market in the United States. Television stations serving the Miami
Miami
area include: WAMI ( Telefutura
Telefutura
), WBFS (My Network TV ), WSFL (The CW ), WFOR ( CBS
CBS
), WHFT (TBN ), WLTV ( Univision
Univision
), WPLG
WPLG
(ABC ), WPXM (Ion ), WSCV
WSCV
( Telemundo
Telemundo
), WSVN
WSVN
(Fox ), WTVJ
WTVJ
( NBC
NBC
), WPBT
WPBT
(PBS ), and WLRN (also PBS).

TRANSPORTATION

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Main article: Transportation in South Florida
Florida

AIRPORTS

Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport
serves as the primary international airport of the Greater Miami
Miami
Area. One of the busiest international airports in the world, Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport
caters to over 35 million passengers a year. The airport is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines
American Airlines
. Miami International is the busiest airport in Florida, and is the United States' second-largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
, and is the seventh-largest such gateway in the world. The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Alternatively, nearby Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport also serves commercial traffic in the Miami
Miami
area. Opa-locka Airport in Opa-locka and Kendall-Tamiami Airport in an unincorporated area serve general aviation traffic in the Miami
Miami
area.

PORTMIAMI

The Royal Caribbean
Caribbean
International headquarters at the Port
Port
of Miami
Miami
. Further information: PortMiami

Miami
Miami
is home to one of the largest ports in the United States, the PortMiami . It is the largest cruise ship port in the world. The port is often called the "Cruise Capital of the World" and the "Cargo Gateway of the Americas". It has retained its status as the number one cruise/passenger port in the world for well over a decade accommodating the largest cruise ships and the major cruise lines. In 2007, the port served 3,787,410 passengers. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing 7.8 million tons of cargo in 2007. Among North American ports, it ranks second to the Port
Port
of South Louisiana in New Orleans in terms of cargo tonnage imported/exported from Latin America. The port is on 518 acres (2 km2) and has 7 passenger terminals. China
China
is the port's number one import country, and Honduras
Honduras
is the number one export country. Miami
Miami
has the world's largest amount of cruise line headquarters, home to: Carnival Cruise Lines , Celebrity Cruises
Celebrity Cruises
, Norwegian Cruise Line
Norwegian Cruise Line
, Oceania Cruises , and Royal Caribbean
Caribbean
International . In 2014, the Port
Port
of Miami
Miami
Tunnel was completed and will serve the PortMiami.

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

The Miami Metrorail is the city's rapid transit system and connects the city's central core with its outlying suburbs Tri-Rail
Tri-Rail
is Miami's commuter rail that runs north-south from Miami's suburbs in West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
to Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport
. Main article: Miami-Dade Transit
Miami-Dade Transit

Public transportation in Miami
Miami
is operated by Miami-Dade Transit
Miami-Dade Transit
and SFRTA , and includes commuter rail ( Tri-Rail
Tri-Rail
), heavy-rail rapid transit (Metrorail ), an elevated people mover ( Metromover
Metromover
), and buses (Metrobus ). Miami
Miami
has Florida's highest transit ridership as about 17% of Miamians use transit on a daily basis.

Miami's heavy-rail rapid transit system, Metrorail , is an elevated system comprising two lines and 23 stations on a 24.4-mile (39.3 km)-long line. Metrorail connects the urban western suburbs of Hialeah , Medley , and inner-city Miami
Miami
with suburban The Roads , Coconut Grove , Coral Gables
Coral Gables
, South Miami
South Miami
and urban Kendall via the central business districts of Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport
, the Civic Center , and Downtown . A free, elevated people mover , Metromover
Metromover
, operates 21 stations on three different lines in greater Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami
, with a station at roughly every two blocks of Downtown and Brickell
Brickell
. Several expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Tri-Rail
Tri-Rail
, a commuter rail system operated by the South Florida Regional Transportation Authority (SFRTA), runs from Miami International Airport northward to West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
, making eighteen stops throughout Miami-Dade , Broward , and Palm Beach counties.

Construction is currently underway on the Miami Intermodal Center
Miami Intermodal Center
and Miami Central Station , a massive transportation hub servicing Metrorail , Amtrak
Amtrak
, Tri-Rail
Tri-Rail
, Metrobus , Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
, taxis , rental cars , MIA Mover
MIA Mover
, private automobiles, bicycles and pedestrians adjacent to Miami
Miami
International Airport. Completion of the Miami Intermodal Center
Miami Intermodal Center
is expected to be completed by winter 2011, and will serve over 150,000 commuters and travelers in the Miami
Miami
area. Phase I of Miami Central Station is scheduled to begin service in the spring of 2012, and Phase II in 2013.

Two new light rail systems, Baylink and the Miami
Miami
Streetcar, have been proposed and are currently in the planning stage. BayLink would connect Downtown with South Beach
South Beach
, and the Miami
Miami
Streetcar would connect Downtown with Midtown .

