Metropolitan Railway (also known as the Met[note 1]) was a
passenger and goods railway that served
London from 1863 to 1933, its
main line heading north-west from the capital's financial heart in the
City to what were to become the
Middlesex suburbs. Its first line
connected the main-line railway termini at Paddington, Euston, and
King's Cross to the City. The first section was built beneath the New
Road using the "cut-and-cover" method between Paddington and King's
Cross and in tunnel and cuttings beside
Farringdon Road from King's
Cross to near Smithfield, near the City. It opened to the public on 10
January 1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam
locomotives, the world's first passenger-carrying designated
The line was soon extended from both ends, and northwards via a branch
from Baker Street. It reached
Hammersmith in 1864, Richmond in 1877
and completed the Inner Circle in 1884, but the most important route
was the line north into the
Middlesex countryside, where it stimulated
the development of new suburbs. Harrow was reached in 1880, and the
line eventually extended to Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more
than 50 miles (80 kilometres) from Baker Street and the centre of
Electric traction was introduced in 1905 and by 1907 electric multiple
units operated most of the services, though electrification of
outlying sections did not occur until decades later. Unlike other
railway companies in the
London area, the Met developed land for
housing, and after World War I promoted housing estates near the
railway using the "Metro-land" brand. On 1 July 1933, the Met was
amalgamated with the Underground Electric Railways Company of London
and the capital's tramway and bus operators to form the London
Passenger Transport Board.
Former Met tracks and stations are used by the
Metropolitan, Circle, District,
Hammersmith & City, Piccadilly,
and Jubilee lines, and by Chiltern Railways.
1.1 Paddington to the City, 1853–63
1.2 Extensions and the Inner Circle, 1863–84
1.2.1 Farringdon to
Moorgate and the City Widened Lines
Hammersmith & City Railway
1.2.3 Inner Circle
1.3 Extension Line, 1868–99
1.3.1 Baker Street to Harrow
1.3.2 Harrow to Verney Junction and Brill
1.3.3 Great Central Railway
1.4 Electrification, 1900–14
1.4.2 Running electric trains
1.4.5 Great Northern & City Railway
1.5 War and "Metro-land", 1914–32
1.5.1 World War I
1.5.3 Infrastructure improvements
London Passenger Transport Board, 1933
4 Rolling stock
4.1 Steam locomotives
4.3 Electric locomotives
4.4 Electric multiple units
6.3 Other publications
7 External links
Paddington to the City, 1853–63
Charles Pearson, promoter of underground railways for London
In the first half of the 19th century the population and physical
London grew greatly.[note 2] The increasing resident
population and the development of a commuting population arriving by
train each day led to a high level of traffic congestion with huge
numbers of carts, cabs, and omnibuses filling the roads and up to
200,000 people entering the City of London, the commercial heart, each
day on foot. By 1850 there were seven railway termini around the
urban centre of London:
London Bridge and Waterloo to the south,
Shoreditch and Fenchurch Street to the east, Euston and King's Cross
to the north, and Paddington to the west. Only Fenchurch Street
station was within the City.
The congested streets and the distance to the City from the stations
to the north and west prompted many attempts to get parliamentary
approval to build new railway lines into the City. None were
successful, and the 1846
Royal Commission investigation into
Metropolitan Railway Termini banned construction of new lines or
stations in the built-up central area.[note 3] The concept of an
underground railway linking the City with the mainline termini was
first proposed in the 1830s. Charles Pearson, Solicitor to the City,
was a leading promoter of several schemes and in 1846 proposed a
central railway station to be used by multiple railway companies.
The scheme was rejected by the 1846 commission, but Pearson returned
to the idea in 1852 when he helped set up the City Terminus Company to
build a railway from Farringdon to King's Cross. Although the plan was
supported by the City, the railway companies were not interested and
the company struggled to proceed.
The Bayswater, Paddington, and Holborn Bridge Railway Company was
established to connect the Great Western Railway's (GWR's) Paddington
station to Pearson's route at King's Cross.[note 4] A bill was
published in November 1852 and in January 1853 the directors held
their first meeting and appointed John Fowler as its engineer.
After successful lobbying, the company secured parliamentary approval
under the name of the "North Metropolitan Railway" in the summer of
1853. The bill submitted by the City Terminus Company was rejected by
Parliament, which meant that the North
Metropolitan Railway would not
be able to reach the City: to overcome this obstacle, the company took
over the City Terminus Company and submitted a new bill in November
1853. This dropped the City terminus and extended the route south from
Farringdon to the General Post Office in St. Martin's Le Grand. The
route at the western end was also altered so that it connected more
directly to the GWR station. Permission was also sought to connect to
London and North Western Railway (LNWR) at Euston and to the Great
Northern Railway (GNR) at King's Cross, the latter by hoists and
lifts. The company's name was also to be changed again, to
Royal assent was granted to the North
Metropolitan Railway Act on 7 August 1854.
Construction of the
Metropolitan Railway close to King's Cross station
Construction of the railway was estimated to cost £1 million.
Initially, with the
Crimean War under way, the Met found it hard to
raise the capital. While it attempted to raise the funds it
presented new bills to Parliament seeking an extension of time to
carry out the works.[note 5] In July 1855, an Act to make a direct
connection to the GNR at King's Cross received royal assent. The plan
was modified in 1856 by the Metropolitan (Great Northern Branch and
Amendment) Act and in 1860 by the Great Northern & Metropolitan
Junction Railway Act.
Although the GWR agreed to contribute £175,000 and a similar sum was
promised by the GNR, sufficient funds to make a start on construction
had not been raised by the end of 1857. Costs were reduced by cutting
back part of the route at the western end so that it did not connect
directly to the GWR station, and by dropping the line south of
Farringdon.[note 6] In 1858, Pearson arranged a deal between the
Met and the City of
London Corporation whereby the Met bought land it
needed around the new
Farringdon Road from the City for £179,000 and
the City purchased £200,000 worth of shares.[note 7] The route
changes were approved by Parliament in August 1859, meaning that the
Met finally had the funding to match its obligations and construction
The Metropolitan Railway's cutting at Farringdon following the
flooding from the Fleet sewer in June 1862
Despite concerns about undermining and vibrations causing subsidence
of nearby buildings and compensating the thousands of people whose
homes were destroyed during the digging of the tunnel construction
began in March 1860. The line was mostly built using the
"cut-and-cover" method from Paddington to King's Cross; east of there
it continued in a 728 yards (666 m) tunnel under Mount Pleasant,
Clerkenwell then followed the culverted
River Fleet beside Farringdon
Road in an open cutting to near the new meat market at
The trench was 33 feet 6 inches (10.2 m) wide, with
brick retaining walls supporting an elliptical brick arch or iron
girders spanning 28 feet 6 inches (8.7 m). The
tunnels were wider at stations to accommodate the platforms. Most of
the excavation work was carried out manually by navvies, although a
primitive earth-moving conveyor was used to remove excavated spoil
from the trench.[note 8]
Within the tunnel, two lines were laid with a 6-foot (1.8 m) gap
between. To accommodate both the standard gauge trains of the GNR and
the broad gauge trains of the GWR, the track was three-rail mixed
gauge, the rail nearest the platforms being shared by both gauges.
Signalling was on the absolute block method, using electric
Spagnoletti block instruments and fixed signals.
Construction was not without incident. In May 1860, a GNR train
overshot the platform at King's Cross and fell into the workings.
Later in 1860, a boiler explosion on an engine pulling contractor's
wagons killed the driver and his assistant. In May 1861, the
excavation collapsed at Euston causing considerable damage to the
neighbouring buildings. The final accident occurred in June 1862 when
the Fleet sewer burst following a heavy rainstorm and flooded the
excavations. The Met and the
Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works managed to
stem and divert the water and the construction was delayed by only a
Trial runs were carried out from November 1861 while construction was
still under way. The first trip over the whole line was in May 1862
William Gladstone among the guests. By the end of 1862 work
was complete at a cost of £1.3 million.[note 9]
Board of Trade
Board of Trade inspections took place in late December 1862 and early
January 1863 to approve the railway for opening. After minor
signalling changes were made, approval was granted and a few days of
operating trials were carried out before the grand opening on 9
January 1863, which included a ceremonial run from Paddington and a
large banquet for 600 shareholders and guests at Farringdon.
Charles Pearson did not live to see the completion of the project; he
died in September 1862.
The railway as it opened in 1863
The 3.75-mile (6 km) railway opened to the public on Saturday 10
January 1863. There were stations at Paddington (Bishop's Road)
(now Paddington), Edgware Road, Baker Street, Portland Road (now Great
Portland Street), Gower Street (now Euston Square), King's Cross (now
King's Cross St Pancras), and Farringdon Street (now Farringdon).
The railway was hailed a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the
opening day, using GNR trains to supplement the service. In the
first 12 months 9.5 million passengers were carried and in
the second 12 months this increased to 12 million.
The original timetable allowed 18 minutes for the journey. Off-peak
service frequency was every 15 minutes, increased to ten minutes
during the morning peak and reduced 20 minutes in the early mornings
and after 8 pm. From May 1864, workmen's returns were offered on
the 5:30 am and 5:40 am services from Paddington at the cost
of a single ticket (3d).
Initially the railway was worked by GWR broad-gauge Metropolitan Class
steam locomotives and rolling stock. Soon after the opening
disagreement arose between the Met and the GWR over the need to
increase the frequency, and the GWR withdrew its stock in August 1863.
The Met continued operating a reduced service using GNR standard-gauge
rolling stock before purchasing its own standard-gauge locomotives
Beyer, Peacock and rolling stock.[note 10]
The Metropolitan initially ordered 18 tank locomotives, of which a key
feature was condensing equipment which prevented most of the steam
from escaping while trains were in tunnels; they have been described
as "beautiful little engines, painted green and distinguished
particularly by their enormous external cylinders." The design
proved so successful that eventually 120 were built to provide
traction on the Metropolitan, the
District Railway (in 1871) and all
other 'cut and cover' underground lines. This
4-4-0 tank engine
can therefore be considered as the pioneer motive power on London's
first underground railway; ultimately, 148 were built between 1864
and 1886 for various railways, and most kept running until
electrification in 1905.
In the belief that it would be operated by smokeless locomotives, the
line had been built with little ventilation and a long tunnel between
Edgware Road and King's Cross. Initially the smoke-filled stations
and carriages did not deter passengers and the ventilation was
later improved by making an opening in the tunnel between Gower Street
and King's Cross and removing glazing in the station roofs. With
the problem continuing after the 1880s, conflict arose between the
Met, who wished to make more openings in the tunnels, and the local
authorities, who argued that these would frighten horses and reduce
property values. This led to an 1897
Board of Trade
Board of Trade report,[note
11] which reported that a pharmacist was treating people in distress
after having travelled on the railway with his 'Metropolitan Mixture'.
