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Mexican independence

First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
gains independence from Spain Signing of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire

Territorial changes Spain
Spain
loses the continental area of Viceroyalty of New Spain

Belligerents

Insurgents Army of the Three Guarantees
Army of the Three Guarantees
(1821)

Spanish Empire

Mexican royalists

Commanders and leaders

Miguel Hidalgo  (1810–11) Ignacio Allende  (1810–11) Ignacio López R. † (1810–11) José María Morelos  (1810–15) Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Guerrero
(1810–21) Mariano Matamoros  (1811–14) Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
(1812–21) Francisco Xavier Mina  (1817) Agustín de Iturbide (1821) Ferdinand VII Francisco Venegas (1810–13) Félix María Calleja (1813–16) Juan Ruiz de A. (1816–21) Francisco Novella (1821) Juan O'Donojú
Juan O'Donojú
(1821)

Strength

100,000 irregular 23,100 regular 17,000

Casualties and losses

2,000 killed

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Mexican War of Independence first stage (1810–1811)

Alhóndiga de Granaditas Puerto de Carroza Valladolid Monte de las Cruces Zacoalco Aculco Guadalajara Guanajuato Real del Rosario Tres Palos Aguanueva Urepetiro Calderon Bridge Puerto del Carnero San Ignacio de Piaxtla

v t e

Mexican War of Independence organizational phase (1811–1815)

Puerto de Piñones Zacatecas El Veladero El Maguey Llanos de Santa Juana Zitácuaro Tecualoya Tenancingo Cuautla Izúcar Huajuapan de León Tenango del Valle Escamela Zitlala Orizaba Oaxaca Rosillo Creek Acapulco La Chincúa Alazan Creek Medina Lomas de Santa María Puruarán Temalaca

v t e

Mexican War of Independence Resistance and Consummation Phases (1815–1821)

Cañada de Los Naranjos Valle de Maíz Soto la Marina Peotillos Los Arrastraderos Fuerte del Sombrero Cerro de Cóporo San Diego de la Unión El Tamo Cerro de Barrabás Agua Zarca Zapotepec Córdoba Azcapotzalco

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Spanish colonial campaigns

Canary Islands (1402–96) Guinea (1478) Morocco (1497) Orán (1509) Bugia (1510) Tripoli (1510) Djerba (1510) Algeria (1516) Algeria (1517–18) Djerba (1520) Mexico
Mexico
(1519–1821) Mexico
Mexico
(1519–21) Chiapas (1523–1695) Guatemala (1524–1697) Petén (1618–97) El Salvador (1524-39) Honduras (1524–39) Yucatán (1527–1697) Algeria (1529) Peru (1531–72) Tunisia (1534) Tunisia (1535) Chile (1536–1810) Colombia (1537-1540) Algeria (1541) Tunisia (1550) Libya (1551) Algeria (1555) Algeria (1556) Algeria (1558) Tunisia (1560) Algeria (1563) Philippines (1565–1900) Philippines (1567–1872) Tunisia (1574) Puerto Rico (1595) Cuba (1596) Puerto Rico (1598) Morocco (1614) Formosa (1626) St. Kitts (1629) Philippines (1646) Hispaniola (1655) Jamaica (1655) Canary Islands (1657) Jamaica (1657) Jamaica (1658) North America (1702–13) Chiloé (1712) Bahamas (1720) Banda Oriental
Banda Oriental
(1735–37) North America (1739–48) Sacramento (1762–63) Cuba (1762) Nicaragua (1762) Philippines (1762) Sacramento (1776–77) North America (1779–83) Americas (1796–1808) Río de la Plata (1806–07) Ecuador (1809) Peru (1811–24) Bolivia (1809–25) Florida (1810) Paraguay (1810–11) Argentina (1810–18) Mexico
Mexico
(1810–21) Chile (1810–26) El Salvador (1811) Uruguay (1811) Venezuela (1811–23) Colombia (1815–16) Colombia (1819–20) Ecuador (1820–22) Mexico
Mexico
(1821–29) Balanguingui (1848) Cochinchina (1858–62) Morocco (1859–60) Dominican Republic (1863–65) Chile/Peru (1864–66) Cuba (1868–78) Cuba (1879–80) Cuba (1895–98) Philippines (1896–98) Puerto Rico (1898) Guam (1898) Morocco (1920–26) Morocco (1957–58)