RAIL

Miami
Miami
is the southern terminus of Amtrak
Amtrak
's Atlantic Coast services, running two lines, the Silver Meteor
Silver Meteor
and the Silver Star , both terminating in New York City. The Miami
Miami
Amtrak
Amtrak
Station is located in the suburb of Hialeah
Hialeah
near the Tri-Rail/Metrorail Station on NW 79 St and NW 38 Ave. Current construction of the Miami Central Station will move all Amtrak
Amtrak
operations from its current out-of-the-way location to a centralized location with Metrorail , MIA Mover
MIA Mover
, Tri-Rail
Tri-Rail
, Miami International Airport , and the Miami Intermodal Center
Miami Intermodal Center
all within the same station closer to Downtown. The station was expected to be completed by 2012, but experienced several delays and was later expected to be completed in late 2014, again pushed back to early 2015.

Florida
Florida
High Speed Rail was a proposed government backed high-speed rail system that would have connected Miami, Orlando, and Tampa. The first phase was planned to connect Orlando
Orlando
and Tampa
Tampa
and was offered federal funding, but it was turned down by Governor Rick Scott in 2011. The second phase of the line was envisioned to connect Miami. By 2014, a private project known as All Aboard Florida
Florida
by a company of the historic Florida
Florida
East Coast Railway began construction of a higher-speed rail line in South Florida
Florida
that is planned to eventually terminate at Orlando
Orlando
International Airport .

ROAD

The Venetian Causeway
Venetian Causeway
(left) and MacArthur Causeway
MacArthur Causeway
(right) connect Downtown and South Beach
South Beach
, Miami Beach
Miami Beach
. State Road 886 ( Port
Port
Boulevard) connects downtown and PortMiami by bridge over Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
.

Miami's road system is based along the numerical " Miami
Miami
Grid" where Flagler Street
Flagler Street
forms the east-west baseline and Miami Avenue
Miami Avenue
forms the north-south meridian . The corner of Flagler Street
Flagler Street
and Miami
Miami
Avenue is in the middle of Downtown in front of the Downtown Macy\'s (formerly the Burdine\'s headquarters). The Miami
Miami
grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler Street and west of Miami Avenue
Miami Avenue
have "NW" in their address. Because its point of origin is in Downtown , which is close to the coast, therefore, the "NW" and "SW" quadrants are much larger than the "SE" and "NE" quadrants. Many roads, especially major ones, are also named (e.g., Tamiami Trail/SW 8th St ), although, with exceptions, the number is in more common usage among locals.

With few exceptions, within this grid north/south roads are designated as Courts, Roads, Avenues or Places (often remembered by their acronym), while east/west roads are Streets, Terraces, Drives or occasionally Ways. Major roads in each direction are located at one mile intervals. There are 16 blocks to each mile on north/south avenues, and 10 blocks to each mile on east/west streets. Major north/south avenues generally end in "7" – e.g., 17th, 27th, 37th/Douglas Aves., 57th/Red Rd., 67th/Ludlam, 87th/Galloway, etc., all the way west beyond 177th/Krome Avenue. (One prominent exception is 42nd Avenue, LeJeune Road, located at the half-mile point instead.) Major east/west streets to the south of downtown are multiples of 16, though the beginning point of this system is at SW 8th St, one half mile south of Flagler ("zeroth") Street. Thus, major streets are at 8th St. + 16 = 24th St./Coral Way, + 16 = 40th St./Bird, +16 = 56th/Miller, + 16 = 72nd/ Sunset, + 16 = 88th/N. Kendall, + 16 = 104th (originally S. Kendall), + 16 = 120th/Montgomery, + 16 = 136th/Howard, + 16 = 152nd/Coral Reef, + 16 = 168th/Richmond, + 16 = 184th/Eureka, + 16 = 200th/Quail Roost, + 16 = 216th/Hainlin Mill, + 16 = 232nd/Silver Palm, + 16 = 248th/Coconut Palm, etc., well into the 300's. Within the Grid, odd-numbered addresses are generally on the north or east side, and even-numbered addresses are on the south or west side. This makes even unfamiliar addresses and distances easy – If one must travel from, say 1709 SW 8th St. to 24832 SW 157th Avenue, one knows it will be 140 blocks (157 − 17) / 20 miles to the west and 240 blocks (248-8) / 15 miles to the south, and that the destination will be on the south side of 248th St. Remarkably, even Miami
Miami
natives are often unaware of this pattern.

All streets and avenues in Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
follow the Miami
Miami
Grid, with a few exceptions, most notably Coral Gables
Coral Gables
, Hialeah
Hialeah
, Coconut Grove and Miami Beach
Miami Beach
. One neighborhood, The Roads , is thusly named because its streets run off the Miami
Miami
Grid at a 45-degree angle, and therefore are all named roads.

Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
is served by four Interstate Highways (I-75 , I-95 , I-195 , I-395 ) and several U.S. Highways including U.S. Route 1 , U.S. Route 27 , U.S. Route 41 , and U.S. Route 441 .