The report recommended more openings be authorised but the line was
electrified before these were built.
Extensions and the Inner Circle, 1863–84
Moorgate and the City Widened Lines
Main article: City Widened Lines
City Widened Lines
City Widened Lines between King's Cross and
Moorgate Street and
their connections. The east curve south to the LC&DR opened in
1871, the station at Snow Hill was opened in 1874.
With connections to the GWR and GNR under construction and connections
Midland Railway and London, Chatham and Dover Railway
(LC&DR) planned, the Met obtained permission in 1861 and 1864[note
12] for two additional tracks from King's Cross to Farringdon Street
and a four-track eastward extension to Moorgate. The Met
used two tracks: the other two tracks, the City Widened Lines, used
mainly by other railway companies.
A pair of single-track tunnels at King's Cross connecting the GNR to
the Met opened on 1 October 1863 when the GNR began running
services,[note 13] the GWR returning the same day with through
suburban trains from such places as Windsor. By early autumn 1864
the Met had sufficient carriages and locomotives to run its own trains
and increase the frequency to six trains an hour.
On 1 January 1866, LC&DR and GNR joint services from Blackfriars
Bridge began operating via the Snow Hill tunnel under Smithfield
market to Farringdon and northwards to the GNR. The extension to
Aldersgate Street and
Moorgate Street (now Barbican and Moorgate) had
opened on 23 December 1865 and all four tracks were open on 1
The new tracks from King's Cross to Farringdon were first used by a
GNR freight train on 27 January 1868. The
Midland Railway junction
opened on 13 July 1868 when services ran into
Moorgate Street before
its St Pancras terminus had opened. The line left the main line at St
Paul's Road Junction, entering a double-track tunnel and joining the
Widened Lines at Midland Junction.
Hammersmith & City Railway
Metropolitan Railway in 1873, ten years after opening. Also shown
is the Metropolitan and St John's Wood Railway from Baker Street to
Swiss Cottage, which was operated by the Metropolitan Railway. The GWR
operated the services between
Kensington (Addison Road) and Moorgate.
In November 1860, a bill was presented to Parliament,[note 14]
supported by the Met and the GWR, for a railway from the GWR's main
line a mile west of Paddington to the developing suburbs of Shepherd's
Bush and Hammersmith, with a connection to the West
London Railway at
Latimer Road. Authorised on 22 July 1861 as the Hammersmith
and City Railway (H&CR), the 2 miles 35 chains
(3.9 km) line, constructed on a 20-foot (6.1 m) high viaduct
largely across open fields, opened on 13 June 1864 with a
broad-gauge GWR service from Farringdon Street,  with stations at
Notting Hill (now Ladbroke Grove),
Shepherd's Bush (replaced by the
Shepherd's Bush Market in 1914) and Hammersmith. The link
to the West
London Railway opened on 1 July that year, served by a
carriage that was attached or detached at
Notting Hill for Kensington
(Addison Road). Following an agreement between the Met and the
GWR, from 1865 the Met ran a standard-gauge service to
the GWR a broad-gauge service to Kensington. In 1867, the H&CR
became jointly owned by the two companies. The GWR began running
standard-gauge trains and the broad gauge rail was removed from the
H&CR and the Met in 1869. In 1871, two additional tracks parallel
to the GWR between Westbourne Park and Paddington were brought into
use for the H&CR and in 1878 the flat crossing at Westbourne Park
was replaced by a diveunder. In August 1872, the GWR Addison Road
service was extended over the
District Railway via Earl's Court to
Mansion House. This became known as the
Middle Circle and ran until
January 1905, although from 1 July 1900 trains terminated at Earl's
Court. Additional stations were opened at Westbourne Park (1866),
Latimer Road (1868), Royal Oak (1871), Wood Lane (1908) and Goldhawk
Between 1 October 1877 and 31 December 1906 some services on the
H&CR were extended to Richmond over the
London and South Western
Railway (L&SWR) via its station at
The early success of the Met prompted a flurry of applications to
Parliament in 1863 for new railways in London, many of them competing
for similar routes. To consider the best proposals, the House of Lords
established a select committee, which issued a report in July 1863
with a recommendation for an "inner circuit of railway that should
abut, if not actually join, nearly all of the principal railway
termini in the Metropolis". A number of railway schemes were presented
for the 1864 parliamentary session that met the recommendation in
varying ways and a joint committee composed of members of both Houses
of Parliament was set up to review the options.[note 16]
Proposals from the Met to extend south from Paddington to South
Kensington and east from
Tower Hill were accepted and
received royal assent on 29 July 1864. To complete the circuit,
the committee encouraged the amalgamation of two schemes via different
Kensington and the City, and a combined proposal under
the name Metropolitan
District Railway (commonly known as the District
railway) was agreed on the same day.[note 17] Initially, the
District and the Met were closely associated and it was intended that
they would soon merge. The Met's chairman and three other directors
were on the board of the District, John Fowler was the engineer of
both companies and the construction works for all of the extensions
were let as a single contract. The District was established as
a separate company to enable funds to be raised independently of the
A GWR broad gauge train is taking the route to Bishop's Road at Praed
Street junction near Paddington, where the
Notting Hill and Brompton
extension joins the original line.
Starting as a branch from Praed Street junction, a short distance east
of the Met's Paddington station, the western extension passed through
fashionable districts in Bayswater, Notting Hill, and Kensington. Land
values here were higher and, unlike the original line, the route did
not follow an easy alignment under existing roads. Compensation
payments for property were much higher. In Leinster Gardens,
Bayswater, a façade of two five-storey houses was built at Nos. 23
and 24 to conceal the gap in a terrace created by the railway passing
through. To ensure adequate ventilation, most of the line was in
cutting except for a 421-yard (385 m) tunnel under Campden
Hill. Construction of the District proceeded in parallel with the
work on the Met and it too passed through expensive areas.
Construction costs and compensation payments were so high that the
cost of the first section of the District from
South Kensington to
Westminster was £3 million, almost three times as much as the Met's
original, longer line.
The first section of the Met extension opened to Brompton (Gloucester
Road) (now Gloucester Road) on 1 October 1868, with stations at
Paddington (Praed Street) (now Paddington), Bayswater, Notting Hill
Kensington (High Street) (now High Street Kensington).
Three months later, on 24 December 1868, the Met extended eastwards to
a shared station at
South Kensington and the District opened its line
from there to Westminster, with other stations at Sloane Square,
Victoria, St James's Park, and
Westminster Bridge (now
The District also had parliamentary permission to extend westward from
Brompton and, on 12 April 1869, it opened a single-track line to West
Brompton on the WLR. There were no intermediate stations and at first
this service operated as a shuttle. By summer 1869 separate
tracks had been laid between
South Kensington and Brompton and from
Kensington (High Street) to a junction with the line to West Brompton.
During the night of 5 July 1870 the District secretly built the
Cromwell curve connecting Brompton and
East of Westminster, the next section of the District's line ran in
Victoria Embankment built by the Metropolitan Board of Works
along the north bank of the River Thames. The line opened from
Westminster to Blackfriars on 30 May 1870 with stations at Charing
Cross (now Embankment), The Temple (now Temple) and Blackfriars.
On its opening the Met operated the trains on the District, receiving
55 per cent of the gross receipts for a fixed level of service. Extra
trains required by the District were charged for and the District's
share of the income dropped to about 40 per cent. The District's level
of debt meant that the merger was no longer attractive to the Met and
did not proceed, so the Met's directors resigned from the District's
board. To improve its finances, the District gave the Met notice to
terminate the operating agreement. Struggling under the burden of its
very high construction costs, the District was unable to continue with
the remainder of the original scheme to reach
Tower Hill and made a
final extension of its line just one station east from Blackfriars to
a previously unplanned City terminus at Mansion House.
In 1871 the inner circle services began, starting from Mansion House
and travelling to
Moorgate Street via
South Kensington and Paddington.
The companies had their own pairs of track between
Street and South Kensington.
On Saturday 1 July 1871 an opening banquet was attended by Prime
Minister William Gladstone, who was also a shareholder. The following
Monday, Mansion House opened and the District began running its own
trains. From this date, the two companies operated a joint Inner
Circle service between Mansion House and
Moorgate Street via South
Edgware Road every ten minutes,[note 18] supplemented
by a District service every ten minutes between Mansion House and West
Brompton and H&CR and GWR suburban services between Edgware Road
Moorgate Street. The permissions for the railway east of
Mansion House were allowed to lapse. At the other end of the line,
the District part of
South Kensington station opened on 10 July 1871
[note 19] and Earl's Court station opened on the West Brompton
extension on 30 October 1871.
In 1868 and 1869, judgements went against the Met in a number of
hearings, finding financial irregularities such as the company paying
a dividend it could not afford and expenses being paid out of the
capital account. In 1870, its directors were found guilty of a breach
of trust and ordered to compensate the company. Although they all
appealed and were allowed in 1874 to settle for a much lower
amount, to restore shareholders' confidence the directors had all
been replaced by October 1872 and
Edward Watkin appointed
chairman. Watkin was an experienced railwayman and already on the
board of several railway companies, including the South Eastern
Railway (SER), and had an aspiration to construct a line from the
London to that railway.[note 20]
Due to the cost of land purchases, the Met's eastward extension from
Moorgate Street was slow to progress and it had to obtain an extension
of the Act's time limit in 1869. The extension was begun in 1873, but
after construction exposed burials in the vault of a Roman Catholic
chapel, the contractor reported that it was difficult to keep the men
at work. The first section opened to the Great Eastern Railway's
(GER's) recently opened terminus at Liverpool Street on 1 February
1875. For a short time, while the Met's station was being built,
services ran into the GER station via a 3.5-chain (70 m) curve,
the Met opening its station later that year on 12 July and this curve
not being used again by regular traffic. During the extension of the
railway to Aldgate several hundred cartloads of bullocks' horn were
discovered in a layer 20 ft (6.1 m) below the surface. A
terminus opened at Aldgate on 18 November 1876, initially for a
shuttle service to
Bishopsgate before all Met and District trains
worked through from 4 December.
The joint line (shown in blue) that completed the inner circle in 1884
and gave the Met and District access to the East
London Railway. The
Met's station at the Tower of
London was closed soon after the line
was opened. District services were extended east of Whitechapel over
the Whitechapel & Bow Railway in 1902.