Part of a series on the

History of Mexico

Pre-Columbian

Spanish rule

Conquest Colonial period War of Independence First Empire

First Republic

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Second Federal Republic

La Reforma Reform War French intervention

1864–1928

Second Empire Restored Republic The Porfiriato Revolution La decena trágica Plan of Guadalupe Tampico Affair Occupation of Veracruz Cristero War

Modern

Maximato
Maximato
(1928–1934) Petroleum nationalization Mexican miracle Students of 1968 La Década Perdida 1982 economic crisis Chiapas conflict Mexican peso
Mexican peso
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Timeline

Mexico
Mexico
portal

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The Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
(Spanish: Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain
Spain
in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain
Spain
in 1808; it extended from the Grito de Dolores
Grito de Dolores
by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees
Army of the Three Guarantees
led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day. The movement for independence was inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions. By that time the educated elite of New Spain
Spain
had begun to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonial kingdoms. Changes in the social and political structure occasioned by Bourbon Reforms
Bourbon Reforms
and a deep economic crisis in New Spain
Spain
caused discomfort among the native-born Creole elite. The dramatic political events in Europe, the French Revolutionary Wars and the conquests of Napoleon
Napoleon
deeply influenced events in New Spain. In 1808, Charles IV and Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
were forced to abdicate in favor of the French Emperor, who then made his elder brother Joseph king. The same year, the ayuntamiento (city council) of Mexico
Mexico
City, supported by viceroy José de Iturrigaray, claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate king. That led to a coup against the viceroy; when it was suppressed, the leaders of the movement were jailed. Despite the defeat in Mexico
Mexico
City, small groups of rebels met in other cities of New Spain
Spain
to raise movements against colonial rule. In 1810, after being discovered, Querétaro
Querétaro
conspirators chose to take up arms on September 16 in the company of peasants and indigenous inhabitants of Dolores (Guanajuato), who were called to action by the secular Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo, former rector of the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo. After 1810 the independence movement went through several stages, as leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal to Spain. At first they[who?] recognized the sovereignty of Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
over Spain
Spain
and its colonies, but later the leaders took more radical positions, including such issues of social order as the abolition of slavery. Secular priest José María Morelos called the separatist provinces to form the Congress of Chilpancingo, which gave the insurgency its own legal framework. After the defeat of Morelos, the movement survived as a guerrilla war under the leadership of Vicente Guerrero. By 1820, the few rebel groups survived most notably in the Sierra Madre del Sur
Sierra Madre del Sur
and Veracruz. The reinstatement of the liberal Constitution of Cadiz
Constitution of Cadiz
in 1820 caused a change of mind among the elite groups who had supported Spanish rule. Monarchist Creoles affected by the constitution decided to support the independence of New Spain; they sought an alliance with the former insurgent resistance. Agustín de Iturbide led the military arm of the conspirators and in early 1821 he met Vicente Guerrero. Both proclaimed the Plan of Iguala, which called for the union of all insurgent factions and was supported by both the aristocracy and clergy of New Spain. It called for monarchy in an independent Mexico. Finally, the independence of Mexico
Mexico
was achieved on September 27, 1821. After that, the mainland of New Spain
Spain
was organized as the Mexican Empire. This ephemeral Catholic monarchy changed to a federal republic in 1823, due to internal conflicts and the separation of Central America from Mexico. After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas
Isidro Barradas
in 1829, Spain
Spain
under the rule of Isabella II recognized the independence of Mexico
Mexico
in 1836.

