The METROPOLITAN RAILWAY (also known as the MET ) was a passenger and
goods railway that served
London from 1863 to 1933, its main line
heading north-west from the capital's financial heart in the City to
what were to become the
Middlesex suburbs. Its first line connected
the main-line railway termini at Paddington , Euston , and King\'s
Cross to the City. The first section was built beneath the New Road
using the "cut-and-cover " method between Paddington and King's Cross
and in tunnel and cuttings beside
Farringdon Road from King's Cross to
near Smithfield , near the City. It opened to the public on 10 January
1863 with gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives, the
world's first passenger-carrying designated underground railway.
The line was soon extended from both ends, and northwards via a
branch from Baker Street . It reached
Hammersmith in 1864, Richmond in
1877 and completed the Inner Circle in 1884, but the most important
route was the line north into the
Middlesex countryside, where it
stimulated the development of new suburbs. Harrow was reached in 1880,
and the line eventually extended to Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire
, more than 50 miles (80 kilometres) from Baker Street and the centre
Electric traction was introduced in 1905 and by 1907 electric
multiple units operated most of the services, though electrification
of outlying sections did not occur until decades later. Unlike other
railway companies in the
London area, the Met developed land for
housing, and after World War I promoted housing estates near the
railway using the "
Metro-land " brand. On 1 July 1933, the Met was
amalgamated with the Underground Electric Railways Company of London
and the capital's tramway and bus operators to form the London
Passenger Transport Board .
Former Met tracks and stations are used by the
London Underground 's
Metropolitan , Circle , District ,
Hammersmith & City , Piccadilly ,
and Jubilee lines, and by
Chiltern Railways .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Paddington to the City, 1853–63
* 1.1.1 Establishment
* 1.1.2 Construction
* 1.1.3 Opening
* 1.2 Extensions and the Inner Circle, 1863–84
* 1.2.1 Farringdon to
Moorgate and the
City Widened Lines
Hammersmith & City Railway
* 1.2.3 Inner Circle
* 1.3 Extension Line, 1868–99
* 1.3.1 Baker Street to Harrow
* 1.3.2 Harrow to Verney Junction and Brill
Great Central Railway
* 1.4 Electrification, 1900–14
* 1.4.1 Development
* 1.4.2 Running electric trains
* 1.4.4 East
* 1.4.5 Great Northern ">
Charles Pearson , promoter of
underground railways for
In the first half of the 19th century the population and physical
London grew greatly. The increasing resident population and
the development of a commuting population arriving by train each day
led to a high level of traffic congestion with huge numbers of carts,
cabs, and omnibuses filling the roads and up to 200,000 people
entering the City of
London , the commercial heart, each day on foot.
By 1850 there were seven railway termini around the urban centre of
London Bridge and Waterloo to the south, Shoreditch and
Fenchurch Street to the east, Euston and King\'s Cross to the north,
and Paddington to the west. Only Fenchurch Street station was within
The congested streets and the distance to the City from the stations
to the north and west prompted many attempts to get parliamentary
approval to build new railway lines into the City. None were
successful, and the 1846
Royal Commission investigation into
Metropolitan Railway Termini banned construction of new lines or
stations in the built-up central area. The concept of an
underground railway linking the City with the mainline termini was
first proposed in the 1830s.
Charles Pearson , Solicitor to the City,
was a leading promoter of several schemes and in 1846 proposed a
central railway station to be used by multiple railway companies. The
scheme was rejected by the 1846 commission, but Pearson returned to
the idea in 1852 when he helped set up the City Terminus Company to
build a railway from Farringdon to King's Cross. Although the plan was
supported by the City, the railway companies were not interested and
the company struggled to proceed.
The Bayswater, Paddington, and Holborn Bridge Railway Company was
established to connect the
Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway 's (GWR's) Paddington
station to Pearson's route at King's Cross. A bill was published in
November 1852 and in January 1853 the directors held their first
meeting and appointed John Fowler as its engineer. After successful
lobbying, the company secured parliamentary approval under the name of
the "North Metropolitan Railway" in the summer of 1853. The bill
submitted by the City Terminus Company was rejected by Parliament,
which meant that the North
Metropolitan Railway would not be able to
reach the City: to overcome this obstacle, the company took over the
City Terminus Company and submitted a new bill in November 1853. This
dropped the City terminus and extended the route south from Farringdon
to the General Post Office in St. Martin\'s Le Grand . The route at
the western end was also altered so that it connected more directly to
the GWR station. Permission was also sought to connect to the London
and North Western Railway (LNWR) at Euston and to the Great Northern
Railway (GNR) at King's Cross, the latter by hoists and lifts. The
company's name was also to be changed again, to Metropolitan Railway.