Conflict between the Met and the District and the expense of
construction delayed further progress on the completion of the inner
circle. In 1874, frustrated City financiers formed the Metropolitan
Inner Circle Completion Railway Company with the aim of finishing the
route. This company was supported by the District and obtained
parliamentary authority on 7 August 1874. The company
struggled to raise the funding and an extension of time was granted in
1876. A meeting between the Met and the District was held in 1877
with the Met now wishing to access the SER via the East
(ELR). Both companies promoted and obtained an Act of Parliament in
1879 for the extension and link to the ELR, the Act also ensuring
future co-operation by allowing both companies access to the whole
circle.[note 21] A large contribution was made by authorities for
substantial road and sewer improvements. In 1882, the Met extended its
line from Aldgate to a temporary station at Tower of London. Two
contracts to build joint lines were placed, from Mansion House to the
Tower in 1882 and from the circle north of Aldgate to Whitechapel with
a curve onto the ELR in 1883. From 1 October 1884, the District and
the Met began working trains from St Mary's via this curve onto the
ELR to the SER's New Cross station.[note 22] After an official
opening ceremony on 17 September and trial running a circular service
started on Monday 6 October 1884. On the same day the Met extended
some H&CR services over the ELR to New Cross, calling at new joint
stations at Aldgate East and St Mary's. Joint stations opened
on the circle line at Cannon Street, Eastcheap (Monument from 1
November 1884) and Mark Lane. The Met's Tower of
London station closed
on 12 October 1884 after the District refused to sell tickets to the
station. Initially, the service was eight trains an hour,
completing the 13 miles (21 kilometres) circle in 81–84 minutes, but
this proved impossible to maintain and was reduced to six trains an
hour with a 70-minute timing in 1885. Guards were permitted no relief
breaks during their shift until September 1885, when they were
permitted three 20-minute breaks.
Extension Line, 1868–99
Baker Street to Harrow
Metropolitan Railway Extension Line
Railway transferred to LPTB in 1933
Hammersmith & City line
St John's Wood
Unbuilt route to Hampstead Village
LNER to Marylebone
Kilburn & Brondesbury
to South Harrow (District Railway)
Moor Park & Sandy Lodge
Chorley Wood & Chenies
Chalfont & Latimer
Amersham & Chesham Bois
GW&GCJR to Princes Risborough
Great Central Main Line
Great Central Main Line (LNER)
In April 1868, the Metropolitan & St John's Wood Railway
(M&SJWR) opened a single-track railway in tunnel to Swiss Cottage
from new platforms at Baker Street (called Baker Street East).
There were intermediate stations at St John's Wood Road and
Marlborough Road, both with crossing loops, and the line was worked by
the Met with a train every 20 minutes. A junction was built with the
Inner Circle at Baker Street, but there were no through trains after
The original intention of the Metropolitan & St. John's Wood
Railway was to run to underground north-east to Hampstead Village, and
indeed this appeared on some maps. Although in the event this was
not completed in full and the line was built in a north-western
direction instead, a short heading of tunnel was built north of Swiss
Cottage station in the direction of Hampstead. This is still
visible today when traveling on a southbound Metropolitan line
In the early 1870s, passenger numbers were low and the M&SJWR was
looking to extend the line to generate new traffic. Recently placed in
charge of the Met, Watkin saw this as the priority as the cost of
construction would be lower than in built-up areas and fares higher;
traffic would also be fed into the Circle. In 1873, the
M&SJWR was given authority to reach the
Middlesex countryside at
Neasden,[note 23] but as the nearest inhabited place to Neasden
was Harrow it was decided to build the line 3.5 miles (5.6 km)
further to Harrow and permission was granted in 1874.[note
24] To serve the Royal Agricultural Society's 1879 show at Kilburn, a
single line to West Hampstead opened on 30 June 1879 with a temporary
platform at Finchley Road. Double track and a full service to
Willesden Green started on 24 November 1879 with a station at Kilburn
& Brondesbury (now Kilburn). The line was extended
5 miles 37.5 chains (8.80 km) to Harrow, the service
from Baker Street beginning on 2 August 1880. The intermediate station
Neasden (now Neasden) was opened the same day. Two
years later, the single-track tunnel between Baker Street and Swiss
Cottage was duplicated and the M&SJWR was absorbed by the
In 1882, the Met moved its carriage works from
Edgware Road to
Neasden. A locomotive works was opened in 1883 and a gas works in
1884. To accommodate employees moving from
London over 100 cottages
and ten shops were built for rent. In 1883, a school room and church
took over two of the shops; two years later land was given to the
Wesleyan Church for a church building and a school for 200
Harrow to Verney Junction and Brill
In 1868, the Duke of Buckingham opened the Aylesbury and Buckingham
Railway (A&BR), a 12.75-mile (20.5 km) single track from
Aylesbury to a new station at Verney Junction on the Buckinghamshire
Railway's Bletchley to Oxford line. At the beginning lukewarm
support had been given by the LNWR, which worked the Bletchley to
Oxford line, but by the time the line had been built the relationship
between the two companies had collapsed.[note 26] The Wycombe Railway
built a single-track railway from Princes Risborough to Aylesbury and
when the GWR took over this company it ran shuttles from Princes
Risborough through Aylesbury to Quainton Road and from Quainton Road
to Verney Junction.
The A&BR had authority for a southern extension to Rickmansworth,
connecting with the LNWR's Watford and
Following discussions between the Duke and Watkin it was agreed that
this line would be extended south to meet the Met at Harrow and
permission for this extension was granted in 1874[note 27] and
Watkin joined the board of the A&BR in 1875. Money was not
found for this scheme and the Met had to return to Parliament in 1880
and 1881 to obtain permission for a railway from Harrow to
Pinner was reached in 1885 and an hourly
Rickmansworth and Northwood to Baker Street started on 1
September 1887. By then raising money was becoming very difficult
although there was local support for a station at Chesham.
Authorised in 1885, double track from
Rickmansworth was laid for 5
miles (8.0 km), then single to Chesham. Services to Chesham
calling at Chorley Wood and Chalfont Road (now Chalfont & Latimer)
started on 8 July 1889.
The Met took over the A&BR on 1 July 1891 and a temporary
platform at Aylesbury opened on 1 September 1892 with trains calling
at Amersham, Great Missenden, Wendover and Stoke Mandeville. In 1894,
the Met and GWR joint station at Aylesbury opened. Beyond
Aylesbury to Verney Junction, the bridges were not strong enough for
the Met's locomotives. The GWR refused to help, so locomotives were
borrowed from the LNWR until two D Class locomotives were bought. The
line was upgraded, doubled and the stations rebuilt to main-line
standards, allowing a through Baker Street to Verney Junction
service from 1 January 1897, calling at a new station at Waddesdon
Manor, a rebuilt Quainton Road, Granborough Road and Winslow
From Quainton Road, the Duke of Buckingham had built a 6.5-mile
(10.5 km) branch railway, the Brill Tramway. In 1899, there
were four mixed passenger and goods trains each way between Brill and
Quainton Road. There were suggestions of the Met buying the line and
it took over operations in November 1899, renting the line for
£600 a year. The track was relaid and stations rebuilt in 1903.
Passenger services were provided by A Class and D Class locomotives
and Oldbury rigid eight-wheeled carriages.
In 1893, a new station at
Wembley Park was opened, initially used by
the Old Westminsters Football Club, but primarily to serve a planned
sports, leisure and exhibition centre. A 1,159-foot (353 m)
tower (higher than the recently built Eiffel Tower) was planned, but
the attraction was not a success and only the 200-foot (61 m)
tall first stage was built. The tower became known as "Watkin's Folly"
and was dismantled in 1907 after it was found to be tilting.
Around 1900, there were six stopping trains an hour between Willesden
Green and Baker Street. One of these came from
another from Harrow, the rest started at Willesden Green. There was
also a train every two hours from Verney Junction, which stopped at
all stations to Harrow, then Willesden Green and Baker Street. The
timetable was arranged so that the fast train would leave Willesden
Green just before a stopping service and arrived at Baker Street just
behind the previous service.
Great Central Railway
In 1906 the Great Central had two routes to London, by the Met via
Amersham or the Great Central and Great Western Joint Railway via High
Watkin was also director of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire
Railway (MS&LR) and had plans for a 99-mile (159 km) London
extension to join the Met just north of Aylesbury. There were
suggestions that Baker Street could be used as the
but by 1891–2 the MS&LR had concluded it needed its own station
and goods facilities in the Marylebone area. An Act for this railway
was passed in 1893, but Watkin became ill and resigned his
directorships in 1894. For a while after his departure the
relationship between the companies turned sour.
In 1895, the MS&LR put forward a bill to Parliament to build two
Wembley Park to Canfield Place, near Finchley Road
station, to allow its express trains to pass the Met's stopping
service. The Met protested before it was agreed that it would
build the lines for the MS&LR's exclusive use. When
rebuilding bridges over the lines from
Wembley Park to Harrow for the
MS&LR, seeing a future need the Met quadrupled the line at the
same time and the MS&LR requested exclusive use of two
tracks. The MS&LR had the necessary authority to connect to
the Circle at Marylebone, but the Met suggested onerous terms. At the
time the MS&LR was running short of money and abandoned the
Because of the state of the relationship between the two companies the
MS&LR was unhappy being wholly reliant on the Met for access to
London and, unlike its railway to the north, south of Aylesbury there
were several speed restrictions and long climbs, up to 1 in 90 in
places. In 1898, the MS&LR and the GWR jointly presented a bill to
Parliament for a railway (the Great Western and Great Central Joint
Railway) with short connecting branches from Grendon Underwood, north
of Quainton Road, to Ashendon and from Northolt to Neasden. The Met
protested, claiming that the bill was 'incompatible with the spirit
and terms' of the agreements between it and the MS&LR. The
MS&LR was given authority to proceed, but the Met was given the
right to compensation. A temporary agreement was made to allow
four MS&LR coal trains a day over the Met lines from 26 July 1898.
The MS&LR wished these trains to also use the GWR route from
Aylesbury via Princes Risborough into London, whereas the Met
considered this was not covered by the agreement. A train scheduled to
use the GWR route was not allowed access to the Met lines at Quainton
Road in the early hours of 30 July 1898 and returned north. A
subsequent court hearing found in the Met's favour, as it was a
The MS&LR changed its name to the
Great Central Railway
Great Central Railway (GCR) in
1897 and the
Great Central Main Line
Great Central Main Line from
London Marylebone to
Manchester Central opened for passenger traffic on 15 March 1899.