Contents

1 Background 2 First phase of the insurgency: the Hidalgo revolt 3 Second phase of the insurgency and independence 4 Construction of Historical Memory of Independence 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Background Mexican resistance and struggle for independence began with the brutal Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
when Spanish conquerors had considerable autonomy from crown control. Don Martín Cortés (son of Hernán Cortés), the second marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, led a conspiracy of holders of encomiendas against the Spanish crown after it sought to eliminate privileges for the conquistadors, particularly putting limitations on encomiendas.[1] After the suppression of that mid-16th-century conspiracy, elites raised no substantial challenge to royal rule until the Hidalgo revolt of 1810. Elites in Mexico
Mexico
City in the seventeenth century did force the removal of a reformist viceroy, the Marqués de Gelves, following an urban riot in 1624 fomented by those elites. He attempted to eliminate corrupt practices by creole elites as well as rein in the opulent displays of the clergy's power, but ecclesiastical authorities in conjunction with creole elites mobilized urban plebeians to oust the viceroy.[2][3] The crowd was reported to shout, "Long live the King! Love live Christ! Death to bad government! Death to the heretic Lutheran [ Viceroy
Viceroy
Gelves]! Arrest the viceroy!" The attack was against Gelves as a bad representative of the crown and not against the monarchy or colonial rule itself.[4] There was also a brief conspiracy in the mid-seventeenth century to unite creole elites, blacks, and indigenous against the Spanish crown and proclaim Mexican independence. The man pushing this notion called himself Don Guillén Lampart y Guzmán, an Irishman born William Lamport. Lamport's conspiracy was discovered, and he was arrested by the Inquisition
Inquisition
in 1642, and executed fifteen years later for sedition. There is a statue of Lamport in the mauseleum at the base of the Angel of Independence
Angel of Independence
in Mexico
Mexico
City. At the end of the seventeenth century, there was a major riot in Mexico
Mexico
City where a mob attempted to burn down the viceroy's palace and the archbishop's residence. A painting[clarification needed] by Cristóbal Villalpando shows the damage of the 1692 tumulto. Unlike the earlier one in 1624 in which elites were involved, the viceroy ousted, and no repercussions against the instigators, the 1692 riot was by plebeians alone and racially charged. The rioters attacked key symbols of Spanish power and shouted political slogans. "Kill the [American-born] Spaniards and the Gachupines [Iberian-born Spaniards] who eat our corn! We go to war happily! God wants us to finish off the Spaniards! We do not care if we die without confession! Is this not our land?"[5] The viceroy attempted to address the apparent cause of the riot, higher maize prices that affected the urban poor. But the 1692 riot "represented class warfare that put Spanish authority at risk. Punishment was swift and brutal, and no further riots in the capital challenged the Pax Hispanica."[6] The various indigenous rebellions in the colonial era were often to throw off crown rule, but they were not an independence movement as such. However, during the war of independence, issues at the local level in rural areas constituted what one historian has called "the other rebellion."[7] American-born Spaniards in New Spain
Spain
developed a special understanding and ties to their New World homeland, what has been seen the formation of Creole patriotism. They did not, however, pursue political independence from Spain
Spain
until the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula and defeat of Spain
Spain
destabilized the monarchy.[8][9] With the implementation of the Bourbon Reforms
Bourbon Reforms
starting in the mid-eighteenth century, the Spanish crown sought to impose restrictions on creole elites. In the early 19th century, Napoleon's occupation of Spain
Spain
led to an outbreak of numerous revolts against colonial government across Spanish America. After the abortive Conspiracy of the Machetes in 1799, a massive revolt in the Bajío
Bajío
region was led by secular cleric Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo
y Costilla.[10] His Grito de Dolores
Grito de Dolores
was the first stage of the insurgency for Mexican independence.[10][11] Before 1810, there was no significant support for independence. Once the Hidalgo revolt was underway, it received major support only in the Bajío
Bajío
and parts of Jalisco.[12] First phase of the insurgency: the Hidalgo revolt See also: Cry of Dolores Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo
y Costilla, a priest and member of a group of educated Criollos in Querétaro
Querétaro
City, hosted secret gatherings in his home to discuss whether it was better to obey or to revolt against a tyrannical government, as he defined the Spanish colonial government in Mexico. Famed military leader Ignacio Allende
Ignacio Allende
was among the attendees. In 1810 Hidalgo concluded that a revolt was needed because of injustices against the poor of Mexico. By this time Hidalgo was known for his achievements at the prestigious San Nicolás Obispo school in Valladolid (now Morelia), and later service there as rector. He also became known as a top theologian. When his older brother died in 1803, Hidalgo took over as priest for the town of Dolores.[13]

Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo
y Costilla, by José Clemente Orozco, Jalisco Governmental Palace, Guadalajara

Hidalgo was in Dolores on 15 September 1810, with other rebel leaders including commander Allende, when they learned their conspiracy had been discovered. Hidalgo ran to the church, calling for all the people to gather, where from the pulpit he called upon them to revolt. They all shouted in agreement. The people were a comparatively small group, and poorly armed with whatever was at hand, including sticks and rocks. On the morning of 16 September 1810, Hidalgo called upon the remaining locals who happened to be in the market, and again, from the pulpit, exhorted the people of Dolores to join him. Most did: Hidalgo had a mob of some 600 men within minutes. This became known as the Grito de Dolores
Grito de Dolores
or Cry of Dolores. Hidalgo and Allende marched their little army through towns including San Miguel and Celaya, where the angry rebels killed all the Spaniards they found. Along the way they adopted the standard of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their symbol and protector. When they reached the town of Guanajuato
Guanajuato
on September 28, they found Spanish forces barricaded inside the public granary. Among them were some 'forced' Royalists, creoles who had served and sided with the Spanish. By this time, the rebels numbered 30,000 and the battle was horrific. They killed more than 500 Spanish and creoles, and marched on toward Mexico
Mexico
City. The Viceroy
Viceroy
quickly organized a defense, sending out the Spanish general Torcuato Trujillo with 1,000 men, 400 horsemen, and 2 cannons - all that could be found on such short notice. On October 30, Hidalgo's army encountered Spanish military resistance at the Battle of Monte de las Cruces, fought them, and achieved victory. When the cannons were captured by the rebels, the surviving Royalists retreated to the City. Despite having the advantage, Hidalgo retreated, against the counsel of Allende. This retreat, on the verge of apparent victory, has puzzled historians and biographers ever since. They generally believe that Hidalgo wanted to spare the numerous Mexican citizens in Mexico City from the inevitable sacking and plunder that would have ensued. His retreat is considered Hidalgo's greatest tactical error.[13]

Father José María Morelos

Rebel survivors sought refuge in nearby provinces and villages. The insurgent forces planned a defensive strategy at a bridge on the Calderón River, pursued by the Spanish army. In January 1811, Spanish forces fought the Battle of the Bridge of Calderón
Battle of the Bridge of Calderón
and defeated the insurgent army, forcing the rebels to flee towards the United States–Mexican border, where they hoped to escape.[14] But they were intercepted by the Spanish army. Hidalgo and his remaining soldiers were captured in the state of Coahuila
Coahuila
at the Wells of Baján (Norias de Baján). All of the rebel leaders were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death, except for Mariano Abasolo. He was sent to Spain
Spain
to serve a life sentence in prison. Allende, Jiménez and Aldama were executed on 26 June 1811, shot in the back as a sign of dishonor. Hidalgo, as a priest, had to undergo a civil trial and review by the Inquisition. He was eventually stripped of his priesthood, found guilty, and executed on 30 July. The heads of Hidalgo, Allende, Aldama and Jiménez were preserved and hung from the four corners of the granary of Guanajuato
Guanajuato
as a warning to those who dared follow in their footsteps. Following the execution of Hidalgo, José María Morelos took over leadership of the insurgency. He achieved the occupation of the cities of Oaxaca
Oaxaca
and Acapulco. In 1813, he convened the Congress of Chilpancingo to bring representatives together and, on 6 November of that year, the Congress signed the first official document of independence, known as the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America". A long period of war followed in the Siege of Cuautla. In 1815, Morelos was captured by Spanish colonial authorities, tried and executed for treason.[15] Second phase of the insurgency and independence From 1815 to 1821 most of the fighting for independence from Spain
Spain
was done by small and isolated guerrilla bands. From these, two leaders arose: Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
(born José Miguel Fernández y Félix) in Puebla
Puebla
and Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Guerrero
in Oaxaca, both of whom gained allegiance and respect from their followers. Believing the situation under control, the Spanish viceroy issued a general pardon to every rebel who would lay down his arms. After ten years of civil war and the death of two of its founders, by early 1820 the independence movement was stalemated and close to collapse. The rebels faced stiff Spanish military resistance and the apathy of many of the most influential criollos.[16]