Royal assent was granted to the North
Metropolitan Railway Act on 7
August 1854. Construction of the
Metropolitan Railway close to
King's Cross station in 1861
Construction of the railway was estimated to cost £1 million.
Initially, with the
Crimean War under way, the Met found it hard to
raise the capital. While it attempted to raise the funds it presented
new bills to Parliament seeking an extension of time to carry out the
works. In July 1855, an Act to make a direct connection to the GNR
at King's Cross received royal assent. The plan was modified in 1856
by the Metropolitan (Great Northern Branch and Amendment) Act and in
1860 by the Great Northern "> The Metropolitan Railway's cutting at
Farringdon following the flooding from the Fleet sewer in June 1862
Despite concerns about undermining and vibrations causing subsidence
of nearby buildings and compensating the thousands of people whose
homes were destroyed during the digging of the tunnel construction
began in March 1860. The line was mostly built using the
"cut-and-cover " method from Paddington to King's Cross; east of there
it continued in a 728 yards (666 m) tunnel under Mount Pleasant,
Clerkenwell then followed the culverted
River Fleet beside Farringdon
Road in an open cutting to near the new meat market at Smithfield.
The trench was 33 feet 6 inches (10.2 m) wide, with brick retaining
walls supporting an elliptical brick arch or iron girders spanning 28
feet 6 inches (8.7 m). The tunnels were wider at stations to
accommodate the platforms. Most of the excavation work was carried out
manually by navvies , although a primitive earth-moving conveyor was
used to remove excavated spoil from the trench.
Within the tunnel, two lines were laid with a 6-foot (1.8 m) gap
between. To accommodate both the standard gauge trains of the GNR and
the broad gauge trains of the GWR, the track was three-rail mixed
gauge , the rail nearest the platforms being shared by both gauges.
Signalling was on the absolute block method, using electric
Spagnoletti block instruments and fixed signals.
Construction was not without incident. In May 1860, a GNR train
overshot the platform at King's Cross and fell into the workings.
Later in 1860, a boiler explosion on an engine pulling contractor's
wagons killed the driver and his assistant. In May 1861, the
excavation collapsed at Euston causing considerable damage to the
neighbouring buildings. The final accident occurred in June 1862 when
the Fleet sewer burst following a heavy rainstorm and flooded the
excavations. The Met and the
Metropolitan Board of Works managed to
stem and divert the water and the construction was delayed by only a
Trial runs were carried out from November 1861 while construction was
still under way. The first trip over the whole line was in May 1862
William Gladstone among the guests. By the end of 1862 work was
complete at a cost of £1.3 million.
Board of Trade
Board of Trade inspections took place in late December 1862 and early
January 1863 to approve the railway for opening. After minor
signalling changes were made, approval was granted and a few days of
operating trials were carried out before the grand opening on 9
January 1863, which included a ceremonial run from Paddington and a
large banquet for 600 shareholders and guests at Farringdon. Charles
Pearson did not live to see the completion of the project; he died in
September 1862. The railway as it opened in 1863
The 3.75-mile (6 km) railway opened to the public on Saturday 10
January 1863. There were stations at Paddington (Bishop's Road) (now
Edgware Road , Baker Street , Portland Road (now Great
Portland Street ), Gower Street (now Euston Square ), King's Cross
(now King\'s Cross St Pancras ), and Farringdon Street (now Farringdon
The railway was hailed a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the
opening day, using GNR trains to supplement the service. In the first
12 months 9.5 million passengers were carried and in the second 12
months this increased to 12 million.
The original timetable allowed 18 minutes for the journey. Off-peak
service frequency was every 15 minutes, increased to ten minutes
during the morning peak and reduced 20 minutes in the early mornings
and after 8 pm. From May 1864, workmen's returns were offered on the
5:30 am and 5:40 am services from Paddington at the cost of a single
ticket (3d ).
Initially the railway was worked by GWR broad-gauge Metropolitan
Class steam locomotives and rolling stock. Soon after the opening
disagreement arose between the Met and the GWR over the need to
increase the frequency, and the GWR withdrew its stock in August 1863.