Negotiations about the line between the GCR and the Met took several
years and in 1906 it was agreed that two tracks from Canfield Place to
Harrow would be leased to the GCR for £20,000 a year and the
Metropolitan and Great Central Joint Railway
Metropolitan and Great Central Joint Railway was created, leasing the
line from Harrow to Verney Junction and the Brill branch for £44,000
a year, the GCR guaranteeing to place at least £45,000 of traffic on
the line. Aylesbury station, which had been jointly run by the
GWR and the Met, was placed with a joint committee of the Great
Western & Great Central and Metropolitan & Great Central Joint
Committees, and generally known as Aylesbury Joint Station. The Met
& GC Joint Committee took over the operation of the stations and
line, but had no rolling stock. The Met provided the management and
the GCR the accounts for the first five years before the companies
switched functions, then alternating every five years until 1926. The
Met maintained the line south of milepost 28.5 (south of Great
Missenden), the GCR to the north.
The jointly owned experimental passenger train that ran for six months
At the start of the 20th century, the District and the Met saw
increased competition in central
London from the new electric
deep-level tube lines. With the opening in 1900 of the Central London
Shepherd's Bush to the City with a flat fare of 2d, the
District and the Met together lost four million passengers between the
second half of 1899 and the second half of 1900. The polluted
atmosphere in the tunnels was becoming increasingly unpopular with
passengers and conversion to electric traction was seen as the way
forward. Electrification had been considered by the Met as early
as the 1880s, but such a method of traction was still in its infancy,
and agreement would be needed with the District because of the shared
ownership of the Inner Circle. A jointly owned train of six coaches
ran an experimental passenger service on the Earl's Court to High
Kensington section for six months in 1900. This was considered
a success, tenders were requested and in 1901 a Met and District joint
committee recommended the
Ganz three-phase AC system with overhead
wires. This was accepted by both parties until the Underground
Electric Railways Company of
London (UERL) took control of the
District. The UERL was led by the American Charles Yerkes, whose
experience in the United States led him to favour DC with a third rail
similar to that on the City & South
London Railway and Central
London Railway. After arbitration by the
Board of Trade
Board of Trade a DC system
with four rails was taken up and the railways began electrifying using
multiple-unit stock and electric locomotives hauling carriages.
In 1904, the Met opened a 10.5 MW coal-fired power station at
Neasden, which supplied 11 kV 33.3 Hz current to five
substations that converted this to 600 V DC using rotary
Meanwhile, the District had been building a line from Ealing to South
Harrow and had authority for an extension to Uxbridge. In 1899,
the District had problems raising the finance and the Met offered a
rescue package whereby it would build a branch from Harrow to Rayners
Lane and take over the line to Uxbridge, with the District retaining
running rights for up to three trains an hour. The necessary Act
was passed in 1899 and construction on the 7.5 miles (12.1 km)
long branch started in September 1902, requiring 28 bridges and a
1.5-mile (2.4 km) long viaduct with 71 arches at Harrow. As this
line was under construction it was included in the list of lines to be
electrified, together with the railway from Baker Street to
Harrow, the inner circle and the joint GWR and Met H&C. The
Met opened the line to Uxbridge on 30 June 1904 with one intermediate
station at Ruislip, initially worked by steam. Wooden platforms
the length of three cars opened at Ickenham on 25 September 1905,
followed by similar simple structures at Eastcote and Rayners Lane on
26 May 1906.
Running electric trains
Electric multiple units began running on 1 January 1905 and by 20
March all local services between Baker Street and Harrow were
electric. The use of six-car trains was considered wasteful on
the lightly used line to Uxbridge and in running an off-peak three-car
shuttle to Harrow the Met aroused the displeasure of the Board of
Trade for using a motor car to propel two trailers. A short steam
train was used for off-peak services from the end of March while some
trailers were modified to add a driving cab, entering service from 1
On 1 July 1905, the Met and the District both introduced electric
units on the inner circle until later that day a Met multiple unit
overturned the positive current rail on the District and the Met
service was withdrawn. An incompatibility was found between the way
the shoe-gear was mounted on Met trains and the District track and Met
trains were withdrawn from the District and modified. Full electric
service started on 24 September, reducing the travel time around the
circle from 70 to 50 minutes.
The GWR built a 6 MW power station at Park Royal and electrified the
line between Paddington and
Hammersmith and the branch from Latimer
Kensington (Addison Road). An electric service with jointly
owned rolling stock started on the H&CR on 5 November 1906.
In the same year, the Met suspended running on the East London
Railway, terminating instead at the District station at
Whitechapel until that line was electrified in 1913. The
H&CR service stopped running to Richmond over the L&SWR on 31
December 1906, although
GWR steam rail motors
GWR steam rail motors ran from Ladbroke Grove
to Richmond until 31 December 1910.
The line beyond Harrow was not electrified so trains were hauled by an
electric locomotive from Baker Street, changed for a steam locomotive
en route. From 1 January 1907, the exchange took place at Wembley
Park. From 19 July 1908, locomotives were changed at Harrow.
GWR rush hour services to the city continued to operate, electric
traction taking over from steam at Paddington from January
1907, although freight services to Smithfield continued to be
steam hauled throughout.[note 29]
In 1908, Robert Selbie[note 30] was appointed General Manager, a
position he held until 1930. In 1909, limited through services to
the City restarted. Baker Street station was rebuilt with four tracks
and two island platforms in 1912. To cope with the rise in
traffic the line south of Harrow was quadrupled, in 1913 from Finchley
Road to Kilburn, in 1915 to Wembley Park; the line from Finchley
Road to Baker Street remained double track, causing a bottleneck.
The joint UNDERGROUND map published in 1908. The Metropolitan Railway
is shown in red.
To promote travel by the underground railways in
London a joint
marketing arrangement was agreed. In 1908, the Met joined this scheme,
which included maps, joint publicity and through ticketing.
UNDERGROUND signs were used outside stations in Central London.
Eventually the UERL controlled all the underground railways except the
Met and the Waterloo & City and introduced station name boards
with a red disc and a blue bar. The Met responded with station boards
with a red diamond and a blue bar. Further coordination in the
form of a General Managers' Conference faltered after Selbie withdrew
in 1911 when the Central
London Railway, without any reference to the
conference, set its season ticket prices significantly lower than
those on the Met's competitive routes. Suggestions of merger with
the Underground Group were rejected by Selbie, a press release of
November 1912 noting the Met's interests in areas outside London, its
relationships with main-line railways and its freight business.
Main article: East
After the Met and the District had withdrawn from the ELR in 1906,
services were provided by the South Eastern Railway, the London,
Brighton, and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) and the Great Eastern
Railway. Both the Met and the District wanted to see the line
electrified, but could not justify the whole cost themselves.
Discussions continued, and in 1911 it was agreed that the ELR would be
electrified with the UERL providing power and the Met the train
service. Parliamentary powers were obtained in 1912 and through
services restarted on 31 March 1913, the Met running two trains an
hour from both the SER's and the LB&SCR's New Cross stations to
South Kensington and eight shuttles an hour alternately from the New
Cross stations to Shoreditch.
Great Northern & City Railway
Main article: Northern City Line
The Great Northern & City Railway (GN&CR) was planned to allow
trains to run from the GNR line at Finsbury Park directly into the
City at Moorgate. The tunnels were large enough to take a main-line
train with an internal diameter of 16 feet (4.9 m), in contrast
to those of the Central
London Railway with a diameter less than 12
feet (3.7 m). The GNR eventually opposed the scheme, and the line
opened in 1904 with the northern terminus in tunnels underneath GNR
Finsbury Park station.
Concerned that the GNR would divert its
Moorgate services over the
City Widened Lines
City Widened Lines to run via the GN&CR, the Met sought to take
over the GN&CR. A bill was presented in 1912–13 to allow this
with extensions to join the GN&CR to the inner circle between
Moorgate and Liverpool Street and to the Waterloo & City line. The
takeover was authorised, but the new railway works were removed from
the bill after opposition from City property owners. The following
year, a bill was jointly presented by the Met and GNR with amended
plans that would have also allowed a connection between the GN&CR
and GNR at Finsbury Park. Opposed, this time by the North London
Railway, this bill was withdrawn.
War and "Metro-land", 1914–32
World War I
On 28 July 1914 World War I broke out and on 5 August 1914 the Met was
made subject to government control in the form of the Railway
Executive Committee. It lost significant numbers of staff who
volunteered for military service and from 1915 women were employed as
booking clerks and ticket collectors. The City Widened Lines
assumed major strategic importance as a link between the channel ports
and the main lines to the north, used by troop movements and freight.
During the four years of war the line saw 26,047 military trains which
carried 250,000 long tons (254,000 t) of materials, although
the sharp curves prevented ambulance trains returning with wounded
using this route. Government control was relinquished on 15
The cover of the Metro-Land guide published in 1921
Unlike other railway companies, which were required to dispose of
surplus land, the Met was in a privileged position with clauses in its
acts allowing it to retain such land that it believed was necessary
for future railway use.[note 31] Initially, the surplus land was
managed by the Land Committee, made up of Met directors. In the
1880s, at the same time as the railway was extending beyond Swiss
Cottage and building the workers' estate at Neasden, roads and
sewers were built at Willesden Park Estate and the land was sold to
builders. Similar developments followed at Cecil Park, near Pinner
and, after the failure of the tower at Wembley, plots were sold at
Wembley Park.[note 32]
In 1912, Selbie, then General Manager, thought that some
professionalism was needed and suggested a company be formed to take
over from the Surplus Lands Committee to develop estates near the
railway. World War I delayed these plans and it was 1919, with
expectation of a housing boom, before Metropolitan Railway
Country Estates Limited (MRCE) was formed. Concerned that Parliament
might reconsider the unique position the Met held, the railway company
sought legal advice, which was that although the Met had authority to
hold land, it had none to develop it. An independent company was
created, although all but one of its directors were also directors of
the Met. MRCE developed estates at
Kingsbury Garden Village near
Neasden, Wembley Park, Cecil Park and Grange Estate at Pinner, and the
Cedars Estate at Rickmansworth, and created places such as Harrow
Metro-land was coined by the Met's marketing department in
1915 when the Guide to the Extension Line became the
priced at 1d. This promoted the land served by the Met for the walker,
visitor and later the house-hunter. Published annually until
1932, the last full year of independence, the guide extolled the
benefits of "The good air of the Chilterns", using language such as
"Each lover of Metroland may well have his own favourite wood beech
and coppice — all tremulous green loveliness in Spring and
russet and gold in October". The dream promoted was of a modern
home in beautiful countryside with a fast railway service to central
From about 1914 the company promoted itself as "The Met", but after
1920 the commercial manager, John Wardle, ensured that timetables and
other publicity material used "Metro" instead.[note 33] Land
development also occurred in central
London when in 1929 Chiltern
court, a large, luxurious block of apartments, opened at Baker
Street,[note 34] designed by the Met's architect Charles Walter
Clark, who was also responsible for the design of a number of station
reconstructions in outer "Metro-land" at this time.
