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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

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Lorraine

Flag of Lorraine
Lorraine
since the 13th century

History

Mediomatrici
Mediomatrici
& Leuci Gallia Belgica Lotharingia

Duchy of Lorraine Duchy of Bar Three Bishoprics

German Empire
German Empire
Lorraine
Lorraine
department Third Reich
Third Reich
Lorraine
Lorraine
department Lorraine
Lorraine
region Grand Est

Culture

Coat of arms Flag Symbol People Languages

Lorrain Lorraine
Lorraine
Franconian Low Alemannic

Demographics Musée lorrain

Religion

Roman Catholicism:

Diocese of Metz (Immediately subject to the Holy See) Diocese of Nancy Diocese of Saint-Dié Diocese of Verdun

Protestantism:

Union of Protestant
Protestant
Churches of Alsace and Lorraine
Lorraine
(Moselle) United Protestant
Protestant
Church of France
France
(rest of Lorraine)

Jewish
Jewish
consistories:

Metz Nancy

Law

Local law in Alsace-Moselle

Concordat in Alsace-Moselle
Concordat in Alsace-Moselle
(1801)

Administrative divisions

Meurthe-et-Moselle
Meurthe-et-Moselle
(54)

Capital: Nancy Arrondissement of Briey Arrondissement of Lunéville Arrondissement of Nancy Arrondissement of Toul

Meuse (55)

Capital: Bar-le-Duc Arrondissement of Bar-le-Duc Arrondissement of Commercy Arrondissement of Verdun

Moselle
Moselle
(Lothringen, 57)

Capital: Metz Arrondissement of Forbach-Boulay-Moselle Arrondissement of Metz Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins Arrondissement of Sarreguemines Arrondissement of Thionville

Vosges (88)

Capital: Épinal Arrondissement of Épinal Arrondissement of Neufchâteau Arrondissement of Saint-Dié

Lorraine
Lorraine
in the EU

European Parliament elections

Constituency

Related topics

Politics of France Politics of Germany Politics of the European Union

Lorraine
Lorraine
portal

v t e

Metz
Metz
(French pronunciation: [mɛs] ( listen), Lorraine Franconian pronunciation: [mɛts]) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle
Moselle
and the Seille rivers. Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle
Moselle
department and the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est
Grand Est
region.[1][2] Located near the tripoint along the junction of France, Germany, and Luxembourg,[3] the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux
SaarLorLux
euroregion.[4] Metz
Metz
has a rich 3,000-year-history,[5] having variously been a Celtic oppidum, an important Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
city,[6] the Merovingian
Merovingian
capital of Austrasia,[7] the birthplace of the Carolingian dynasty,[8] a cradle of the Gregorian chant,[9] and one of the oldest republics in Europe.[10] The city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has been strongly influenced by Germanic culture due to its location and history.[11] Because of its historical, cultural, and architectural background, Metz
Metz
has been submitted on France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List.[12][13][14] The city features noteworthy buildings such as the Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral with its largest expanse of stained-glass windows in the world,[15][16] the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains being the oldest church in France,[17] its Imperial Station Palace displaying the apartment of the German Kaiser,[18] or its Opera House, the oldest one working in France.[19] Metz
Metz
is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz
Centre Pompidou-Metz
museum. A basin of urban ecology,[20][21] Metz
Metz
gained its nickname of The Green City (French: La Ville Verte),[22] as it has extensive open grounds and public gardens.[23] The historic city centre is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France.[24][25] A historic garrison town, Metz
Metz
is the economic heart of the Lorraine region, specialising in information technology and automotive industries. Metz
Metz
is home to the University of Lorraine
Lorraine
and a centre for applied research and development in the materials sector, notably in metallurgy and metallography,[26] the heritage of the Lorraine region's past in the iron and steel industry.[27]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Notable people

5 Law
Law
and government

5.1 Local law 5.2 Administration 5.3 City administrative divisions

6 Cityscape and environmental policy

6.1 Architecture 6.2 Urban ecology 6.3 Military architecture

7 Economy 8 Culture

8.1 Museums and exhibition halls 8.2 Entertainment and performing arts 8.3 Metz
Metz
in the arts 8.4 The Graoully
Graoully
dragon as symbol of the city 8.5 Cuisine 8.6 Celebrations and events

9 Sports 10 Education

10.1 High schools 10.2 University of Lorraine 10.3 Graduate schools

11 Transport

11.1 Local transport 11.2 Railways 11.3 Motorways 11.4 Airports 11.5 Waterways

12 Main sights

12.1 Religious heritage 12.2 Civil heritage 12.3 Administrative heritage 12.4 Military heritage

13 International relations 14 Notes and references

Etymology[edit] In ancient times, the town was known as "city of Mediomatrici", being inhabited by the tribe of the same name.[28] After its integration into the Roman Empire, the city was called Divodurum Mediomatricum, meaning Holy Village or Holy Fortress of the Mediomatrici,[29] then it was known as Mediomatrix.[28] During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to "Mettis", which gave rise to Metz.[28] History[edit] Main articles: History of Metz
History of Metz
and Timeline of Metz

Henry II of France
France
entering Metz
Metz
in 1552, putting an end to the Republic
Republic
of Metz.

Metz
Metz
has a recorded history dating back over 3,000 years. Before the conquest of Gaul
Gaul
by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 52 BC, it was the oppidum of the Celtic Mediomatrici
Mediomatrici
tribe.[5] Integrated into the Roman Empire, Metz became quickly one of the principal towns of Gaul
Gaul
with a population of 40,000,[6] until the barbarian depredations and its transfer to the Franks
Franks
about the end of the 5th century.[5][30][31] Between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city was the residence of the Merovingian
Merovingian
kings of Austrasia.[7] After the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
in 843, Metz
Metz
became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
and was ultimately integrated into the Holy Roman Empire, being granted semi-independent status.[5] During the 12th century, Metz
Metz
became a republic and the Republic
Republic
of Metz
Metz
stood until the 15th century.[10] With the signature of the Treaty of Chambord
Treaty of Chambord
in 1552, Metz
Metz
passed to the hands of the Kings of France.[5][32] Under French rule, Metz
Metz
was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
and became a strategic fortified town.[5][33] With creation of the departments by the Estates-General of 1789, Metz
Metz
was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle.[5] After the defeat of France
France
during the Franco-Prussian War and according to the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871, the city was annexed into the German Empire, being part of the Imperial Territory of Alsace- Lorraine
Lorraine
and serving as capital of the German Department of Lorraine.[34] Metz
Metz
remained German until the end of World War I, when it reverted to France.[35] However, after the Battle of France
France
during the Second World War, the city was annexed once more by the German Third Reich.[5] In 1944, the attack on the city by the U.S. Third Army freed the city from German rule and Metz
Metz
reverted one more time to France after World War II.[36][37] During the 1950s, Metz
Metz
was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine
Lorraine
region.[38] With the creation of the European Community and the later European Union, the city has become central to the Greater Region and the SaarLorLux
SaarLorLux
Euroregion.[38] Geography[edit]

Dawn sky in Metz

Metz
Metz
is located on the banks of the Moselle
Moselle
and the Seille rivers, 43 km (26.7 mi) from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France, Germany, and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
meet.[3] The city was built in a place where many branches of the Moselle
Moselle
river creates several islands, which are encompassed within the urban planning.[39] The terrain of Metz
Metz
forms part of the Paris Basin
Paris Basin
and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction.[40] Metz
Metz
and its surrounding countryside are included in the forest and crop Lorraine
Lorraine
Regional Natural Park, covering a total area of 205,000 ha (506,566.0 acres).[41] Climate[edit] The climate of Lorraine
Lorraine
is a semi-continental climate.[42] The summers are warm and humid, sometimes stormy, and the warmest month of the year is July, when daytime temperatures average approximately 25 °C (77.0 °F). The winters are cold and snowy with temperature dropping to an average low of −0.5 °C (31.1 °F) in January. Lows can be much colder through the night and early morning and the snowy period extends from November to February.[43] The length of the day varies significantly over the course of the year.[44] The shortest day is 21 December with 7:30 hours of sunlight; the longest day is 20 June with 16:30 hours of sunlight. The median cloud cover is 93% and does not vary substantially over the course of the year.[43]

Climate data for Metz, France
France
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 20.8 (69.4) 24.3 (75.7) 29.6 (85.3) 32.4 (90.3) 37.7 (99.9) 37.3 (99.1) 39.5 (103.1) 34.0 (93.2) 26.8 (80.2) 22.3 (72.1) 18.1 (64.6) 39.5 (103.1)

Average high °C (°F) 4.8 (40.6) 6.5 (43.7) 11.0 (51.8) 15.0 (59) 19.5 (67.1) 22.7 (72.9) 25.3 (77.5) 24.8 (76.6) 20.4 (68.7) 15.1 (59.2) 9.0 (48.2) 5.5 (41.9) 15.0 (59)