The Met continued operating a reduced service using GNR standard-gauge
rolling stock before purchasing its own standard-gauge locomotives
Beyer, Peacock and rolling stock.
The Metropolitan initially ordered 18 tank locomotives, of which a
key feature was condensing equipment which prevented most of the steam
from escaping while trains were in tunnels; they have been described
as "beautiful little engines, painted green and distinguished
particularly by their enormous external cylinders." The design proved
so successful that eventually 120 were built to provide traction on
the Metropolitan, the
District Railway (in 1871) and all other 'cut
and cover' underground lines. This
4-4-0 tank engine can therefore be
considered as the pioneer motive power on London's first underground
railway; ultimately, 148 were built between 1864 and 1886 for various
railways, and most kept running until electrification in 1905.
In the belief that it would be operated by smokeless locomotives, the
line had been built with little ventilation and a long tunnel between
Edgware Road and King's Cross. Initially the smoke-filled stations
and carriages did not deter passengers and the ventilation was later
improved by making an opening in the tunnel between Gower Street and
King's Cross and removing glazing in the station roofs. With the
problem continuing after the 1880s, conflict arose between the Met,
who wished to make more openings in the tunnels, and the local
authorities, who argued that these would frighten horses and reduce
property values. This led to an 1897
Board of Trade
Board of Trade report, which
reported that a pharmacist was treating people in distress after
having travelled on the railway with his 'Metropolitan Mixture'. The
report recommended more openings be authorised but the line was
electrified before these were built.
EXTENSIONS AND THE INNER CIRCLE, 1863–84
Moorgate And The City Widened Lines
City Widened Lines The
City Widened Lines between
King's Cross and
Moorgate Street and their connections. The east curve
south to the LC&DR opened in 1871, the station at Snow Hill was opened
With connections to the GWR and GNR under construction and
connections to the
Midland Railway and London, Chatham and Dover
Railway (LC&DR) planned, the Met obtained permission in 1861 and 1864
for two additional tracks from King's Cross to Farringdon Street and a
four-track eastward extension to
Moorgate . The Met used two
tracks: the other two tracks, the City Widened Lines, used mainly by
other railway companies.
A pair of single-track tunnels at King's Cross connecting the GNR to
the Met opened on 1 October 1863 when the GNR began running services,
the GWR returning the same day with through suburban trains from such
places as Windsor. By early autumn 1864 the Met had sufficient
carriages and locomotives to run its own trains and increase the
frequency to six trains an hour.
On 1 January 1866, LC">
Hammersmith "> The
Metropolitan Railway in 1873, ten years after
opening. Also shown is the Metropolitan and St John's Wood Railway
from Baker Street to Swiss Cottage, which was operated by the
Metropolitan Railway. The GWR operated the services between Kensington
(Addison Road) and Moorgate.
In November 1860, a bill was presented to Parliament, supported by
the Met and the GWR, for a railway from the GWR's main line a mile
west of Paddington to the developing suburbs of Shepherd\'s Bush and
Hammersmith , with a connection to the West
London Railway at Latimer
Road. Authorised on 22 July 1861 as the
Hammersmith and City Railway
(H&CR), the 2 miles 35 chains (3.9 km) line, constructed on a 20-foot
(6.1 m) high viaduct largely across open fields, opened on 13 June
1864 with a broad-gauge GWR service from Farringdon Street, with
Notting Hill (now Ladbroke Grove ), Shepherd's Bush
(replaced by the current Shepherd\'s Bush Market in 1914) and
Hammersmith . The link to the West
London Railway opened on 1 July
that year, served by a carriage that was attached or detached at
Notting Hill for
Kensington (Addison Road) . Following an agreement
between the Met and the GWR, from 1865 the Met ran a standard-gauge
Hammersmith and the GWR a broad-gauge service to
Kensington. In 1867, the H&CR became jointly owned by the two
companies. The GWR began running standard-gauge trains and the broad
gauge rail was removed from the H&CR and the Met in 1869. In 1871, two
additional tracks parallel to the GWR between Westbourne Park and
Paddington were brought into use for the H&CR and in 1878 the flat
crossing at Westbourne Park was replaced by a diveunder . In August
1872, the GWR Addison Road service was extended over the District
Railway via Earl's Court to Mansion House . This became known as the
Middle Circle and ran until January 1905, although from 1 July 1900
trains terminated at Earl's Court. Additional stations were opened at
Westbourne Park (1866), Latimer Road (1868), Royal Oak (1871), Wood
Lane (1908) and Goldhawk Road (1914).