To improve outer passenger services, powerful 75 mph
(121 km/h) H Class steam locomotives were introduced in
1920, followed in 1922–23 by new electric locomotives with a top
speed of 65 mph (105 km/h). The generating capacity of
the power station at
Neasden was increased to approximately
35 MW and on 5 January 1925 electric services reached
Rickmansworth, allowing the locomotive change over point to be
In 1924 and 1925, the
British Empire Exhibition
British Empire Exhibition was held on the
Wembley Park Estate and the adjacent
Wembley Park station was rebuilt
with a new island platform with a covered bridge linking to the
exhibition. The Met exhibited an electric multiple unit car in
1924, which returned the following year with electric locomotive No.
15, subsequently to be named "Wembley 1924". A national sports
arena, Wembley Stadium was built on the site of Watkin's Tower.
With a capacity of 125,000 spectators it was first used for the FA Cup
Final on 28 April 1923 where the match was preceded by chaotic scenes
as crowds in excess of capacity surged into the stadium. In the 1926
Metro-land edition, the Met boasted that that had carried 152,000
Wembley Park on that day.
In 1925, a branch opened from
Rickmansworth to Watford. Although there
had been a railway station in Watford since 1837,[note 35] in
1895 the Watford Tradesmen's Association had approached the Met with a
proposal for a line to Watford via Stanmore. They approached again in
1904, this time jointly with the local District Council, to discuss a
new plan for a shorter branch from Rickmansworth. A possible
route was surveyed in 1906 and a bill deposited in 1912 seeking
authority for a joint Met & GCR line from
Rickmansworth to Watford
town centre that would cross
Cassiobury Park on an embankment. There
was local opposition to the embankment and the line was cut back to a
station with goods facilities just short of the park. The amended Act
was passed on 7 August 1912 and the Watford Joint Committee formed
before the start of World War I in 1914 delayed construction. After
the war, the 1921 Trade Facilities Act offered government financial
guarantees for capital projects that promoted employment, and taking
advantage of this construction started in 1922. During construction
Railways Act 1921
Railways Act 1921 meant that in 1923 the
London and North Eastern
Railway (LNER) replaced the GCR. Where the branch met the extension
line two junctions were built, allowing trains access to Rickmansworth
and London. Services started on 3 November 1925 with one intermediate
station at Croxley Green (now Croxley), with services provided by Met
electric multiple units to Liverpool Street via Moor Park and Baker
Street and by
LNER steam trains to Marylebone. The Met also ran a
shuttle service between Watford and Rickmansworth. During
1924–5 the flat junction north of Harrow was replaced with a 1,200
feet (370 m) long diveunder to separate Uxbridge and main-line
trains. Another attempt was made in 1927 to extend the Watford
Cassiobury Park to the town centre, the Met purchasing a
property on Watford High Street with the intention of converting it to
a station. The proposals for tunnelling under the park proved
controversial and the scheme was dropped.
A 1925 plan for a relief line from Kilburn & Brondesbury to
Edgware Road to relieve the tunnels between Finchley Road and Baker
There remained a bottleneck at Finchley Road where the fast and slow
tracks converged into one pair for the original M&SJWR tunnels to
Baker Street. In 1925, a plan was developed for two new tube tunnels,
large enough for the Met rolling stock that would join the extension
line at a junction north of Kilburn & Brondesbury station and run
beneath Kilburn High Street, Maida Vale and
Edgware Road to Baker
Street. The plan included three new stations, at Quex Road,
Kilburn Park Road and Clifton Road, but did not progress after
Ministry of Transport revised its Requirements for Passenger Lines
requiring a means of exit in an emergency at the ends of trains
running in deep-level tubes – compartment stock used north of Harrow
did not comply with this requirement.
Edgware Road station had
been rebuilt with four platforms and had train destination indicators
including stations such as Verney Junction and Uxbridge.
In the 1920s, off-peak there was a train every 4–5 minutes from
Wembley Park to Baker Street. There were generally two services per
hour from both Watford and Uxbridge that ran non-stop from Wembley
Park and stopping services started from Rayners Lane, Wembley Park,
and Neasden, although most did not stop at Marlborough Road and St
John's Wood Road. Off-peak, stations north of Moor Park were generally
served by Marylebone trains. During the peak trains approached Baker
Street every 2.5–3 minutes, half running through to Moorgate,
Liverpool Street or Aldgate. On the inner circle a train from
Hammersmith ran through Baker Street every 6 minutes, and
Kensington (Addison Road) services terminated at Edgware Road.
Maintaining a frequency of ten trains an hour on the circle was
proving difficult and the solution chosen was for the District to
extend its Putney to
Kensington High Street service around the circle
to Edgware Road, using the new platforms, and the Met to provide all
the inner circle trains at a frequency of eight trains an
Construction started in 1929 on a branch from
Wembley Park to Stanmore
to serve a new housing development at Canons Park, with stations
Canons Park (Edgware) (renamed
Canons Park in
1933). The government again guaranteed finance, this time under
the Development Loans Guarantees & Grants Act, the project also
quadrupling the tracks from
Wembley Park to Harrow. The line was
electrified with automatic colour light signals controlled from a
signal box at
Wembley Park and opened on 9 December 1932.
London Passenger Transport Board, 1933
Unlike the UERL, the Met profited directly from development of
Metro-land housing estates near its lines; the Met had always
paid a dividend to its shareholders. The early accounts are
untrustworthy, but by the late 19th century it was paying a dividend
of about 5 per cent. This dropped from 1900 onwards as electric trams
and the Central
London Railway attracted passengers away; a low
of 1⁄2 per cent was reached in 1907–8. Dividends rose to 2 per
cent in 1911–13 as passengers returned after electrification; the
outbreak of war in 1914 reduced the dividend to 1 per cent. By
1921 recovery was sufficient for a dividend of 2 1⁄4 per
cent to be paid and then, during the post-war housing boom, for the
rate to steadily rise to 5 per cent in 1924–5. The 1926 General
Strike reduced this to 3 per cent; by 1929 it was back to 4 per
In 1913, the Met had refused a merger proposal made by the UERL and it
remained stubbornly independent under the leadership of Robert
Selbie. The Railways Act 1921, which became law on 19 August
1921, did not list any of London's underground railways among the
companies that were to be grouped, although at the draft stage the Met
had been included. When proposals for integration of public
London were published in 1930, the Met argued that it
should have the same status as the four main-line railways, and it was
incompatible with the UERL because of its freight operations, although
the government saw the Met in a similar way to the District as they
jointly operated the inner circle. After the
Transport Bill, aimed primarily at co-ordinating the small independent
bus services, was published on 13 March 1931, the Met spent
£11,000 opposing it. The bill survived a change in government in
1931 and the Met gave no response to a proposal made by the new
administration that it could remain independent if it were to lose its
running powers over the circle. The directors turned to negotiating
compensation for its shareholders; by then passenger numbers had
fallen due to competition from buses and the depression. In 1932,
the last full year of operation, a 1 5⁄8 per cent dividend
was declared. On 1 July 1933, the
London Passenger Transport
Board (LPTB), was created as a public corporation and the Met was
amalgamated with the other underground railways, tramway companies and
bus operators. Met shareholders received £19.7 million in LPTB
The coat of arms of the Metropolitan Railway, combining the arms of
Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire
For a history of the line from 1933 to 1988, see Metropolitan line
The Met became the
Metropolitan line of
London Transport, the Brill
branch closing in 1935, followed by the line from Quainton Road to
Verney Junction in 1936. The
LNER took over steam workings and
freight. In 1936,
Metropolitan line services were extended from
Whitechapel to Barking along the District line. The New Works
Programme meant that in 1939 the
Bakerloo line was extended from Baker
Street in new twin tunnels and stations to Finchley Road before taking
over the intermediate stations to
Wembley Park and the Stanmore
branch. The branch transferred to the
Jubilee line when that line
opened in 1979. The
Great Northern and City Railway
Great Northern and City Railway remained
isolated and was managed as a section of the
Northern line until being
taken over by
British Railways in 1976.
Steam locomotives were used north of
Rickmansworth until the early
1960s when they were replaced following the electrification to
Amersham and the introduction of electric multiple units, London
Transport withdrawing its service north of Amersham. In 1988, the
Hammersmith to Aldgate and Barking was branded as the
Hammersmith & City line, and the route from the New Cross stations
to Shoreditch became the East
London line, leaving the Metropolitan
line as the route from Aldgate to Baker Street and northwards to
stations via Harrow.
After amalgamation in 1933 the "Metro-land" brand was rapidly
dropped. In the mid-20th century, the spirit of
remembered in John Betjeman's poems such as "The Metropolitan Railway"
published in the A Few Late Chrysanthemums collection in 1954 and
he later reached a wider audience with his television documentary
Metro-land, first broadcast on 26 February 1973. The suburbia of
Metro-land is one locale of Julian Barnes'
Metroland, first published in 1980. A film based on the novel,
also called Metroland, was released in 1997.
On 18 June 1925, electric locomotive No. 4 collided with a passenger
train at Baker Street station when a signal was changed from green to
red just as the locomotive was passing it. Six people were
Until 1880 the Met ran no goods trains, but goods trains ran over its
tracks from 20 February 1866 when the GNR began a service to the
LC&DR via Farringdon Street, followed by a service from the
Midland Railway from July 1868. The GNR, the GWR and the Midland all
opened goods depots in the Farringdon area, accessed from the City
Widened Lines. Goods traffic was to play an important part of Met
traffic on the extension line out of Baker Street. In 1880, the Met
secured the coal traffic of the Harrow District Gas Co., worked from
an exchange siding with the Midland at Finchley Road to a coal yard at
Harrow. Goods and coal depots were provided at most of the stations on
the extension line as they were built. Goods for
initially handled at Willesden, with delivery by road or by
transfer to the Midland. The arrival of the GCR gave connections
to the north at Quainton Road and south via Neasden, Acton and
The entrance to Vine Street depot in the 1910s
In 1909, the Met opened Vine Street goods depot near Farringdon with
two sidings each seven wagons long and a regular service from West
Hampstead.[note 38] Trains were electrically hauled with a maximum
length of 14 wagons and restricted to 250 long tons (254 t)
inwards and 225 long tons (229 t) on the return. In 1910, the
depot handled 11,400 long tons (11,600 t), which rose to 25,100
long tons (25,500 t) in 1915. In 1913, the depot was
reported above capacity, but after World War I motor road transport
became an important competitor and by the late 1920s traffic had
reduced to manageable levels.