Average low °C (°F) −0.5 (31.1) −0.4 (31.3) 2.4 (36.3) 4.7 (40.5) 8.9 (48) 12.0 (53.6) 14.0 (57.2) 13.6 (56.5) 10.4 (50.7) 7.1 (44.8) 3.2 (37.8) 0.7 (33.3) 6.4 (43.5)

Record low °C (°F) −20.1 (−4.2) −23.2 (−9.8) −15.3 (4.5) −5.1 (22.8) −2.5 (27.5) 1.9 (35.4) 4.3 (39.7) 3.9 (39) −1.1 (30) −6.2 (20.8) −11.7 (10.9) −17.0 (1.4) −23.2 (−9.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.2 (2.528) 57.1 (2.248) 61.8 (2.433) 50.5 (1.988) 58.9 (2.319) 61.7 (2.429) 63.7 (2.508) 61.1 (2.406) 63.8 (2.512) 71.9 (2.831) 63.9 (2.516) 79.2 (3.118) 757.8 (29.835)

Average precipitation days 11.5 9.6 11.5 9.3 10.2 9.8 9.2 9.1 8.8 11.0 11.2 11.8 123.0

Average snowy days 7.8 6.3 4.6 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3.0 5.7 29.5

Average relative humidity (%) 87 82 78 73 74 74 73 76 81 87 87 88 80

Mean monthly sunshine hours 53.6 77.6 125.8 178.1 201.6 218.6 225.6 213.1 158.1 98.4 48.5 41.3 1,640.4

Source #1: Météo France[45][46]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[47]

Demographics[edit]

Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
by Edmond Aman-Jean, 1892, oil on canvas, Golden Courtyard museums

Metz
Metz
with its magnificent open countries, prolific undulating rivers, wooded hillsides, vineyards of fire; cathedral all in volute, where the wind sings as a flute, and responding to it via the Mutte: this big voice of the good Lord![48] — Paul Verlaine, Ode to Metz, Invectives, 1896

Population[edit] The inhabitants of Metz
Metz
are called Messin(e)s. Statistics on the ethnic and religious make up of the population of Metz
Metz
are haphazard, as the French Republic
Republic
prohibits making distinctions between citizens regarding race, beliefs, and political and philosophic opinions in the process of census taking.[49] The French national census of 2012 estimated the population of Metz
Metz
to be 119,551, while the population of Metz
Metz
urban agglomeration was about 389,851.[50] Through history, Metz's population has been impacted by the vicissitudes of the wars and annexations involving the city, which have prevented continuous population growth. More recently, the city has suffered from the restructuring of the military and the metallurgy industry.[51] The historical population for the current area of Metz municipality is as follows:[52][53][54]

Year 1793 1800 1806 1821 1836 1841 1861 1871 1880 1890 1900

Number of inhabitants 36,878 32,099 39,131 42,030 42,793 39,767 56,888 51,332 53,131 60,186 58,462

Year 1910 1921 1931 1946 1962 1975 1982 1990 1999 2009 2014

Number of inhabitants 68,598 62,311 78,767 70,105 102,771 111,869 114,232 119,594 123,776 121,841 117,619

Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Metz Several well-known figures have been linked to the city of Metz throughout its history. Renowned Messins include poet Paul Verlaine,[55] composer Ambroise Thomas, and mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet; numerous well-known German figures were also born in Metz notably during the annexation periods. Moreover, the city has been the residence of people such as writer François Rabelais, Cardinal Mazarin, political thinker Alexis de Tocqueville, French patriot and American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
hero Marquis Gilbert du Motier de La Fayette, and Luxembourg-born German-French statesman Robert Schuman. Law
Law
and government[edit] Local law[edit] Main article: Local law in Alsace-Moselle The Local Law
Law
(French: droit local) applied in Metz
Metz
is a legal system that operates in parallel with French law. Created in 1919, it preserves the French laws applied in France
France
before 1870 and maintained by the Germans during the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, but repealed in the rest of France
France
after 1871. It also maintains German laws enacted by the German Empire
German Empire
between 1871 and 1918, specific provisions adopted by the local authorities, and French laws that have been enacted after 1919 to be applicable only in Alsace-Lorraine. This specific local legislation encompasses different areas including religion, social work and finance. The most striking of the legal differences between France
France
and Alsace- Lorraine
Lorraine
is the absence in Alsace- Lorraine
Lorraine
of strict secularism, even though a constitutional right of freedom of religion is guaranteed by the French government. Alsace- Lorraine
Lorraine
is still governed by a pre-1905 law established by the Concordat of 1801, which provides for the public subsidy of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist churches and the Jewish
Jewish
religion. Administration[edit]

The city hall on the Place d'Armes.

Like every commune of the present French Republic, Metz
Metz
is managed by a mayor (French: maire) and a municipal council (French: conseil municipal), democratically elected by two-round proportional voting for six years.[56] The mayor is assisted by 54 municipal councillors,[57] and the municipal council is held on the last Thursday of every month.[58][59] Since 2008,[60] the mayor of Metz
Metz
has been socialist Dominique Gros.[61] The city belongs to the Metz
Metz
Metropole union of cities, which includes the 40 cities of the Metz
Metz
urban agglomeration.[62] Metz
Metz
is the prefecture of the Moselle
Moselle
based in the former Intendant
Intendant
Palace.[38] In addition, Metz
Metz
is the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est
Grand Est
region, hosted in the former Saint-Clement Abbey. City administrative divisions[edit] The city of Metz
Metz
is divided into 14 administrative divisions:[63]

Number District Sights Location

1 Devant-les-Ponts Desvalliere barracks

2 Metz-Nord Patrotte Harbour zone

3 Les îles Grand East regional parliament, University of Lorraine, Fabert High School, Cogeneration
Cogeneration
Plant

4 Plantières-Queuleu Queuleu Fort, Museum of Resistance and Deportation of Metz

5 Bellecroix Bellecroix Fort

6 Metz-Vallières Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
private hospital

7 Borny University of Lorraine, Contemporary Music Venue

8 Grigy-Technopôle Metz
Metz
Science Park, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, University of Lorraine, Georgia Tech Lorraine, Supélec

9 Grange aux Bois Trade Fair Center, Regional Hospital of Metz-Thionville

10 Sablon Centre Pompidou-Metz, Indoor Sports Arena, Caisse d'Épargne regional headquarters, Metz-Metropole Conference Centre Hall (project)

11 Magny Saint-Clement and Leusiotte woods

12 Nouvelle Ville Imperial Station-Palace, INSEE and Banque Populaire regional headquarters, Central Post Office, Chamber of Commerce

13 Metz
Metz
Centre City Hall, Prefecture, Diocese of Metz
Metz
and Saint-Stephen Cathedral, Arsenal Concert Hall, Opera House

14 Ancienne Ville Golden Courtyard Museum, Regional Contemporary Art Fund of Lorraine, Jazz
Jazz
Concert Venue

Cityscape and environmental policy[edit]

Street in old city

Metz
Metz
contains a mishmash of architectural layers, bearing witness to centuries of history at the crossroads of different cultures,[64] and features a number of architectural landmarks.[65] The city possesses one of the largest Urban Conservation Areas in France,[66] and more than 100 of the city's buildings are classified on the Monument Historique list.[67] Because of its historical and cultural background, Metz
Metz
is designated as French Town of Art and History, and has been submitted on to France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List.[68][69] The city is famous for its yellow limestone architecture, a result of the extensive use of Jaumont stone.[65][70] The historic district has kept part of the Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
city with Divodurum's Cardo
Cardo
Maximus, then called Via Scarponensis (today the Trinitaires, Taison, and Serpenoise streets), and the Decumanus Maximus
Decumanus Maximus
(today En Fournirue and d'Estrées streets).[71] At the Cardo
Cardo
and Decumanus intersection was situated the Roman forum, today the Saint-Jacques Square. Architecture[edit]

The Centre Pompidou-Metz, a symbol of modern Metz

The Music Box, a high-quality concert and recording studio venue dedicated to the modern forms of art music, in the Borny District. The venue has been erected in a cité HLM
HLM
as an urban renewal effort