Oil painting of Agustín de Iturbide, leader of independence who was declared Emperor Augustín I, in 1822 following independence

In what was supposed to be the final government campaign against the insurgents, in December 1820, Viceroy
Viceroy
Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent a force led by a royalist criollo Colonel Agustín de Iturbide, to defeat Guerrero's army in Oaxaca. Iturbide, a native of Valladolid (now Morelia), had gained renown for his zeal against Hidalgo's and Morelos's rebels during the early independence struggle. A favorite of the Mexican church hierarchy, Iturbide symbolized conservative criollo values; he was devoutly religious, and committed to the defense of property rights and social privileges. He also resented his lack of promotion and failure to gain wealth.[17] Iturbide's assignment to the Oaxaca
Oaxaca
expedition coincided with a successful military coup in Spain
Spain
against the monarchy of Ferdinand VII. The coup leaders, part of an expeditionary force assembled to suppress the independence movements in the Americas, had turned against the monarchy. They compelled the reluctant Ferdinand to reinstate the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812
Spanish Constitution of 1812
that created a constitutional monarchy. When news of the liberal charter reached Mexico, Iturbide perceived it both as a threat to the status quo and a catalyst to rouse the criollos to gain control of Mexico. Independence was achieved when conservative Royalist forces in the colonies chose to rise up against the liberal regime in Spain; it was an about-face compared to their previous opposition to the peasant insurgency. After an initial clash with Guerrero's forces, Iturbide assumed command of the royal army. At Iguala, he allied his formerly royalist force with Guerrero’s radical insurgents to discuss the renewed struggle for independence.

Portrait of Vicente Guerrero, mixed-race guerrilla leader of independence and later president of Mexico

While stationed in the town of Iguala, Iturbide proclaimed three principles, or "guarantees," for Mexican independence from Spain. Mexico
Mexico
would be an independent monarchy governed by King Ferdinand, another Bourbon prince, or some other conservative European prince; criollos would be given equal rights and privileges to peninsulares; and the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico
Roman Catholic Church in Mexico
would retain its privileges and position as the established religion of the land. After convincing his troops to accept the principles, which were promulgated on February 24, 1821 as the Plan of Iguala, Iturbide persuaded Guerrero to join his forces in support of this conservative independence movement. A new army, the Army of the Three Guarantees, was placed under Iturbide's command to enforce the Plan of Iguala. The plan was so broadly based that it pleased both patriots and loyalists. The goal of independence and the protection of Roman Catholicism brought together all factions.[18] Iturbide's army was joined by rebel forces from all over Mexico. When the rebels' victory became certain, the Viceroy
Viceroy
resigned. On August 24, 1821, representatives of the Spanish crown and Iturbide signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized Mexican independence under the Plan of Iguala.[19] On September 27, 1821 the Army of the Three Guarantees entered Mexico
Mexico
City, and the following day Iturbide proclaimed the independence of the Mexican Empire, as New Spain
Spain
was henceforth to be called. The Treaty of Córdoba
Treaty of Córdoba
was not ratified by the Spanish Cortes. Iturbide included a special clause in the treaty that left open the possibility for a criollo monarch to be appointed by a Mexican congress if no suitable member of the European royalty would accept the Mexican crown. Half of the new government employees appointed were Iturbide's followers.[20] On the night of the May 18, 1822, a mass demonstration led by the Regiment of Celaya, which Iturbide had commanded during the war, marched through the streets and demanded their commander-in-chief to accept the throne. The following day, the congress declared Iturbide emperor of Mexico. On October 31, 1822 Iturbide dissolved Congress and replaced it with a sympathetic junta.[21] Construction of Historical Memory of Independence See also: Celebration of Mexican political anniversaries in 2010

Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees

Flag of the Mexican Empire of Iturbide, the template for the modern Mexican flag with the eagle perched on a cactus. The crown on the eagle's head symbolizes monarchy in Mexico.

In 1910, as part of the celebrations marking the centennial of the Hidalgo revolt of 1810, President Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
inaugurated the monument to Mexico's political separation from Spain, the Angel of Independence on Avenida Reforma. The creation of this architectural monument is part of the long process of the construction of historical memory of Mexican independence. Although Mexico
Mexico
gained its independence in September 1821, the marking of this historical event did not take hold immediately. The choice of date to celebrate was problematic, because Iturbide, who achieved independence from Spain, was rapidly created emperor of Mexico. His short-lived reign from 1821–22 ended when he was forced by the military to abdicate. This was a rocky start for the new nation, which made celebrating independence on the anniversary of Iturbide's Army of the Three Guarantees marching into Mexico
Mexico
City in triumph a less than perfect day for those who had opposed him. Celebrations of independence during his reign were marked on September 27. Following his ouster, there were calls to commemorate Mexican independence along the lines that the United States celebrated in grand style its Independence Day on July 4. The creation of a committee of powerful men to mark independence celebrations, the Junta Patriótica, organized celebrations of both September 16, to commemorate Hidalgo's grito and the start of the independence insurgency, and September 27, to celebrate actual political independence.[22] During the Díaz regime (1876–1911), the president's birthday coincided with the September 15/16 celebration of independence. The largest celebrations took place and continue to do so in the capital's main square, the zócalo, with the peeling of the Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico
Mexico
City's bells. In the 1880s, government officials attempted to move the bell that Hidalgo rang in 1810 to gather parishioners in Dolores for what became his famous "grito". Initially the pueblo's officials said the bell no longer existed, but in 1896, the bell, known as the Bell of San José, was taken to the capital. It was renamed the "Bell of Independence" and ritually rung by Díaz. It is now an integral part of Independence Day festivities.[23] See also

Spanish American wars of independence
Spanish American wars of independence
portal Mexico
Mexico
portal

Afro- Mexicans
Mexicans
in the Mexican War of Independence List of wars involving Mexico Spanish attempts to reconquer Mexico