Coal for the steam locomotives, the power station at
Neasden and local
gasworks were brought in via Quainton Road. Milk was
conveyed from Vale of Aylesbury to the
London suburbs and foodstuffs
from Vine Street to Uxbridge for Alfred Button & Son, wholesale
grocers. Fish to
Billingsgate Market via the Met and the District
joint station at Monument caused some complaints, leaving the station
approaches in an "indescribably filthy condition". The District
suggested a separate entrance for the fish, but nothing was done. The
traffic reduced significantly when the GCR introduced road transport
to Marylebone, but the problem remained until 1936, being one reason
the LPTB gave for abolishing the carrying of parcels on Inner Circle
Initially private contractors were used for road delivery, but from
1919 the Met employed its own hauliers. In 1932, before it became
London Underground, the company owned 544 goods vehicles and
carried 162,764 long tons (165,376 t) of coal, 2,478,212 long
tons (2,517,980 t) of materials and 1,015,501 long tons
(1,031,797 t) tons of goods.
Metropolitan Railway steam locomotives
One of six K Class
2-6-4 steam locomotives introduced to the
Metropolitan Railway in 1925 to haul freight trains
Concern about smoke and steam in the tunnels led to new designs of
steam locomotive. Before the line opened, in 1861 trials were made
with the experimental "hot brick" locomotive nicknamed Fowler's Ghost.
This was unsuccessful and the first public trains were hauled by
GWR Metropolitan Class
GWR Metropolitan Class condensing 2-4-0 tank locomotives
designed by Daniel Gooch. They were followed by standard-gauge GNR
locomotives until the Met received its own
locomotives, built by Beyer Peacock of Manchester. Their design is
frequently attributed to the Met's Engineer John Fowler, but the
locomotive was a development of one Beyer had built for the Spanish
Tudela to Bilbao Railway, Fowler specifying only the driving wheel
diameter, axle weight and the ability to navigate sharp curves.
Eighteen were ordered in 1864, initially carrying names, and by
1870 40 had been built. To reduce smoke underground, at first coke was
burnt, changed in 1869 to smokeless Welsh coal.
From 1879, more locomotives were needed, and the design was updated
and 24 were delivered between 1879 and 1885. Originally they were
painted bright olive green lined in black and yellow, chimneys copper
capped with the locomotive number in brass figures at the front and
domes of polished brass. In 1885, the colour changed to a dark red
known as Midcared, and this was to remain the standard colour, taken
up as the colour for the
Metropolitan line by
London Transport in
1933. When in 1925 the Met classified its locomotives by letters
of the alphabet, these were assigned A Class and B Class. When
the M&SJWR was being built, it was considered that they would
struggle on the gradients and five Worcester Engine
locomotives were delivered in 1868. It was soon found that A and B
Classes could manage trains without difficulty and the 0-6-0Ts were
sold to the
Taff Vale Railway
Taff Vale Railway in 1873 and 1875.
From 1891, more locomotives were needed for work on the extension line
from Baker Street into the country. Four C Class (0-4-4) locomotives,
a development of South Eastern Railway's 'Q' Class, were received in
1891. In 1894, two D Class locomotives were bought to run
between Aylesbury and Verney Junction. These were not fitted with the
condensing equipment needed to work south of Finchley Road. Four
more were delivered in 1895 with condensing equipment, although these
were prohibited working south of Finchley Road. In 1896, two E
Class (0-4-4) locomotives were built at
Neasden works, followed by one
in 1898 to replace the original Class A No. 1, damaged in an accident.
Four more were built by Hawthorn Leslie & Co in 1900 and
1901. To cope with the growing freight traffic on the extension
line, the Met received four F Class (0-6-2) locomotives in 1901,
similar to the E Class except for the wheel arrangement and without
steam heat. In 1897 and 1899, the Met received two
tank locomotives to a standard Peckett design. Unclassified by the
Met, these were generally used for shunting at
Many locomotives were made redundant by the electrification of the
London lines in 1905–06. By 1907, 40 of the class A and B
locomotives had been sold or scrapped and by 1914 only 13 locomotives
of these classes had been retained for shunting, departmental
work and working trains over the Brill Tramway. The need for more
powerful locomotives for both passenger and freight services meant
that, in 1915, four G Class (0-6-4) locomotives arrived from Yorkshire
Engine Co. Eight 75 mph (121 km/h) capable H Class
(4-4-4) locomotives were built in 1920 and 1921 and used mainly on
express passenger services. To run longer, faster and less
frequent freight services in 1925 six K Class (2-6-4) locomotives
arrived, rebuilt from 2-6-0 locomotives manufactured at Woolwich
Arsenal after World War I. These were not permitted south of Finchley
Two locomotives survive: A Class No. 23 (LT L45) at the London
Transport Museum, and E Class No. 1 (LT L44) at the
Buckinghamshire Railway Centre. No.1 ran in steam as part of the
Met's 150th anniversary celebrations during 2013.
The Met opened with no stock of its own, with the GWR and then the GNR
providing services. The GWR used eight-wheeled compartment carriages
constructed from teak. By 1864, the Met had taken delivery of its own
stock, made by the Ashbury Railway Carriage & Iron Co., based on
the GWR design but standard gauge.[note 39] Lighting was provided
by gas — two jets in first class compartments and one in second
and third class compartments, and from 1877 a pressurised oil gas
system was used. Initially the carriages were braked with wooden
blocks operated by hand from the guards' compartments at the front and
back of the train, giving off a distinctive smell. This was
replaced in 1869 by a chain that operated brakes on all carriages. The
operation of the chain brake could be abrupt, leading to some
passenger injuries, and it was replaced by a non-automatic vacuum
brake by 1876. In the 1890s, a mechanical 'next station'
indicator was tested in some carriages on the circle, triggered by a
wooden flap between the tracks. It was considered unreliable and not
approved for full installation.
Metropolitan Railway Jubilee carriage No. 353 at Ongar station in July
In 1870, some close-coupled rigid-wheelbase four-wheeled carriages
were built by Oldbury. After some derailments in 1887, a new
design of 27 feet 6 inches (8.38 m) long
rigid-wheelbase four-wheelers known as Jubilee Stock was built by the
Cravens Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. for the extension line. With
the pressurised gas lighting system and non-automatic vacuum brakes
from new, steam heating was added later. More trains followed in 1892,
although all had been withdrawn by 1912. By May 1893, following
an order by the Board of Trade, automatic vacuum brakes had been
fitted to all carriages and locomotives. A Jubilee Stock first
class carriage was restored to carry passengers during the Met's 150th
Bogie stock was built by Ashbury in 1898 and by
Cravens and at Neasden
Works in 1900. This gave a better ride quality, steam heating,
automatic vacuum brakes, electric lighting and upholstered seating in
all classes. The
Bluebell Railway has four 1898–1900
Cravens carriages and a fifth, built at Neasden, is at the
London Transport Museum.
Competition with the GCR on outer suburban services on the extension
line saw the introduction of more comfortable Dreadnought Stock
carriages from 1910. Ninety-two of these wooden compartment
carriages were built, fitted with pressurised gas lighting and steam
heating. Electric lighting had replaced the gas by 1917 and
electric heaters were added in 1922 to provide warmth when hauled by
an electric locomotive. Later formed into rakes of five, six or
seven coaches, conductor rail pick-ups on the leading and
trailing guard coaches were joined by a bus line and connected to the
electric locomotive to help prevent gapping. Two rakes were
formed with a Pullman coach that provided a buffet service for a
supplementary fare.[note 40] The
Vintage Carriages Trust has
three preserved Dreadnought carriages.
From 1906, some of the Ashbury bogie stock was converted into electric
multiple units. Some Dreadnought carriages were used with
electric motor cars, although two-thirds remained in use as locomotive
hauled stock on the extension line.
An electric locomotive and train on the
Metropolitan Railway in the
Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives
After electrification, the outer suburban routes were worked with
carriage stock hauled from Baker Street by an electric locomotive that
was exchanged for a steam locomotive en route. The Met ordered 20
electric locomotives from Metropolitan Amalgamated with two types of
electrical equipment. The first ten, with Westinghouse equipment,
entered service in 1906. These 'camel-back' bogie locomotives had a
central cab, weighed 50 tons, and had four 215 hp
(160 kW) traction motors The second type were built to a box
car design with
British Thomson-Houston equipment, replaced with
the Westinghouse type in 1919.
In the early 1920s, the Met placed an order with Metropolitan-Vickers
Barrow-in-Furness for rebuilding the 20 electric locomotives. When
work started on the first locomotive, it was found to be impractical
and uneconomical and the order was changed to building new locomotives
using some equipment recovered from the originals. The new locomotives
were built in 1922–23 and named after famous
London residents. They
had four 300 hp (220 kW) motors, totalling 1,200 hp
(890 kW) (one-hour rating), giving a top speed of 65 mph
No. 5 "John Hampden" is preserved as a static display at the London
Transport Museum and No. 12 "Sarah Siddons" has been used for
heritage events, and ran during the Met's 150th anniversary
Electric multiple units
Metropolitan Railway electric multiple units
The first order for electric multiple units was placed with
Metropolitan Amalgamated in 1902 for 50 trailers and 20 motor cars
with Westinghouse equipment, which ran as 6-car trains. First and
third class accommodation was provided in open saloons, second class
being withdrawn from the Met. Access was at the ends via open
lattice gates and the units were modified so that they could run
off-peak as 3-car units. For the joint
Hammersmith & City
line service, the Met and the GWR purchased 20 × 6-cars trains with
Thomson-Houston equipment. In 1904, a further order was placed by
the Met for 36 motor cars and 62 trailers with an option for another
20 motor cars and 40 trailers. Problems with the Westinghouse
equipment led to Thomson-Houston equipment being specified when the
option was taken up and more powerful motors being fitted. Before
1918, the motor cars with the more powerful motors were used on the
circle with three trailers. The open lattice gates were seen as a
problem when working above ground and all of the cars had gates
replaced with vestibules by 1907. Having access only through the
two end doors became a problem on the busy circle and centre sliding
doors were fitted from 1911.
From 1906, some of the Ashbury bogie stock was converted into multiple
units by fitting cabs, control equipment and motors. In 1910, two
motor cars were modified with driving cabs at both ends. They started
work on the Uxbridge-South Harrow shuttle service, being transferred
to the Addison Road shuttle in 1918. From 1925 to 1934 these vehicles
were used between Watford and Rickmansworth.