From its Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
past, the city preserves vestiges of the thermae (in the basement of the Golden Courtyard museum), parts of the aqueduct,[72] and the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains.[17] Saint Louis' square with its vaulted arcades and a Knights Templar chapel remains a major symbol of the city's High Medieval heritage. The Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral, several churches and Hôtels, and two remarkable municipal granaries reflect the Late Middle Ages.[16][73][74][75][76] Examples of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture can be seen in Hôtels from the 16th century, such as the House of Heads (French: Maison des Têtes).[65] The city hall and the buildings surrounding the town square are by French architect Jacques-François Blondel, who was awarded the task of redesigning and modernizing the centre of Metz
Metz
by the Royal Academy of Architecture in 1755 the context of the Enlightenment.[77][78] Neoclassical buildings from the 18th century, such as the Opera House,[19] the Intendant
Intendant
Palace (the present-day prefecture),[79] and the Royal Governor's Palace (the present-day courthouse) built by Charles-Louis Clérisseau, are also found in the city.[65] The Imperial District was built during the first annexation of Metz
Metz
by the German Empire.[80] In order to "germanise" the city, Emperor Wilhelm II decided to create a new district shaped by a distinctive blend of Germanic architecture, including Renaissance, neo-Romanesque and neo-Classical, mixed with elements of Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Alsatian and mock-Bavarian styles.[80] Instead of Jaumont stone, commonly used everywhere else in the city, stone used in the Rhineland, such as pink and grey sandstone, granite and basalt were used.[80] The district features noteworthy buildings including the rail station and the Central Post Office by German architect Jürgen Kröger.[18] Modern architecture
Modern architecture
can also be seen in the town with works of French architects Roger-Henri Expert
Roger-Henri Expert
(Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus church, 1934), Georges-Henri Pingusson
Georges-Henri Pingusson
(Fire Station, 1960), and Jean Dubuisson (subdivisions, 1960s).[69][81][82] The refurbishment of the former Ney Arsenal as a Concert Hall in 1989 and the erection of the Metz
Metz
Arena in 2002, by Spanish and French architects Ricardo Bofill and French Paul Chemetov
Paul Chemetov
represent the Postmodern movement.[65] The Centre Pompidou-Metz
Centre Pompidou-Metz
museum in the Amphitheatre District represents a strong architectural initiative to mark the entrance of Metz
Metz
into the 21st century.[83] Designed by Japanese architect Shigeru Ban, the building is remarkable for the complex, innovative carpentry of its roof,[84][85] and integrates concepts of sustainable architecture. The project encompasses the architecture of two recipients of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, Shigeru Ban
Shigeru Ban
(2014) and French Christian de Portzamparc
Christian de Portzamparc
(1994). The Amphitheatre District is also conceived by French architects Nicolas Michelin, Jean-Paul Viguier, and Jean-Michel Wilmotte
Jean-Michel Wilmotte
and designer Philippe Starck.[86] The urban project is expected to be completed by 2023.[86][87] Further, a contemporary music venue designed by contextualist French architect Rudy Ricciotti stands in the Borny District.[88] Urban ecology[edit]

Water games on the Islands District

Under the leadership of such people as botanist Jean-Marie Pelt, Metz pioneered a policy of urban ecology during the early 1970s.[20] Because of the failure of post-war urban planning and housing estate development in Europe
Europe
during the 1960s, mostly based on the concepts of CIAM,[89][90][91] Jean-Marie Pelt, then municipal councillor of Metz, initiated a new approach to the urban environment.[21] Based initially on the ideas of the Chicago School, Pelt's theories pleaded for better integration of humans into their environment and developed a concept centered on the relationship between "stone and water".[20][92][93] His policy was realized in Metz
Metz
by the establishment of extensive open areas surrounding the Moselle
Moselle
and the Seille rivers and the development of large pedestrian areas. As a result, Metz
Metz
has over 37 m2 (400 sq ft) of open areas per inhabitant in the form of numerous public gardens in the city.[23] The principles of urban ecology are still applied in Metz
Metz
with the implementation of a local Agenda 21
Agenda 21
action plan.[25] The municipal ecological policy encompasses the sustainable refurbishment of ancient buildings,[94][95] the erection of sustainable districts and buildings, green public transport,[96] and the creation of public gardens by means of landscape architecture.[97] Additionally, the city has developed its own combined heat and power station, using waste wood biomass from the surrounding forests as a renewable energy source.[98][99] With a thermal efficiency above 80%, the 45MW boiler of the plant provides electricity and heat for 44,000 dwellings. The Metz
Metz
power station is the first local producer and distributor of energy in France.[100] Military architecture[edit] See also: Fortifications of Metz

The Germans' Gate from the 13th century, one of the last medieval bridge castles found in France. Today, an exhibition hall

As a historic Garrison
Garrison
town, Metz
Metz
has been heavily influenced by military architecture throughout its history.[101] From ancient history to the present, the city has been successively fortified and modified to accommodate the troops stationed there. Defensive walls from classical antiquity to the 20th century are still visible today, incorporated into the design of public gardens along the Moselle
Moselle
and Seille rivers.[101] A medieval bridge castle from the 13th century, named Germans' Gate (French: Porte des Allemands), today converted into a convention and exhibition centre, has become one of the landmarks of the city. Remains of the citadel from the 16th century and fortifications built by Louis de Cormontaigne
Louis de Cormontaigne
are still visible today.[102][103] Important barracks, mostly from the 18th and 19th centuries, are spread around the city: some, which are of architectural interest, have been converted to civilian use, such as the Arsenal Concert Hall by Spanish architect Ricardo Bofill. The extensive fortifications of Metz, which ring the city, include early examples of Séré de Rivières system
Séré de Rivières system
forts.[104] Other forts were incorporated into the Maginot Line.[105] A hiking trail on the Saint-Quentin plateau passes through a former military training zone and ends at the now abandoned military forts, providing a vantage point from which to survey the city.[106][107] Economy[edit]

Rue Serpenoise, in the main pedestrian area.

Although the steel industry has historically dominated Moselle's economy, Metz's efforts at economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of commerce, tourism, information technology and the automotive industry. The city is the economic heart of the Lorraine
Lorraine
region and around 73,000 people work daily within the urban agglomeration.[108] The transport facilities found in the conurbation, including the international high-speed railway, motorway, inland connections and the local bus rapid transit system, have made the city a transport hub in the heart of the European Union.[109] Metz
Metz
is home to the biggest harbour handling cereals in France
France
with over 4,000,000 tons/year.[110] Metz
Metz
is home to the Moselle
Moselle
Chamber of Commerce. International companies such as PSA Peugeot Citroën, ArcelorMittal, SFR, and TDF have established plants and centres in the Metz
Metz
conurbation. Metz
Metz
is also the regional headquarters of the Caisse d'Epargne and Banque Populaire banking groups. Metz
Metz
is an important commercial centre of northern France
France
with France's biggest retailer federation, consisting of around 2,000 retailers.[111] Important retail companies are found in the city, such as the Galeries Lafayette, the Printemps
Printemps
department store and the Fnac entertainment retail chain. The historic city centre displays one of the largest[citation needed] commercial pedestrian areas in France
France
and a mall, the Saint-Jacques centre. In addition there are several multiplex movie theatres and malls found in the urban agglomeration. In recent years, Metz
Metz
municipality have promoted an ambitious policy of tourism development, including urban revitalization and refurbishment of buildings and public squares.[112][113] This policy has been spurred by the creation of the Centre Pompidou-Metz
Centre Pompidou-Metz
in 2010.[114] Since its inauguration, the institution has become the most popular cultural venue in France
France
outside Paris, with 550,000 visitors per year.[115] Meanwhile, Saint-Stephen Cathedral is the most visited building in the city, accommodating 652,000 visitors per year.[116] Culture[edit] Museums and exhibition halls[edit]

Some of the cultural venues in Metz, clockwise from top: the Arsenal, the Golden Courtyard, the Opera House, and the Saint-Jacques square

The Museum of the 1870 War and of the Annexion, the only museum in Europe
Europe
dedicated to the Franco-Prussian War

The choir of the Saint Stephen's Cathedral with its extensive stained glass windows, including works of Marc Chagall

Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains, the oldest church in France
France
and cradle of the Gregorian Chant

The Covered Market, home to traditional local food producers and retailers

Fireworks on the town square for the celebrations of Saint Nicholas, the Lorraine's patron saint

The Centre Pompidou-Metz
Centre Pompidou-Metz
is a museum of modern and contemporary arts, the largest temporary exhibition area in France
France
outside Paris. The museum features exhibitions from the extensive collection of the Centre Pompidou, Europe's largest collection of 20th-century art.[117] Saint Stephen's Cathedral is the Gothic cathedral of the city built during the 13th century.[15] The cathedral exhibits the collection of the Bishopric of Metz, including paraments and items used in the service of the Eucharist.[118][119][120] Metz Cathedral
Metz Cathedral
is sometimes nicknamed the Good Lord's Lantern (French: la Lanterne du Bon Dieu),[121] as it has the largest expanse of stained glass windows in the world: 6,500 m2 (70,000 sq ft). These include works by Gothic and Renaissance
Renaissance
master glass makers Hermann von Münster, Théobald of Lixheim, and Valentin Bousch, romantic Charles-Laurent Maréchal, tachist Roger Bissière, cubist Jacques Villon and modernist Marc Chagall. Another of the city's churches displays a complete set of stained glass windows by French modernist Jean Cocteau.[122]

In addition, Metz
Metz
features other museums and exhibition venues, such as:

The FRAC Lorraine, a public collection of contemporary art of the Lorraine
Lorraine
region. It is located in the 12th-century Saint-Liver Hôtel and organizes exhibitions of local and international contemporary artists.[123] The Golden Courtyard (French: la Cour d'Or), a museum dedicated to the history of Metz, divided into four sections (e.g. archeology, medieval, architecture, and fine arts).[124] The Golden Courtyard displays a rich collection of Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
and medieval finds and the remains of the Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
baths of Divodurum Mediomatricum, revealed by the extension works to the museums in the 1930s. The Museum of the 1870 War and of the Annexion in Gravelotte, a village located within the Metz-Metropole conurbation and the site of the Battle of Gravelotte, the only museum in Europe
Europe
dedicated to the Franco-Prussian War.[125] The museum exhibits military and everyday items from the period as well as artworks related to the 1870 war. A mausoleum erected in 1904 honoring the soldiers who died during the battle, the Memorial Hall (French: La Halle du Souvenir), has been included in the museum. The House for Europe, located on the estate of Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
in Scy-Chazelles
Scy-Chazelles
in the Metz-Metropole conurbation, transformed into a museum and convention centre.[126] Across the street is the fortified 12th Century church where Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
now rests. The Robert Schuman House for Europe
Europe
organises cultural and educational events that introduce the visitor to Schuman's life and works and to the way Europe
Europe
has been constructed and continues to develop today. Verlaine's House (French: la Maison de Verlaine) is a museum located in the house where the poet Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
was born, dedicated to his work, featuring permanent and temporary exhibitions.[55][127] The Solange Bertrand foundation, located in the artist's former house, conserves and displays her artworks.[128] The municipal archives preserve and exhibit Metz's historical municipal records dating from medieval times to the present.[129]

Entertainment and performing arts[edit] Metz
Metz
has several venues for the performing arts. The Opera House of Metz, the oldest working opera house in France, features plays, dance, and lyric poetry.[130] The Arsenal Concert Hall, dedicated to art music, is widely renowned for its excellent acoustics.[131][132] The Trinitarians Club is a multi-media arts complex housed in the vaulted cellar and chapel of an ancient convent, the city's prime venue for jazz music.[133] The Music Box (French: Boite à Musique), familiarly known as BAM, is the concert venue dedicated to rock and electronic music.[134] The Braun Hall and the Koltès Theater feature plays, and the city has two movie theaters specializing in Auteur cinema. The Saint-Jacques Square, surrounded by busy bars and pubs whose open-air tables fill the centre of the square. Since 2014, the former bus garage has been converted to accommodate over thirty artists in residence, in a space where they can create and rehearse artworks and even build set decorations.[135] The artistic complex, called Metz
Metz
Network of All Cultures (French: Toutes les Cultures en Réseau à Metz) and familiarly known as TCRM-Blida, encompasses a large hall of 3,000 m2 (32,000 sq ft) while theater and dance companies benefit from a studio of 800 m2 (8,600 sq ft) with backstages.[citation needed] Metz
Metz
in the arts[edit] Metz
Metz
was an important cultural centre during the Carolingian Renaissance.[9] For instance, Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
was created in Metz during the 8th century as a fusion of Gallican and ancient Roman repertory. Then called Messin Chant, it remains the oldest form of music still in use in Western Europe. The bishops of Metz, notably Saint-Chrodegang promoted its use for the Roman liturgy in Gallic lands under the favorable influence of the Carolingian monarchs. Messin chant made two major contributions to the body of chant: it fitted the chant into the ancient Greek octoechos system, and invented an innovative musical notation, using neumes to show the shape of a remembered melody.[136] Metz
Metz
was also an important centre of illumination of Carolingian manuscripts, producing such monuments of Carolingian book illumination as the Drogo Sacramentary.[137][138] The Metz
Metz
School (French: École de Metz) was an art movement in Metz and the region between 1834 and 1870, centred on Charles-Laurent Maréchal.[139] The term was originally proposed in 1845 by the poet Charles Baudelaire, who appreciated the works of the artists. They were influenced by Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
and inspired by the medieval heritage of Metz
Metz
and its romantic surroundings.[139] The Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
and the annexation of the territory by the Germans resulted in the dismantling of the movement. The main figures of the Metz
Metz
School were Charles-Laurent Maréchal, Auguste Migette, Auguste Hussenot, Louis-Théodore Devilly, Christopher Fratin, and Charles Pêtre.[139] Their works include paintings, engravings, drawings, stained-glass windows, and sculptures. A festival named "passages" takes place in May. Numerous shows are presented to it. [140] The Graoully
Graoully
dragon as symbol of the city[edit] See also: Graoully
Graoully
and Clement of Metz The Graoully
Graoully
is depicted as a fearsome dragon, vanquished by the sacred powers of Saint Clement of Metz, the first Bishop of the city. The Graoully
Graoully
quickly became a symbol of Metz
Metz
and can be seen in numerous insignia of the city, from the 10th century on.[141] Writers from Metz
Metz
tend to present the legend as an allegory of Christianity's victory over paganism, represented by the harmful dragon.[141] Cuisine[edit] Local specialties include the quiche, the potée, the Lorrain pâté, and also suckling pig.[142][143] Different recipes, such as jam, tart, charcuterie and fruit brandy, are made from the Mirabelle and Damson plums.[142][143] Also, Metz
Metz
is the cradle of some pastries like the Metz
Metz
cheese pie and the Metz
Metz
Balls (French: boulet de Metz), a ganache-stuffed biscuit coated with marzipan, caramel, and dark chocolate.[142] Local beverages include Moselle
Moselle
wine and Amos beer.[142][143] The Covered Market of Metz
Metz
is one of the oldest, most grandiose in France
France
and is home to traditional local food producers and retailers. Originally built as the bishop's palace, the French Revolution
French Revolution
broke out before the Bishop of Metz
Metz
could move in and the citizens decided to turn it into a food market.[144] The adjacent Chamber's Square (French: Place de la Chambre) is surrounded by numerous local food restaurants. Celebrations and events[edit] Many events are celebrated in Metz
Metz
throughout the year.[145] The city of Metz
Metz
dedicates two weeks to the Mirabelle plum
Mirabelle plum
during the popular Mirabelle Festival held in August. During the festival, in addition to open markets selling fresh plums, mirabelle tarts, and mirabelle liquor, there are live music, fireworks, parties, art exhibits, a parade with floral floats, a competition, the crowning of the Mirabelle Queen and a gala of celebration.[146] A literature festival is held in June. The Montgolfiades hot air balloon festival is organized in September. The second most popular Christmas Market
Christmas Market
in France
France
is held in November and December.[147] Finally, a Saint Nicholas parade honors the patron saint of the Lorraine
Lorraine
region in December. Sports[edit] Metz
Metz
is home to the Football Club of Metz
Metz
(FC Metz), a football association club in Ligue 1, the first division of French football (as of 2016–2017 season). FC Metz
FC Metz
has won three times the Ligue 2
Ligue 2
(1935, 2007, and 2014), twice the Coupe de France
France
(in 1984 and 1988) and the French League Cup (in 1986 and 1996), and was French championship runner-up in 1998.[148] FC Metz
FC Metz
has also gained recognition in France and Europe
Europe
for its successful youth academy, winning the Gambardella Cup 3 times in 1981, 2001, and 2010.[148] The Saint-Symphorien stadium has been the home of FC Metz
FC Metz
since the creation of the club. Metz Handball
Metz Handball
is a Team Handball
Team Handball
club. Metz Handball
Metz Handball
has won the French Women's First League championship 20 times, the French Women's League Cup eight times and the Women's France
France
Cup seven times.[149] The Metz
Metz
Arena has been the home of Metz Handball
Metz Handball
since 2002. Since 2003, Metz
Metz
has been home to the Moselle
Moselle
Open, an ATP World Tour 250 tournament played on indoor hard courts, which usually takes place in September.[150]

Club Event Sport Leagues and Cups Stadium

FC Metz[151]

Association Football Ligue 1, French Cup, French League Cup Saint-Symphorien stadium

Metz
Metz
Handball[152]

Team Handball French Women's First League, EHF Women's Champions League Metz
Metz
Arena

Metz
Metz
Hockey
Hockey
Club[153]

Hockey French Men's Second League Saint-Symphorien Ice Ring

Metz
Metz
Ronde Pétanque

Pétanque French Championship, European Cup Saint-Symphorien Arena

Metz
Metz
TT[154]

Table Tennis French Women's Pro A; French Men's Pro B Saint-Symphorien Arena

Moselle
Moselle
Open[155] Tennis ATP World Tour 250 tournament Metz
Metz
Arena

Golden Mirabelle Open[156] Golf Allianz Golf
Golf
Tour Technopole Golf
Golf
Course

Mirabelle Metz
Metz
Marathon[157] Athletics

Metz
Metz
Urban Agglomeration

Education[edit]

Georgia Tech Lorraine
Lorraine
campus.