Some of the major Florida
Florida
State Roads (and their common names) serving Miami
Miami
are:

* SR 112 (Airport Expressway): Interstate 95 to MIA * Homestead Extension of Florida\'s Turnpike (SR 821): Florida\'s Turnpike mainline (SR 91)/ Miami Gardens to U.S. Route 1 / Florida
Florida
City * SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway): Golden Glades Interchange to U.S. Route 1/Pinecrest * SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway): Downtown to SW 137th Ave via MIA * SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway): 826/ Bird Road to Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike/Kendall * SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway): SR 874/Kendall to U.S. Route 1/Pinecrest " class="center">

MIAMI CAUSEWAYS

NAME TERMINI YEAR BUILT

Rickenbacker Causeway
Rickenbacker Causeway
Brickell
Brickell
and Key Biscayne
Key Biscayne
1947

Venetian Causeway
Venetian Causeway
Downtown and South Beach
South Beach
1912–1925

MacArthur Causeway
MacArthur Causeway
Downtown and South Beach
South Beach
1920

Julia Tuttle Causeway
Causeway
Wynwood /Edgewater and Miami Beach
Miami Beach
1959

79th Street Causeway
Causeway
Upper East Side and North Beach 1929

Broad Causeway North Miami
Miami
and Bal Harbour 1951

Miami
Miami
has six major causeways that span over Biscayne Bay
Biscayne Bay
connecting the western mainland, with the eastern barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean. The Rickenbacker Causeway
Rickenbacker Causeway
is the southernmost causeway and connects Brickell
Brickell
to Virginia Key
Virginia Key
and Key Biscayne
Key Biscayne
. The Venetian Causeway
Causeway
and MacArthur Causeway
MacArthur Causeway
connect Downtown with South Beach
South Beach
. The Julia Tuttle Causeway
Causeway
connects Midtown and Miami Beach
Miami Beach
. The 79th Street Causeway
Causeway
connects the Upper East Side with North Beach . The northernmost causeway, the Broad Causeway , is the smallest of Miami's six causeways, and connects North Miami
Miami
with Bal Harbour .

In 2007, Miami
Miami
was identified as having the rudest drivers in the United States, the second year in a row to have been cited, in a poll commissioned by automobile club AutoVantage. Miami
Miami
is also consistently ranked as one of the most dangerous cities in the United States for pedestrians.

BICYCLING

In recent years the city government, under Mayor Manny Diaz , has taken an ambitious stance in support of bicycling in Miami
Miami
for both recreation and commuting. Every month, the city hosts "Bike Miami", where major streets in Downtown and Brickell
Brickell
are closed to automobiles, but left open for pedestrians and bicyclists . The event began in November 2008, and has doubled in popularity from 1,500 participants to about 3,000 in the October 2009 Bike Miami. This is the longest-running such event in the US. In October 2009, the city also approved an extensive 20-year plan for bike routes and paths around the city. The city has begun construction of bike routes as of late 2009, and ordinances requiring bike parking in all future construction in the city became mandatory as of October 2009.

In 2010, Miami
Miami
was ranked as the 44th-most bike-friendly city in the US according to _ Bicycling
Bicycling
Magazine _.

WALKABILITY

A 2011 study by Walk Score
Walk Score
ranked Miami
Miami
the eighth-most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States, but a 2013 survey by Travel + Leisure ranked Miami
Miami
34th for "public transportation and pedestrian friendliness."

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Miami

_ THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (June 2017)_

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of sister cities in Florida
Florida

_ This article contains a LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION . Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (July 2017)_

TWIN AND SISTER CITIES

* Bogotá
Bogotá
, Colombia
Colombia
(since 1971) * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, Argentina
Argentina
(since 1979) * Kagoshima
Kagoshima
, Japan
Japan
(since 1990) * Lima
Lima
, Peru
Peru
(since 1977) * Madrid
Madrid
, Spain
Spain
(since 2014) * Port-au-Prince
Port-au-Prince
, Haiti
Haiti
(since 1991) * Qingdao
Qingdao
, China
China
(since 2005) * Salvador da Bahia , Brazil
Brazil
(since 2006) * Santiago , Chile
Chile
(since 1986) * Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(since 1987)

COOPERATION AGREEMENTS

* Lisbon
Lisbon
, Portugal
Portugal

SEE ALSO

* Book: Miami
Miami
* Book: Miami-Dade County, Florida
Miami-Dade County, Florida

* Miami Fire Department * Miami Police Department
Miami Police Department
* Miami port tunnel * National Register of Historic Places listings in Miami , Florida

* Geography portal * North America portal * United States
United States
portal * Florida
Florida
portal * Miami
Miami
portal * New Spain
Spain
portal

NOTES

* ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. * ^ Official records for Miami
Miami
were kept at the Lemon City from September 1895 to November 1900, the Miami
Miami
COOP from December 1900 to May 1911, the Weather Bureau Office from June 1911 to February 1937, at various locations in and around the city from March 1937 to July 1942, and at Miami
Miami
Int'l since August 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx.

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FURTHER READING

* Elizabeth M. Aranda, Sallie Hughes, and Elena Sabogal, _Making a Life in Multiethnic Miami: Immigration and the Rise of a Global City._ Boulder, Colorado: Renner, 2014.

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