In 1913, an order was placed for 23 motor cars and 20 trailers, saloon
cars with sliding doors at the end and the middle. These started work
on the circle, including the new service to New Cross via the ELR.
 In 1921, 20 motor cars, 33 trailers and six first-class driving
trailers were received with three pairs of double sliding doors on
each side. These were introduced on the circle.
A T stock multiple unit at Neasden
Between 1927 and 1933 multiple unit compartment stock was built by the
Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon and Birmingham Railway Carriage and
Wagon Co. for services from Baker Street and the City to Watford and
Rickmansworth. The first order was only for motor cars; half had
Westinghouse brakes, Metro-Vickers control systems and four MV153
motors; they replaced the motor cars working with bogie stock
trailers. The rest of the motor cars had the same motor equipment but
used vacuum brakes, and worked with converted 1920/23 Dreadnought
carriages to form 'MV' units. In 1929, 'MW' stock was ordered, 30
motor coaches and 25 trailers similar to the 'MV' units, but with
Westinghouse brakes. A further batch of 'MW' stock was ordered in
1931, this time from the Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co.
This was to make seven 8-coach trains, and included additional
trailers to increase the length of the previous 'MW' batch trains to
eight coaches. These had GEC WT545 motors, and although designed to
work in multiple with the MV153, this did not work well in practice.
After the Met became part of
London Underground, the MV stock was
fitted with Westinghouse brakes and the cars with GEC motors were
re-geared to allow them to work in multiple with the MV153-motored
cars. In 1938, nine 8-coach and ten 6-coach MW units were
re-designated T Stock. A trailer coach built in 1904/5 is stored
London Transport Museum's Acton Depot, although it has been badly
damaged by fire, and the
Spa Valley Railway
Spa Valley Railway is home to two T
^ The company promoted itself as "The Met" from about 1914. The
Railway is referred to as "the Met" or "the Metropolitan" in
historical accounts such as Jackson 1986, Simpson 2003, Horne 2003,
Green 1987, and Bruce 1983.
^ In 1801, approximately one million people lived in the area that is
now Greater London. By 1851 this had doubled.
^ The area of the ban was bounded by
London Bridge, Borough High
Street, Blackman Street, Borough Street, Lambeth Road, Vauxhall Road,
Vauxhall Bridge Road, Grosvenor Place, Park Lane,
Edgware Road, New Road, City Road, Finsbury Square, and
^ The route was to run from the south end of Westbourne Terrace, under
Grand Junction Road (now Sussex Gardens), Southampton Road (now Old
Marylebone Road) and New Road (now
Marylebone Road and Euston Road). A
branch was planned to connect to the GWR terminus.
^ Time limits were included in such legislation to encourage the
railway company to complete the construction of its line as quickly as
possible. They also prevented unused permissions acting as an
indefinite block to other proposals.
^ Instead of connecting to the GWR's terminus, the Met built its own
station at Bishop's Road parallel to Paddington station and to the
north. The Met connected to the GWR's tracks beyond Bishop's Road
^ The shares were later sold by the corporation for a profit.
^ Contractors for the works were Smith & Knight to the west of
Euston Square and John Jay on the eastern section.
^ According to the Metropolitan Railway, the cost of constructing the
line on an elevated viaduct would have been four times the cost of
constructing it in tunnel.
^ Built by Beyer Peacock of Manchester the design of the locomotives
is frequently attributed to the Metropolitan Engineer John Fowler, but
the locomotive was a development of one Beyer Peacock had built for
the Spanish Tudela to Bilbao Railway, Fowler specifying only the
driving wheel diameter, axle weight, and the ability to navigate sharp
^ This report noted that between
Edgware Road and King's Cross there
were 528 passenger and 14 freight trains every weekday and during the
peak hour there were 19 trains each way between Baker Street and
King's Cross, 15 long cwt (760 kg) of coal was burnt
and 1,650 imp gal (7,500 L) water was used, half of
which was condensed, the rest evaporating.
^ In the
Metropolitan Railway Act 1861 and the Metropolitan Railway
(Finsbury Circus Extension) Act 1861 and
Metropolitan Railway Act was
given royal assent on 25 July 1864 approving the additional tracks to
^ One of these tunnels, completed in 1862, was used to bring the
GNR-loaned rolling stock on to the
Metropolitan Railway when the GWR
withdrew its trains in August 1863.
^ For a Hammersmith, Paddington and City Junction Railway.
^ The L&SWR tracks to Richmond now form part of the London
Underground's District line. Stations between
Hammersmith and Richmond
served by the Met were Ravenscourt Park, Turnham Green, Gunnersbury,
and Kew Gardens.
^ In November 1863,
The Times reported that about 30 railway schemes
London had been submitted for consideration in the next
parliamentary session. Many of which seemed "to have been prepared on
the spur of the moment, without much consideration either as to the
cost of construction or as to the practicability of working them when
^ These Acts were the
Metropolitan Railway (
Notting Hill and Brompton
Extension) Act and the
Metropolitan Railway (
Tower Hill Extension)
Act, and the Metropolitan
District Railway Act created the
Metropolitan District Railway.
^ Sources differ about the running of the first 'inner circle'
services. Jackson 1986, p. 56 says the operation was shared
equally, whereas Lee 1956, pp. 28–29 states the Met ran all the
^ The station was completed on 19 July 1871, the Metropolitan and the
District running a joint connecting bus service from the station to
the 1871 International Exhibition.
^ Watkin was also MP for
Hythe, Kent and encouraged the SER to back a
channel tunnel between English and France. By 1883 a tunnel 2,026
yards (1.853 km) long, 7 feet (2.1 m) in diameter had been
dug from the English side, with a similar tunnel 1,825 yards
(1.669 km) long from the French side, but in 1882 work was halted
after the High Court ruled that permission had not been granted to
proceed beyond the low water mark. Subsequent efforts to obtain such
permission were unsuccessful due to military advice which emphasised
the risk of invasion. It is commonly reported that Watkin had
aspirations to build a through route from Manchester or Sheffield to
the continent via this channel tunnel, but no evidence exists of this
^ The Metropolitan and District Railways (City Lines and Extensions)
Act, 1879 received royal assent on 11 August 1879.
^ The East
London Railway now forms part of the
London Overground. It
passes under the
Thames through the 1843
Thames tunnel. Stations
between St Mary's and New Cross served by the Met were Shadwell,
Wapping, Rotherhithe and Deptford Road (now Surrey Quays).
^ The Metropolitan & Saint John's Wood Railway Act was given royal
assent on 21 July 1873.
Kingsbury and Harrow Bill was jointly promoted by the Met and
M&SJWR and received royal assent on 16 July 1874.
^ The streets were labelled 'A' and 'B' until they became Quainton
Street and Verney Street in 1903. The estate was made a
conservation area in 1989.
^ The LNWR leased the line, absorbing the
Buckinghamshire Railway on
21 July 1879.
London & Aylesbury Railway Act was given royal assent in
Rickmansworth and Harrow Extension Act received royal assent
on 16 July 1874
Rickmansworth Extension Railway Act authorising the line to
Rickmansworth was given royal assent on 6 August 1880. The Aylesbury
Rickmansworth Railway Act for the line to Aylesbury received royal
assent on 18 July 1881.
^ Some trains continued to be steam hauled. In September 1909, an
excursion train travelled from Verney Junction to Ramsgate and
returned, a Met locomotive being exchanged for a SE&CR locomotive
at Blackfriars. On 1 October 1961, the Southern Counties Touring
Society arranged a train hauled by steam locomotive Met No. 1 (then
L44) from Stanmore to New Cross Gate via Farringdon and the East
^ Robert Hope Selbie
CBE (1868–1930) was educated at Manchester
Grammar School and Owen's College, Manchester, and joined the
Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway in 1883, working as secretary to
the general manager and assistant to the chief traffic manager. He was
secretary of the Met from 1903, general manager from 1908, appointed a
director of MRCE in 1919, and became a director of the Met in 1922.
CBE was obtained during World War I for his services to the Board
of Trade, the Road Transport Board and the Army Forage Committee. He
died in 1930 attending his son's confirmation service at St Paul's
^ The Land Clauses Consolidation Act 1845 required railways to sell
off surplus lands within ten years of the time given for completion of
the work in the line's enabling Act.
^ As at Neasden, Cecil Park and Willesden have both been
declared conservation areas.
^ Wardle wished a new sign at Euston Square to read EUSTON SQUARE
METRO, but he was overruled by Selbie and METROPOLITAN RAILWAY was
spelt in full.
^ Chiltern Court became one of the most prestigious addresses in
London. It was home to, among others, the novelists
Arnold Bennett and
H. G. Wells. A blue plaque commemorating Wells was
added to the building on 8 May 2002.
^ The original station moved to its current location at Watford
Junction railway station in 1858.
^ The District continued to provide four trains on Sundays to keep
crews familiar with the route.
^ This was made up of £7.2 million of 4.5% 'A' stock, £2 million of
5% 'A' stock, £5.3 million of 5% 'B' stock and £5.1 million in 'C'
^ Other railway's goods depots had already opened near Farringdon on
the Widened Lines. Smithfield Market Sidings opened 1 May 1869,
serviced by the GWR. The GNR opened its depot on 2 November 1874, the
Midland following with its Whitecross depot on 1 January 1878.
^ A preserved carriage at the
Kent and East Sussex Railway
Kent and East Sussex Railway was thought
to be a short four-wheeled
District Railway first class unit, but is
now thought to be a cut-down Met eight-wheeler.
^ Named Mayflower and Galatea (after the entrants of the sixth
America's Cup race in 1886) each Pullman coach seated up to 19
passengers and for a supplementary fare of 6d or 1s breakfast,
luncheon, tea or supper could be purchased. They contained a toilet
and were built with steam heating; electric heating being fitted in
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 195, 325, see also the publicity material
reprinted in Simpson 2003, p. 70
^ Day & Reed 2008, p. 8.
^ "Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. University of
Portsmouth/Jisc. 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
^ Wolmar 2004, p. 22.
^ Green 1987, p. 3.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 7.
^ a b "
Metropolitan Railway Termini".
The Times (19277). 1 July 1846.
p. 6. Retrieved 9 March 2012. (Subscription required
^ "Grand Central Railway Terminus".
The Times (19234). 12 May 1846.
p. 8. Retrieved 21 April 2012. (Subscription required
^ a b c d Day & Reed 2008, p. 9.
^ a b "No. 21386". The
London Gazette. 30 November 1852.