High schools[edit] Metz
Metz
has numerous high schools, including the Fabert High School and the Lycée of Communication. Some of these institutions offer higher education programs such as classes préparatoires (undergraduate school) or BTS (technician certificate). University of Lorraine[edit] Main article: University of Lorraine Metz
Metz
is also home to the University of Lorraine
Lorraine
(often abbreviated in UdL).[158] The university is divided into two university centers, one in Metz
Metz
(material sciences, technology, and management) and one in Nancy (biological sciences, health care, administration, and management). The University of Lorraine, which ranks in 2016 among the top 15 of French universities and among top 300 of the world universities according to the 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities, [159] has a student body of over 55,000 and offers 101 accredited research centers organized in 9 research areas and 8 doctoral colleges.[160] Graduate schools[edit] At the end of the 1990s, the city expanded and the Metz
Metz
Science Park was created in the southern area. Along with this expansion, several graduate schools took the opportunity to establish campuses in the park. At first, facilities were grouped around the lake Symphony, like Supélec
Supélec
in 1985 and Georgia Tech Lorraine
Lorraine
in 1990.[161] In 1996, the engineering school Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
(ENSAM) built a research and learning center next to the golf course.[162] This opened the way to the development of a new area, where the Franco-German university (ISFATES) and the ENIM moved in 2010. These graduate schools often cooperate with the University of Lorraine. For instance, the university and ENSAM share research teams, laboratories, equipments, and doctoral programs. Transport[edit]

The Mettis hybrid bi-articulated bus

The Station Palace in the Imperial District

Local transport[edit] Public transport
Public transport
includes a bus rapid transit system, called Mettis.[163] Mettis vehicles are high-capacity hybrid bi-articulated buses built by Van Hool,[164] and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with disability access. Mettis has its own planned and integrated transportation system, which includes two dedicated lines that spread out into the Metz
Metz
conurbation. Mettis lanes A and B serve the city's major facilities (e.g. city centre, university campus, and hospitals), and a transport hub is located next to the railway station.[165] Railways[edit] See also: Gare de Metz-Ville Metz
Metz
Railway Station is connected to the French high speed train (TGV) network, which provides a direct rail service to Paris
Paris
and Luxembourg. The time from Paris
Paris
(Gare de l'Est) to Metz
Metz
is 82 minutes. Additionally, Metz
Metz
is served by the Lorraine
Lorraine
TGV
TGV
railway station, located at Louvigny, 25 km (16 mi) to the south of Metz, for high speed trains going to Nantes, Rennes, Lille
Lille
and Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(without stopping in Paris). Also, Metz
Metz
is one of the main stations of the regional express trains system, Métrolor. Motorways[edit] Metz
Metz
is located at the intersection of two major road axes: the Eastern Motorway, itself a part of the European route E50
European route E50
connecting Paris
Paris
to Prague, and the A31 Motorway, which goes north to Luxembourg and south to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
towards Nancy, Dijon, and Lyon. Airports[edit] The Luxembourg
Luxembourg
International Airport is the nearest international airport, connected to Metz
Metz
by Métrolor
Métrolor
train. The Lorraine
Lorraine
TGV Station is 75 minutes by train from France
France
international Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. Finally, Metz-Nancy- Lorraine
Lorraine
Airport is located in Goin, 16.5 km (10.25 mi) southeast of Metz.. Waterways[edit] See also: Moselle
Moselle
(river) Metz
Metz
is located at the confluence of the Moselle
Moselle
and the Seille rivers, both navigable waterways. The marina connects Metz
Metz
to the cities of the Moselle
Moselle
valley (i.e. Trier, Schengen, and Koblenz) via the Moselle
Moselle
river. Main sights[edit]

The iconic Protestant
Protestant
church Temple Neuf
Temple Neuf
on the Moselle
Moselle
river[166]

See also: List of Historic Monuments in Metz, France Religious heritage[edit]

the Gothic Saint Stephen's cathedral built during the 13th century. The cathedral is nicknamed the Good Lord's Lantern (French: la Lanterne du Bon Dieu),[16] as it has the largest expanse of stained glass windows in the world and the tenth highest nave in the world.[167] the Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains basilica, one of the oldest churches in the world and cradle of the Gregorian Chant.[17] Saint Maximin's church featuring stained glass windows by French artist Jean Cocteau,[168] and the Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus church built by French architect Roger-Henri Expert.[81] the 13th century Romanesque Knights Templar's chapel, once part of the Templar commandery of Metz, the oldest Templar institution in the Holy Roman Empire.

Civil heritage[edit]

the opera house of Metz
Metz
Metropole built during the 18th century in Tuscany-influenced neo-Classical style.[65] It is the oldest working opera house in France
France
and one of the oldest in Europe.[19] the birthplaces of Paul Verlaine,[55] Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, André Schwarz-Bart, Gustave Kahn, Gabriel Pierné, Charles Pêtre, and Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle. the house of François Rabelais, when he came to Metz
Metz
- then a free imperial city and a republic - to escape condemnation for heresy by the University of Paris. numerous medieval edifices including two granaries and several Hôtels.[65]

Administrative heritage[edit]

the town square and its surrounding Neoclassical buildings, built by French architect Jacques-François Blondel.[169] the Neoclassical courthouse (former Governor's Palace), built by French artist Charles-Louis Clérisseau,[65] location in 1775 of the Diner of Metz
Metz
when Lafayette met Marquis of Ruffec and Duke of Gloucester
Gloucester
and decided to support the American Revolutionary War. the Romanesque Revival Station-Palace and Central Post Office, built by German architect Jürgen Kröger.[18] the Northeast France
France
defense headquarters (former Kaiser headquarters), built by German architects Schönhals and Stolterfoth in a neo-Flemish style.[80]

Military heritage[edit]

the German's Gate from the 13th century, the last medieval bridge castle in France. The fortification played a crucial defensive role during the siege of Metz
Metz
in 1552–1553 by Emperor Charles V. the ruins of the city's defensive walls dating from ancient history to the 18th century,[102] and the extensive 19th- and 20th-century fortifications of Metz. the Fort of Queuleu, also called the Hell of Queuleu (French: l'Enfer de Queuleu), used by the Germans as a detention and interrogation centre for members of the French Resistance
French Resistance
during the Second World War.[170] the war memorial, art deco sculpture by French sculptor Paul Niclausse representing a mother cradling the dead body of her son.

International relations[edit] Metz
Metz
is a member of the QuattroPole(FR)(DE) union of cities, along with Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, and Trier
Trier
(neighbouring countries: Luxembourg, France, and Germany).[171] Metz
Metz
has a central place in the Greater Region and of the economic SaarLorLux
SaarLorLux
Euroregion. Metz
Metz
is also twin town with:[172]

Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, from 1957 Gloucester, England, United Kingdom, from 1967[172][173] Karmiel, Israel,[174] from 1984[172] Saint-Denis, Réunion, France, from 1986 Yichang, China, from 1991 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic, from 2001 Kansas City, Missouri, USA, from 2004 [175] Djambala, Republic
Republic
of Congo, from 2012[172]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Metz.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metz.

Notes and references[edit]