References

^ John Charles Chasteen. Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. New York, Norton, 2001. ISBN 978-0-393-97613-7 ^ Ida Altman, Sarah Cline, and Javier Pescador, The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall 2003, pp. 246-247. ^ Jonathan I. Israel. Race, Class, and Politics in Colonial Mexico, 1610-1670. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1975. ^ Altman et al, The Early History of Greater Mexico, p. 247. ^ quoted in Altman et al, The Early History of Greater Mexico, p. 248. ^ Altman et al, The Early History of Greater Mexico, p. 249. ^ Eric Van Young, The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle for Independence, 1810-1821. Stanford: Stanfor University Press 2001. ^ D.A. Brading, The First America: the Spanish Monarchy, Creole Patriots, and the Liberal State, 1492-1867. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press 1991. ^ John Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750-1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1986. ^ a b Hugh Hamill, The Hidalgo Revolt. Gainesville: University of Florida Press 1966, pp. 90-94. ^ John Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution, pp. 126-138. ^ Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution, pp. 138-183. ^ a b Robert Harvey (2000). Liberators: Latin America's Struggle For Independence. Woodstock: The Overlook Press.  ^ Philip Young. History of Mexico: Her Civil Wars and Colonial and Revolutionary Annals. Gardners Books, [1847] 2007, pp. 84-86. ISBN 978-0-548-32604-6 ^ Leslie Bethell (1987). The Independence of Latin America. Cambridge University Press. p. 65.  ^ Timothy J. Henderson (2009). The Mexican Wars for Independence. pp. 115–16.  ^ .Christon I. Archer, "Royalist Scourge or Liberator of the Patria? Agustín de Iturbide and Mexico's War of Independence, 1810-1821," Mexican Studies / Estudios Mexicanos (2008) 24#2 pp 325-361 ^ Michael S. Werner (2001). Concise Encyclopedia of Mexico. Taylor & Francis. pp. 308–9.  ^ Nettie Lee Benson (1992). The Provincial Deputation in Mexico: Harbinger of Provincial Autonomy, Independence, and Federalism. University of Texas Press. p. 42.  ^ Philip Russell (2011). The History of Mexico: From Pre-Conquest to Present. Routledge. p. 132.  ^ Christon I. Archer (2007). The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780-1824. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 220.  ^ Michael Costeloe, "The Junta Patriótica and the Celebration of Independence in Mexico
Mexico
City, 1825-1855" in !Viva Mexico! !Viva la Independencia! Celebrations of September 16, eds. William H. Beezley and David E. Lorey. Wilmington: SR Books 2001, pp. 44-45. ^ Isabel Fernández Tejedo and Carmen Nava Nava, "Images of Independence in the Nineteenth Century: The 'Grito de Dolores', History and Myth" in !Viva Mexico! !Viva la Independencia! Celebrations of September 16, eds. William H. Beezley and David E. Lorey. Wilmington: SR Books 2001, pp. 33-34.

Further reading

Anna, Timothy E. (1978). The Fall of Royal Government in Mexico
Mexico
City. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-0957-6.  Beezley, William H. and David E. Lorey, eds. !Viva Mexico! !Viva la Independencia!: Celebrations of September 16. Wilmington DL: Scholarly Resources Books 2001. Benjamin, Thomas. (2000). Revolución: Mexico's Great Revolution as Memory, Myth, and History (University of Texas Press). ISBN 978-0-292-70880-8 Christon I. Archer, ed. (2003). The Birth of Modern Mexico. Willmington, Delaware: SR Books. ISBN 0-8420-5126-0.  Dominguez, Jorge. Insurrection or Loyalty: the Breakdown of the Spanish American Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1980. García, Pedro. Con el cura Hidalgo en la guerra de independencia en México. Mexico
Mexico
City: Fondo de Cultura Económica 1982. Hamill, Jr. Hugh M. "Early Psychological Warfare in the Hidalgo Revolt," Hispanic American Historical Review (1961) 41#2 pp. 206–235 in JSTOR Hamill, Hugh M. (1966). The Hidalgo Revolt: Prelude to Mexican Independence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.  Hamnett, Brian R. (1986). Roots of Insurgency: Mexican Regions, 1750–1824. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521-3214-88.  Hamnett, Brian. "Royalist Counterinsurgency and the Continuity of Rebellion: Guanajuato
Guanajuato
and Michoacán, 1813-1820" Hispanic American Historical Review 62(1)February 1982, pp. 19–48. Knight, Alan (2002). Mexico: The Colonial Era. Cambridge University Press.  Timmons, Wilbert H. (1963). Morelos: Priest, Soldier, Statesman of Mexico. El Paso: Texas Western College Press.  Jaime E. Rodríguez O, ed. (1989). The Independence of Mexico
Mexico
and the Creation of the New Nation. UCLA Latin American Studies. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications. ISBN 978-0-87903-070-4.  Tutino, John. From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750-1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1986.

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Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru (Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their free

.