^ Green 1987, pp. 3–4.
^ a b c d "Fowler's Ghost" 1962, p. 299.
^ "No. 21497". The
London Gazette. 25 November 1853.
^ "No. 21581". The
London Gazette. 11 August 1854.
^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 8–9.
^ a b c d Day & Reed 2008, p. 10.
^ a b Wolmar 2004, p. 31.
^ Wolmar 2004, p. 32.
^ Wolmar 2004, p. 33.
^ Wolmar 2004, p. 29.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 24.
^ a b Walford 1878.
^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 10–11.
^ Wolmar 2004, pp. 35–36.
^ Simpson 2003, pp. 13, 25.
^ Wolmar 2004, p. 36.
^ Wolmar 2004, p. 37.
^ Wolmar 2004, pp. 30 & 37.
^ a b Day & Reed 2008, p. 14.
^ a b Wolmar 2004, p. 39.
^ a b Green 1987, p. 5.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Rose 2007.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 16.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 21.
^ Simpson 2003, pp. 16, 19.
^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 14–15.
^ a b Goudie 1990, p. 11.
^ a b Wolmar 2004, p. 47.
^ Bruce, J Greame (1971). Steam to Silver;. London:
^ Jackson 1986, p. 117.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 31.
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 117–118.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 119.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 119–120.
^ "Fowler's Ghost" 1962, p. 303.
^ "No. 22529". The
London Gazette. 12 July 1861.
^ "No. 22537". The
London Gazette. 9 August 1861.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 130.
^ a b "Fowler's Ghost" 1962, p. 301.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 35.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 37.
^ "Fowler's Ghost" 1962, p. 304.
^ Green 1987, p. 6.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 47.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 49.
^ "No. 22450". The
London Gazette. 23 November 1860.
^ Wolmar 2004, pp. 66–67.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 38.
^ "No. 22532". The
London Gazette. 23 July 1861.
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 39–40.
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 38–39.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 11.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 43.
^ Horne 2006, p. 5.
Metropolitan Railway Projects".
The Times (24729). 30 November
1863. p. 7. Retrieved 7 May 2012. (Subscription required
^ a b c Day & Reed 2008, p. 18.
^ Horne 2006, pp. 5–6.
^ a b c Day & Reed 2008, p. 20.
^ Horne 2006, p. 7.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 52–53.
^ Wolmar 2004, p. 72.
^ a b Day & Reed 2008, p. 24.
^ Horne 2006, p. 9.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 54–57.
^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 25–26.
^ Horne 2006, pp. 11–12.
^ Lee 1956, p. 7.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 56.
^ Day & Reed 2008, p. 27.
^ Day & Reed 2008, p. 25.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 57.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 60–61.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 334.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 61–62.
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 75–76.
^ Gourvish 2006, pp. 55–66.
^ a b Horne 2003, p. 24.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 69–71.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 46.
^ a b Horne 2006, p. 24.
^ "No. 24121". The
London Gazette. 11 August 1874.
^ "No. 24751". The
London Gazette. 12 August 1879.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 104–109.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 109.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 110.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 110–112.
^ Green 1987, p. 11.
^ Edwards & Pigram 1988, p. 33.
^ Horne 2003, pp. 7–8.
^ Demuth & Leboff 1999, p. 9.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 374.
^ Horne 2003, pp. 6–9.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 75.
^ a b c d e f Jackson 1986, p. 77.
^ Horne 2003, p. 12.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 79.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 80–81.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 20.
^ a b Horne 2003, p. 15.
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 82–83.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 82.
Neasden Village Conservation Area". Brent Council. 17 September
2010. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 76.
^ Awdry 1990, p. 63.
^ Horne 2003, pp. 10–11.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 78.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 80.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 86.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 87.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 90.
^ Horne 2003, p. 17.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 91, 93.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 93.
^ a b Green 1987, p. 13.
^ Horne 2003, pp. 18–19.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 94–95.
^ Goudie 1990, p. 21.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 48.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 100–103.
^ Horne 2003, pp. 20–21.
^ Horne 2003, pp. 24–25.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 144–145.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 145–146.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 148.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 151–152.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 149.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 152–155.
^ Horne 2003, p. 27.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 158–160.
^ Horne 2003, p. 28.
^ Green 1987, p. 24.
^ a b Green 1987, p. 25.
^ Horne 2003, p. 29.
^ a b Simpson 2003, p. 97.
^ Horne 2003, p. 26.
^ Horne 2003, p. x.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 191.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 177–178.
^ a b Simpson 2003, p. 152.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 40.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 184–185.
^ a b c d e Green 1987, p. 26.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 185–186.
^ Horne 2003, p. 30.
^ Edwards & Pigram 1988, p. 89.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 187.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 346.
^ Casserley 1977, p. 93.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 194, 346.
^ Foxell 1996, p. 51.
^ Horne 2003, p. 34.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 55.
^ a b c Green 1987, p. 44.
^ Horne 2003, p. 51.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 218.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 219.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 223–224.
^ Green 1987, pp. 23–24.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 220–221.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 229.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 231.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 232.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 134.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 134, 137.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 140–142.
^ Adams, Stephen (15 July 2009). "Suburbia that inspired Sir John
Betjeman to get heritage protection". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 May
^ "Willesden Green Conservation Area". Brent Council. 19 September
2010. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 240.
^ a b c d e Green 1987, p. 43.
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 241–242.
^ Rowley 2006, pp. 206, 207.
^ a b c d Green 2004, introduction.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 352.
^ Foxell 1996, p. 54.
^ Horne 2003, p. 37.
^ Foxell 1996, p. 55.
^ a b Benest 1984, p. 48.
^ a b c Horne 2003, p. 42.
^ a b Horne 2003, p. 38.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 247.
^ a b Butt 1995, p. 242.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 111.
^ Simpson 2003, pp. 112–114.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 254.
^ Edwards & Pigram 1988, p. 39.
^ Goudie, F. W.; Stuckey, Douglas (1990). West of Watford: L.N.W.R.,
L.M.S., Metropolitan, L.N.E.R., Bakerloo, Watford, Croxley Green,
Rickmansworth. Forge Books.
ISBN 978-0-904662-18-4. [page needed]
^ Horne 2003, p. 58.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 58.
^ Horne 2003, pp. 58–59.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 262–263.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 271–272.
^ Horne 2003, p. 47.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 272.
^ a b Horne 2006, p. 55.
^ Simpson 2003, pp. 105–106.
^ a b c d Jackson 1986, p. 327.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 160.
^ Railway Clerks' Association 1922, p. 11.
^ Green 1987, p. 46.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 289.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 290–291.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 302.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 305.
^ Green 1987, pp. 47, 51.
^ Green 1987, p. 56.
^ Betjeman, John (1954). A Few Late Chrysanthemums. John Murray.
^ "Metro-Land (1973)". Screenonline. British Film Institute.
^ Barnes, Julian (2009). Metroland. p. 5, back page: Vintage.
^ RadioTimes Guide to Films 2010. BBC Worldwide. 2009. p. 754.
^ Earnshaw 1989, p. 20.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 48, 333, 365.
^ a b Horne 2003, p. 49.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 365.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 366, 368.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 333, 365–367.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 366–367.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 367.
^ Edwards & Pigram 1988, pp. 9, 58.
^ a b Jackson 1986, pp. 369–370.
^ Edwards & Pigram 1988, p. 58.
^ a b Green 1987, pp. 5–6.
^ Goudie 1990, p. 24.
^ Goudie 1990, p. 12.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 69–70.
^ a b Goudie 1990, pp. 25–26.
^ a b Green 1987, p. 14.
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^ Goudie 1990, p. 31.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 32–35.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 38–39.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 36–37.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 18, 19, 72–74.
^ Casserley 1977, p. 8.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 42–47.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 48–55.
^ Goudie 1990, pp. 56–59.
Metropolitan Railway A class 4-4-0T steam locomotive No. 23, 1866".
ltmcollection.org. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
Metropolitan Railway E Class
Metropolitan Railway E Class 0-4-4T No.1".
Centre. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 3
^ a b For example
"Discover Forgotten Metro‐land" (PDF). Buckingham Railway Centre.
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"Steam back on the Met" (PDF).
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1864". Vintage Carriages Trust. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
^ "No 100
London Underground Coach". Coaching Stock Register. Kent and
East Sussex Railway. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014.
Retrieved 21 October 2012.
^ Edwards & Pigram 1988, p. 32.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 44.
^ Simpson 2003, p. 19.
^ Horne 2003, p. 22.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 14.
^ Edwards & Pigram 1988, p. 23.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 16.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 21.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 96.
^ "Project 353".
London Transport Museum. Retrieved 4 December
^ Bruce 1983, p. 22.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 97.
^ "The history of the carriages". Bluebell Railway. 14 January 1996
– 14 January 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
^ a b Bruce 1983, p. 26.
^ Casserley 1977, p. 44.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 63.
^ Snowdon 2001, p. 55.
^ Jackson 1986, pp. 213–214.
Metropolitan Railway Nine Compartment Third No. 465". Vintage
Carriages Trust. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
^ a b Bruce 1983, p. 56.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 25.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 58.
^ a b Bruce 1983, p. 59.
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1922". ltmcollection.org. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
^ "Past Events – tube 150".
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^ Jackson 1986, p. 173.
^ a b Bruce 1983, pp. 37–39.
^ a b Jackson 1986, p. 175.
^ Jackson 1986, p. 184.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 41.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 39.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 66.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 64.
^ Bruce 1983, p. 71.
^ Bruce 1983, pp. 72–74.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metropolitan Railway.
A silent film A trip on the Metropolitan Railway, circa 1910 London
Great Central Railway
Great Central Railway Joint Committee Survey
Created by the Metropolitan & Great Central Joint Committee in
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Metropolitan Line Clive's UndergrounD Line Guides
King's Cross St. Pancras
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Former rolling stock
Metropolitan Railway electric multiple units
Main Line Stock
A60 and A62 Stock
Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives
Metro-Land (1973 film)
Croxley Rail link
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West Hampstead interchange
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Transport for London
London Transport portal
Hammersmith & City line
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Metropolitan line (1933–88)
Former rolling stock
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Electric multiple units
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Transport for London
London Transport portal
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Notting Hill Gate
Paddington (→ to Edgware Road)
Metropolitan line (1933–88)
History of the District line
Former rolling stock
Metropolitan Railway steam locomotives
District Railway steam locomotives
Metropolitan Railway electric multiple units
District Railway electric multiple units
O and P Stock
Associated circle lines
Super Outer Circle
Hammersmith & City line
Transport for London