^ "Official website of the prefecture of Moselle" (in French). Retrieved 6 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Moselle
Moselle
department" (in French). Retrieved 6 July 2012.  ^ a b Says J.M. (2010) La Moselle, une rivière européenne. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-857-2 (in French) ^ "Official website of the Greater Region" (in French). Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h Bour R. (2007) Histoire de Metz, nouvelle édition. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-728-5 (in French) ^ a b Vigneron B. (1986) Metz
Metz
antique: Divodurum Mediomatricorum. Eds. Maisonneuve. ISBN 2-7160-0115-4 (in French) ^ a b Huguenin A. (2011) Histoire du royaume mérovingien d'Austrasie. Eds. des Paraiges. ISBN 979-10-90185-00-5 pp. 134,275 (in French) ^ Settipani C. (1989) Les ancêtres de Charlemagne. Ed. Société atlantique d'impression. ISBN 2-906483-28-1 pp. 3–49 (in French) ^ a b Demollière C.J. (2004) L'art du chantre carolingien. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-555-9 (in French) ^ a b Roemer F. (2007) Les institutions de la République messine. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-709-4 (in French) ^ Weyland A. (2010) Moselle
Moselle
plurielle: identité complexe & complexes identitaires. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-748-3 (in French) ^ " World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
List of France, UNESCO Official Website" (HTLM). Retrieved 19 April 2014.  ^ "Presentation of the specificity of Metz
Metz
for the UNESCO World Heritage Site enlistment, UNESCO Official Website" (HTLM) (in French). Retrieved 19 April 2014.  ^ "Presentation of the specificity of Metz
Metz
for the UNESCO World Heritage Site enlistment, Official Website of the Municipality of Metz" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ a b " Metz Cathedral
Metz Cathedral
webcam" (VIDEO). Retrieved 6 July 2012.  ^ a b c Collectif (2009) Monumental 2009 - semestriel 1. Coll. Monumental. Eds. Guides archeologiques de la France. ISBN 978-2-7577-0055-6 (in French) ^ a b c Delestre X. (1988) Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains ( Metz
Metz
- Moselle): de l'époque romaine à l'époque gothique. Eds. Guides archeologiques de la France. ISBN 978-2-85822-439-5 (in French) ^ a b c Schontz A. (2008) La gare de Metz. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-833-6 (in French) ^ a b c Masson G. (2002) L'Opéra-théâtre de Metz. Ed. Klopp, Gerard. ISBN 978-2-911992-38-4 (in French) ^ a b c Pelt J.M. (1977) L'Homme re-naturé. Eds. Seuil. ISBN 2-02-004589-3 (in French) ^ a b "INA Archive (1977) Samedi et demi, interview with Jean-Marie Pelt. Prod. Antenne 2" (VIDEO) (in French). Retrieved 16 May 2011.  ^ " Metz
Metz
magazine (2007) 322:16-17" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved March 2007.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ a b "Official municipal website, Public garden map of Metz" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.  ^ Hamel S. and Walter J. (2000) Metz. Ecologie urbaine et convivialité. Ed. Autrement. ISBN 978-2-86260-343-8 (in French) ^ a b "Official Metz
Metz
municipality website, Agenda 21" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved November 2007.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "University of Lorraine. Research, innovation, and valorisation" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2011.  ^ Gendarme R. (1985) Sidérurgie en Lorraine, les coulées du futur. Eds. Presses Universitaires de Nancy. ISBN 2-86480-224-4 (in French) ^ a b c Martin P. (2010) Metz, 2000 years of history. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-845-9 pp. 8–9 ^ Toussaint M. (1948) Metz
Metz
à l'époque gallo-romaine. Eds. Impr. P. Even. pp. 21–22 (in French) ^ Di Rocco A. (2009) Année 451 : la bataille qui sauva l'Occident. Eds. Thélès. ISBN 978-2-303-00228-8 pp. 156–158 (in French) ^ Gibbon E (1788) History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 4:35 ^ Brasme P. (2011) Quand Metz
Metz
reçoit la France. Eds. des Paraiges. ISBN 979-10-90185-03-6 pp. 17–34 (in French) ^ Vigneron B. (2010) Le dernier siècle de la république de Metz. Eds. du Panthéon. ISBN 978-2-7547-0356-7 (in French) ^ Roth F. (2011) La Lorraine
Lorraine
Annexée - version 2011, nouvelle édition. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-866-4 (in French) ^ Berrar J.C. (2009) Metz, retour à le France. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-784-1 (in French) ^ Przybylski S. (2009) La Campagne de Lorraine
Lorraine
de 1944, Panther contre Sherman. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-820-6 (in French) ^ Denis P. (2008) La Libération de la Lorraine, 1940–1945. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-764-3 (in French) ^ a b c Roth F. (2012) Histoire politique de la Lorraine, de 1900 à nos jours. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-881-7 (in French) ^ " Metz
Metz
and the Messin pays from above, full movie, by Yann Arthus-Bertrand" (VIDEO). Retrieved 6 June 2009.  ^ Leza-Chomard A. and Pautrot C. (2006) Géologie et géographie de la Lorraine. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-632-6 (in French) ^ "Official website of the Lorraine
Lorraine
Regional Natural Park". Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ Beck J.S. (2011) 2000 ans de climat en Alsace et en Lorraine. Eds. Coprur. ISBN 978-2-84208-209-3 (in French) ^ a b "Weatherspark webpage dedicated to Metz". Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Average Weather for Metz, FR" (in French). MeteoFrance.com. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Metz" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 8, 2016.  ^ "Climat Lorraine" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 8, 2016.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Metz-Frescaty (57) - altitude 190m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved January 8, 2016.  ^ The Mutte is the name of the large bell of the Saint-Stephen cathedral. ^ A law from 1872 forbids the collection by the state of census data based on questions about religious beliefs. The French Third Republic considered that kind of information to be private and that any citizen of the Republic
Republic
should be considered as equal of his mates, regardless his private life. In accordance with the concept of laïcité, this principle was reaffirmed by the current French Fifth Republic
Republic
in a law from 1978, stating that "it is forbidden to collect or process data of a personal nature related to racial or ethnic origins as well as political, philosophic, or religious opinions." ^ "Historical census database of the population of Metz, INSEE" (in French). Retrieved January 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official Lorraine
Lorraine
prefecture webpage on the military restructurings" (in French). Retrieved September 2008.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ " Census
Census
of the population of Metz, INSEE" (in French). Retrieved January 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Database Cassini, EHESS" (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "INSEE" (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2017.  ^ a b c "Verlaine's native house - House of Verlaine (museum), video clip" (in French). Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ "Official French general code of territorial collectivities, French Republic" (in French). Retrieved June 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official Metz
Metz
municipality website, List of Metz
Metz
municipal councilors" (in French). Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved July 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official Metz
Metz
municipality website, agenda and procès-verbal of the Municipal Council of Metz" (in French). Retrieved July 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Since March 2009, records of municipal council meetings are available as audio files in French. ^ "List of mayors of Metz
Metz
since 1790" (in French). Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved March 2008.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official Metz
Metz
municipality website, Resume of Dominique Gros" (in French). Retrieved March 2008.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official Metz
Metz
Metropole website, list of cities webpage" (in French). Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved June 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official website of Metz
Metz
municipality" (PHP) (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ Braun S. (2008) Metz, Portrait d'une ville. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-781-0 (in French) ^ a b c d e f g h Hubert P. (2004) Metz, ville d'architectures. Ed. Domini, Serge. ISBN 2-912645-70-0; pp. 164–165 (in French) ^ " Metz
Metz
municipal council, January 2011" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 28 January 2011.  ^ " Metz
Metz
municipal council, April 2010" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ "Towns and Lands of Art and History, official list from the French Minister of Culture, November 2011" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 17 November 2011.  ^ a b "Application folder of Metz
Metz
municipality to the French Town of Art and History label" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2012. Retrieved December 2011.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official website of the Jaumont stone companies". Retrieved 1 July 2011.  ^ "An unknown Roman Quarter found in the heart of Metz, Official report of INRAP" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ Collectif (2006) L'aqueduc antique de Gorze
Gorze
à Metz. Moselle
Moselle
119. Coll. Itinéraires du patrimoine. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-306-8 (in French) ^ "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 1" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 2" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 3" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 4" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ " Town square
Town square
webcam" (VIDEO). Retrieved 6 July 2012.  ^ Wagner P.E. and Jollin J.L. (1987) 15 siècles d'architecture et d'urbanisme autour de la cathédrale de Metz. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-004-0 pp. 123–276 (in French) ^ Collectif (2006) L'hôtel de l'Intendance, Préfecture de la Moselle et de la région Lorraine, Metz, N°310. Coll. Itinéraires du patrimoines. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-913411-22-3 (in French) ^ a b c d Pignon-Feller C. (2005) Metz
Metz
1848–1918. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-584-7 (in French) ^ a b Expert R.H. Roger-Henri Expert, 1882–1955. Volume 3 de Institut français d'architecture. Eds. du Moniteur. (in French) ^ Collectif (1997) Georges-Henri Pingusson, architecte de l'œuvre lorraine N°147. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-309-2 (in French) ^ Jodidio P. (2010) Shigeru Ban, complete works 1985–2010. Ed. Jodidio, Philip. ISBN 978-3-8365-1792-8 pp. 426–447 ^ "RIBA Awards, 2012 European winners, Centre Pompidou-Metz
Centre Pompidou-Metz
webpage". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2012.  ^ "Centre Pompidou Metz, innovative architecture. Tribù, the art of leisure". Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.  ^ a b "Description of the project of the Amphitheatre District by Metz Metropole" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Official Metz
Metz
municipality website, Amphitheatre District webcam" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Official Website of the BAM musical venue" (in French). Retrieved 25 July 2014.  ^ Berrar J.C. (2011) Metz
Metz
défigurée dans les années 60-70. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-909-8 (in French) ^ "INA Archive (1964) Quartiers anciens de Metz, chefs d'oeuvre en péril, ORTF" (VIDEO) (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "INA Archive (1964) Au secours des quartiers anciens, ORTF" (VIDEO) (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "INA Archive (1977) Restauration urbaine à Metz, Antenne 2" (VIDEO) (in French). Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ "INA Archive (1980) Urbanisme à Metz : rénovation des quartiers anciens, France
France
3 Régions" (VIDEO) (in French). Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ "Official municipal website, municipal council February 2010, Carbon Plan" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 26 February 2010.  ^ "Official municipal website, municipal council October 2010, Sustainable Energy Plan" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 29 October 2010.  ^ "Official municipal website, municipal council July 2010, Bicycle Plan" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 2 July 2010.  ^ "Official municipal website, municipal council February 2010, Public garden policy" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 26 February 2010.  ^ "Official website of the power plant of Metz" (in French). Retrieved 1 October 2012.  ^ "Official municipal website, municipal council April 2011, Debate of the cogeneration boiler investment" (Audio) (in French). Retrieved April 2011.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official Pressbook of the power plant of Metz" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2010.  ^ a b "Tour of Metz:Part 1, trailer from the Iron Men of Metz
Metz
movie". Archived from the original (VIDEO) on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2011.  ^ a b Halleck W., Halleck H.W., and Halleck H. (2009) Elements of military art and science. Ed. Applewood Books. ISBN 978-1-4290-2206-4 ^ "La Citadelle Hotel official website, former edifice of the military citadel of Metz". Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ Le Hallé G. (2001) Le système Séré de Rivières ou le témoignage des pierres. Eds. Ysec. ISBN 2-84673-008-3 (in French) ^ Allcorn W. (2003) The Maginot Line
Maginot Line
1928–45. Ed. Osprey Publishing, Oxford. ISBN 1-84176-646-1 pp. 57–58 ^ "Saint-Quentin plateau fortifications dossier" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2011.  ^ "Saint-Quentin fortification map". Retrieved 1 July 2011.  ^ "Intercommunal cooperation scheme of Metz
Metz
Metropole" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ "2nd seminar on the Greater Region transports" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official data sheet of Metz
Metz
harbor, VNF" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official Metz
Metz
retailer federation website" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official Metz
Metz
municipality website, municipal council July 2012, local tourism development scheme" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Metz
Metz
tourism office" (PHP). Retrieved 11 May 2010.  ^ Lichfield, John (11 May 2010). "Pompidou centre puts Metz
Metz
on the map, The Independent". London. Retrieved 11 May 2010.  ^ "Official website of France
France
tourism survey, 2011 Museum frequentation" (in French). Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ "Official website of Moselle
Moselle
tourism office, 2011 key numbers. p 12" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved January 2012.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official website of the Centre Pompidou-Metz". Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral" (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "INA Archive (1969) Trésor de la cathédrale de Metz, Lorraine soir, ORTF" (VIDEO) (in French). Retrieved 2 July 2012.  ^ "INA Archive (1980) Patrimoine: trésor de la cathédrale de Metz, Lorraine
Lorraine
soir, France
France
3 régions" (VIDEO) (in French). Retrieved 2 July 2012.  ^ Jolin J.L. (2001) La lanterne du Bon Dieu. Eds. Serpnoise. ISBN 2-87692-495-1. (in French) ^ "Saint-Maximin church, Cocteau's artworks" (in French). Retrieved 2 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Lorraine
Lorraine
Contemporary Arts Gallery" (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Golden Courtyard Museum" (in French). Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Museum of the Franco-Prussion War and the Annexion". LaLorraine, Sites and monuments. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ "Scy-Chazelles: the house of Europe, the Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
Foundation". Retrieved 28 February 2014.  ^ "The Verlaine's Friends, International Association of French Poetry" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Solange Bertrand Foundation, gourmet webpage" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official Metz
Metz
municipal website, Municipal Archives webpage" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Opera House of Metz
Metz
Metropole" (in French). Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Arsenal of Metz" (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ Classica (2010) Les hauts lieux de la musique. September, Issue 125 (in French) ^ "Official website of the Trinitaires" (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "Official website of the BAM" (in French).  ^ "Official website of the Tcrm-Blida creative center" (in French). 29 June 2014.  ^ Grier J. (2003) Ademar de Chabannes, Carolingian Musical Practices, and Nota Romana. Journal of the American Musicological Society. 56 (1):43–98. ^ "Official Metz
Metz
library website, medieval book webpage" (in French). Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official Metz
Metz
library website, Book of Hours of John of Vy" (in French). Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ a b c Livre Groupe (2010) École de Metz: Christophe Fratin, Charles-Franois Champigneulle, Laurent-Charles Marechal, Louis-Theodore Devilly, Auguste Migette. Eds. Books LLC. ISBN 978-1-159-58648-5 (in French) ^ http://festival-passages.org ^ a b Bellard A. (1966) Le Graoully
Graoully
de Metz
Metz
à la lumière de la paléontologie. Ed. Mémoires de l'Académie de Metz. ISBN 978-2-9531744-3-4 (in French) ^ a b c d Sassi J. (2002) Cuisine, terroir et traditions de Moselle. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-534-6 (in French) ^ a b c "Official Metz
Metz
tourism website, gourmet webpage". Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ " France
France
Today magazine, Covered Market webpage" (in French). Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Metz
Metz
tourism office, events calendar (automated updates)" (in French). [permanent dead link] ^ "Official website of the Mirabelle Festival in Metz" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Christmas Market
Christmas Market
in Metz" (in French). Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ a b "Official website of the Football Club de Metz, Honours" (in French). Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of Metz
Metz
Handball, Honours" (in French). Archived from the original on 30 May 2012.  ^ "ATP official webpage of the Moselle
Moselle
Open".  ^ "Official website of the FC Metz" (in French).  ^ "Official website of the Metz Handball
Metz Handball
club" (in French).  ^ "Official website of the Metz
Metz
Hockey
Hockey
Club" (in French). Archived from the original on 3 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Metz
Metz
TT club" (in French). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Moselle
Moselle
Open tournament" (in French).  ^ "Allianz Golf
Golf
Tour official webpage about the Golden Mirabelle Open" (in French). Archived from the original on 31 July 2012.  ^ "Official website of the Mirabelle Metz
Metz
Marathon". Archived from the original on 25 May 2012.  ^ "Official website of the University of Lorraine" (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ "2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities" (HTL:) (in eng). Retrieved 21 June 2016. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "University of Lorraine, key numbers" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ http://lorraine.gatech.edu/about ^ http://tout-metz.com/quartiers/technopole-metz ^ "Official website of Mettis" (in French). Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ " Van Hool
Van Hool
presents the ExquiCity Design Mettis". Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2012.  ^ File:Map of the METTIS transport network, the public transportation in Metz, France.jpg ^ " Protestant
Protestant
church webcam". Archived from the original (VIDEO) on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.  ^ Kuhn-Mutter M.A. (2011) Oratorio pour une cathédrale. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-887-9 (in French) ^ Kuhn-Mutter M.A. (2012) Vitraux de Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
à Metz, féérie de lumière et de couleurs. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-906-7 (in French) ^ "City embellishment by Jacques-François Blondel, Seminar series, March 2010" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2012. Retrieved March 2010.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Official municipal website, municipal council April 2010, Commemorative plate at Queuleu fort" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ "Official website of the Quattropole city union". Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ a b c d " Metz
Metz
Municipal Council" (in French). Retrieved 1 June 2012.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11.  ^ " Metz
Metz
en visite à Karmiel". City of Metz. 17 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ "Kansas City Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Metz". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint-Denis (Réunion)

v t e

Communes of the Moselle
Moselle
department

Aboncourt Aboncourt-sur-Seille Abreschviller Achain Achen Adaincourt Adelange Ajoncourt Alaincourt-la-Côte Albestroff Algrange Alsting Altrippe Altviller Alzing Amanvillers Amelécourt Amnéville Ancerville Ancy-Dornot Angevillers Antilly Anzeling Apach Argancy Arraincourt Arriance Arry Ars-Laquenexy Ars-sur-Moselle Arzviller Aspach Assenoncourt Attilloncourt Aube Audun-le-Tiche Augny Aulnois-sur-Seille Aumetz Avricourt Ay-sur-Moselle Azoudange Bacourt Baerenthal Bambiderstroff Bannay Le Ban-Saint-Martin Barchain Baronville Barst Basse-Ham Basse-Rentgen Bassing Baudrecourt Bazoncourt Bébing Béchy Behren-lès-Forbach Bellange Belles-Forêts Bénestroff Béning-lès-Saint-Avold Berg-sur-Moselle Bérig-Vintrange Berling Bermering Berthelming Bertrange Berviller-en-Moselle Bettange Bettborn Bettelainville Betting Bettviller Beux Beyren-lès-Sierck Bezange-la-Petite Bibiche Bickenholtz Bidestroff Biding Bining Bioncourt Bionville-sur-Nied Bisten-en-Lorraine Bistroff Bitche Blanche-Église Bliesbruck Blies-Ébersing Blies-Guersviller Boucheporn Boulange Boulay-Moselle Bourdonnay Bourgaltroff Bourscheid Bousbach Bousse Bousseviller Boust Boustroff Bouzonville Bréhain Breidenbach Breistroff-la-Grande Brettnach Bronvaux Brouck Brouderdorff Brouviller Brulange Buchy Buding Budling Buhl-Lorraine Burlioncourt Burtoncourt Cappel Carling Cattenom Chailly-lès-Ennery Chambrey Chanville Charleville-sous-Bois Charly-Oradour Château-Bréhain Château-Rouge Château-Salins Château-Voué Châtel-Saint-Germain Chémery-les-Deux Cheminot Chenois Chérisey Chesny Chicourt Chieulles Clouange Cocheren Coincy Coin-lès-Cuvry Coin-sur-Seille Colligny-Maizery Colmen Condé-Northen Conthil Contz-les-Bains Corny-sur-Moselle Coume Courcelles-Chaussy Courcelles-sur-Nied Craincourt Créhange Creutzwald Cutting Cuvry Dabo Dalem Dalhain Dalstein Danne-et-Quatre-Vents Dannelbourg Delme Denting Desseling Destry Diane-Capelle Diebling Diesen Dieuze Diffembach-lès-Hellimer Distroff Dolving Domnom-lès-Dieuze Donjeux Donnelay Ébersviller Éblange Éguelshardt Eincheville Elvange Elzange Enchenberg Ennery Entrange Epping Erching Ernestviller Erstroff Escherange Les Étangs Etting Etzling Évrange Failly Falck Fameck Farébersviller Farschviller Faulquemont Fénétrange Fèves Féy Filstroff Fixem Flastroff Fleisheim Flétrange Fleury Flévy Flocourt Florange Folkling Folschviller Fonteny Fontoy Forbach Fossieux Foulcrey Fouligny Foville Francaltroff Fraquelfing Frauenberg Freistroff Frémery Frémestroff Fresnes-en-Saulnois Freybouse Freyming-Merlebach Fribourg Gandrange Garrebourg Gavisse Gelucourt Gerbécourt Givrycourt Glatigny Goetzenbruck Goin Gomelange Gondrexange Gorze Gosselming Gravelotte Grémecey Gréning Grindorff-Bizing Gros-Réderching Grosbliederstroff Grostenquin Grundviller Guebenhouse Guébestroff Guéblange-lès-Dieuze Guébling Guénange Guenviller Guermange Guerstling Guerting Guessling-Hémering Guinglange Guinkirchen Guinzeling Guntzviller Haboudange Hagen Hagondange Hallering Halstroff Ham-sous-Varsberg Hambach Hampont Hangviller Hannocourt Han-sur-Nied Hanviller Haraucourt-sur-Seille Hargarten-aux-Mines Harprich Harreberg Hartzviller Haselbourg Haspelschiedt Hattigny Hauconcourt Haut-Clocher Haute-Kontz Haute-Vigneulles Havange Hayange Hayes Hazembourg Heining-lès-Bouzonville Hellering-lès-Fénétrange Hellimer Helstroff Hémilly Héming Henridorff Henriville Hérange Hermelange Herny Hertzing Hesse Hestroff Hettange-Grande Hilbesheim Hilsprich Hinckange Holacourt Holling Holving Hombourg-Budange Hombourg-Haut Hommarting Hommert Honskirch L'Hôpital Hoste Hottviller Hultehouse Hundling Hunting Ibigny Illange Imling Inglange Insming Insviller Ippling Jallaucourt Jouy-aux-Arches Jury Jussy Juvelize Juville Kalhausen Kanfen Kappelkinger Kédange-sur-Canner Kemplich Kerbach Kerling-lès-Sierck Kerprich-aux-Bois Kirsch-lès-Sierck Kirschnaumen Kirviller Klang Knutange Kœnigsmacker Kuntzig Lachambre Lafrimbolle Lagarde Lambach Landange Landroff Laneuveville-en-Saulnois Laneuveville-lès-Lorquin Langatte Languimberg Laning Laquenexy Laudrefang Laumesfeld Launstroff Lelling Lemberg Lemoncourt Lemud Lengelsheim Léning Lesse Lessy Ley Leyviller Lezey Lhor Lidrezing Liederschiedt Liéhon Lindre-Basse Lindre-Haute Liocourt Lixheim Lixing-lès-Rouhling Lixing-lès-Saint-Avold Lommerange Longeville-lès-Metz Longeville-lès-Saint-Avold Lorquin Lorry-lès-Metz Lorry-Mardigny Lostroff Loudrefing Loupershouse Loutzviller Louvigny Lubécourt Lucy Luppy Luttange Lutzelbourg Macheren Mainvillers Maizeroy Maizières-lès-Metz Maizières-lès-Vic Malaucourt-sur-Seille Malling Malroy Manderen Manhoué Manom Many Marange-Silvange Marange-Zondrange Marieulles Marimont-lès-Bénestroff Marly Marsal Marsilly Marthille La Maxe Maxstadt Mécleuves Mégange Meisenthal Menskirch Merschweiller Merten Métairies-Saint-Quirin Metting Metz Metzeresche Metzervisse Metzing Mey Mittelbronn Mittersheim Molring Momerstroff Moncheux Moncourt Mondelange Mondorff Monneren Montbronn Montdidier Montenach Montigny-lès-Metz Montois-la-Montagne Morhange Morsbach Morville-lès-Vic Morville-sur-Nied Moulins-lès-Metz Moussey Mouterhouse Moyenvic Moyeuvre-Grande Moyeuvre-Petite Mulcey Munster Narbéfontaine Nébing Nelling Neufchef Neufgrange Neufmoulins Neufvillage Neunkirchen-lès-Bouzonville Niderhoff Niderviller Niederstinzel Niedervisse Nilvange Nitting Noisseville Norroy-le-Veneur Nouilly Nousseviller-lès-Bitche Nousseviller-Saint-Nabor Novéant-sur-Moselle Oberdorff Obergailbach Oberstinzel Obervisse Obreck Œting Ogy-Montoy-Flanville Ommeray Oriocourt Ormersviller Orny Oron Ottange Ottonville Oudrenne Pagny-lès-Goin Pange Peltre Petite-Rosselle Petit-Réderching Petit-Tenquin Pettoncourt Pévange Phalsbourg Philippsbourg Piblange Pierrevillers Plaine-de-Walsch Plappeville Plesnois Pommérieux Pontoy Pontpierre Porcelette Postroff Pouilly Pournoy-la-Chétive Pournoy-la-Grasse Prévocourt Puttelange-aux-Lacs Puttelange-lès-Thionville Puttigny Puzieux Racrange Rahling Ranguevaux Raville Réchicourt-le-Château Rédange Réding Rémelfang Rémelfing Rémeling Rémering Rémering-lès-Puttelange Rémilly Réning Retonfey Rettel Reyersviller Rezonville Rhodes Riche Richeling Richemont Richeval Rimling Ritzing Rochonvillers Rodalbe Rodemack Rohrbach-lès-Bitche Rolbing Rombas Romelfing Roncourt Roppeviller Rorbach-lès-Dieuze Rosbruck Rosselange Rouhling Roupeldange Roussy-le-Village Rozérieulles Rurange-lès-Thionville Russange Rustroff Sailly-Achâtel Saint-Avold Sainte-Barbe Sainte-Marie-aux-Chênes Saint-Epvre Sainte-Ruffine Saint-François-Lacroix Saint-Georges Saint-Hubert Saint-Jean-de-Bassel Saint-Jean-Kourtzerode Saint-Jean-Rohrbach Saint-Julien-lès-Metz Saint-Jure Saint-Louis Saint-Louis-lès-Bitche Saint-Médard Saint-Privat-la-Montagne Saint-Quirin Salonnes Sanry-lès-Vigy Sanry-sur-Nied Sarralbe Sarraltroff Sarrebourg Sarreguemines Sarreinsming Saulny Schalbach Schmittviller Schneckenbusch Schœneck Schorbach Schwerdorff Schweyen Scy-Chazelles Secourt Seingbouse Semécourt Serémange-Erzange Servigny-lès-Raville Servigny-lès-Sainte-Barbe Sierck-les-Bains Siersthal Sillegny Silly-en-Saulnois Silly-sur-Nied Solgne Sorbey Sotzeling Soucht Spicheren Stiring-Wendel Stuckange Sturzelbronn Suisse Talange Tarquimpol Tenteling Terville Téterchen Teting-sur-Nied Théding Thicourt Thimonville Thionville Thonville Tincry Torcheville Tragny Trémery Tressange Tritteling-Redlach Troisfontaines Tromborn Turquestein-Blancrupt Uckange Vahl-Ebersing Vahl-lès-Bénestroff Vahl-lès-Faulquemont Val-de-Bride Le Val-de-Guéblange Vallerange Valmestroff Valmont Valmunster Vannecourt Vantoux Vany Varize Varsberg Vasperviller Vatimont Vaudreching Vaux Vaxy Veckersviller Veckring Velving Vergaville Vernéville Verny Vescheim Vibersviller Vic-sur-Seille Vieux-Lixheim Vigny Vigy Viller Villers-Stoncourt Villers-sur-Nied Villing Vilsberg Vionville Virming Vitry-sur-Orne Vittersbourg Vittoncourt Viviers Vœlfling-lès-Bouzonville Voimhaut Volmerange-lès-Boulay Volmerange-les-Mines Volmunster Volstroff Voyer Vry Vulmont Waldhouse Waldweistroff Waldwisse Walschbronn Walscheid Waltembourg Wiesviller Willerwald Wintersbourg Wittring Wœlfling-lès-Sarreguemines Woippy Woustviller Wuisse Xanrey Xocourt Xouaxange Yutz Zarbeling Zetting Zilling Zimming Zommange Zoufftgen

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137746789 LCCN: n79091180 ISNI: 0000 0001 0675 3300 GND: 4039029-9 SUDOC: 028393929 BNF:

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