Between 1 October 1877 and 31 December 1906 some services on the H&CR
were extended to Richmond over the
London and South Western Railway
(L"> A GWR broad gauge train is taking the route to Bishop's Road
at Praed Street junction near Paddington, where the
Notting Hill and
Brompton extension joins the original line.
Starting as a branch from Praed Street junction, a short distance
east of the Met's Paddington station, the western extension passed
through fashionable districts in
Notting Hill , and
Kensington . Land values here were higher and, unlike the original
line, the route did not follow an easy alignment under existing roads.
Compensation payments for property were much higher. In Leinster
Gardens , Bayswater, a façade of two five-storey houses was built at
Nos. 23 and 24 to conceal the gap in a terrace created by the railway
passing through. To ensure adequate ventilation, most of the line was
in cutting except for a 421-yard (385 m) tunnel under
Campden Hill .
Construction of the District proceeded in parallel with the work on
the Met and it too passed through expensive areas. Construction costs
and compensation payments were so high that the cost of the first
section of the District from
South Kensington to
Westminster was £3
million, almost three times as much as the Met's original, longer
The first section of the Met extension opened to Brompton (Gloucester
Road) (now Gloucester Road ) on 1 October 1868, with stations at
Paddington (Praed Street) (now Paddington ),
Bayswater , Notting Hill
Gate , and
Kensington (High Street) (now High Street
Three months later, on 24 December 1868, the Met extended eastwards to
a shared station at
South Kensington and the District opened its line
from there to Westminster, with other stations at Sloane Square ,
Victoria , St James\'s Park , and
Westminster Bridge (now Westminster
The District also had parliamentary permission to extend westward
from Brompton and, on 12 April 1869, it opened a single-track line to
West Brompton on the WLR. There were no intermediate stations and at
first this service operated as a shuttle. By summer 1869 separate
tracks had been laid between
South Kensington and Brompton and from
Kensington (High Street) to a junction with the line to West Brompton.
During the night of 5 July 1870 the District secretly built the
Cromwell curve connecting Brompton and
East of Westminster, the next section of the District's line ran in
Victoria Embankment built by the Metropolitan Board of Works
along the north bank of the
River Thames . The line opened from
Westminster to Blackfriars on 30 May 1870 with stations at Charing
Cross (now Embankment ), The Temple (now Temple ) and Blackfriars .
On its opening the Met operated the trains on the District, receiving
55 per cent of the gross receipts for a fixed level of service. Extra
trains required by the District were charged for and the District's
share of the income dropped to about 40 per cent. The District's level
of debt meant that the merger was no longer attractive to the Met and
did not proceed, so the Met's directors resigned from the District's
board. To improve its finances, the District gave the Met notice to
terminate the operating agreement. Struggling under the burden of its
very high construction costs, the District was unable to continue with
the remainder of the original scheme to reach
Tower Hill and made a
final extension of its line just one station east from Blackfriars to
a previously unplanned City terminus at Mansion House . In 1871
the inner circle services began, starting from Mansion House and
Moorgate Street via
South Kensington and Paddington. The
companies had their own pairs of track between
Kensington High Street
and South Kensington.
On Saturday 1 July 1871 an opening banquet was attended by Prime
William Gladstone , who was also a shareholder. The following
Monday, Mansion House opened and the District began running its own
trains. From this date, the two companies operated a joint Inner
Circle service between Mansion House and
Moorgate Street via South
Edgware Road every ten minutes, supplemented by a
District service every ten minutes between Mansion House and West
Brompton and H"> The joint line (shown in blue) that completed the
inner circle in 1884 and gave the Met and District access to the East
London Railway. The Met's station at the Tower of
London was closed
soon after the line was opened. District services were extended east
of Whitechapel over the
Whitechapel & Bow Railway in 1902.
Conflict between the Met and the District and the expense of
construction delayed further progress on the completion of the inner
circle. In 1874, frustrated City financiers formed the Metropolitan
Inner Circle Completion Railway Company with the aim of finishing the
route. This company was supported by the District and obtained
parliamentary authority on 7 August 1874. The company struggled to
raise the funding and an extension of time was granted in 1876. A
meeting between the Met and the District was held in 1877 with the Met
now wishing to access the SER via the East
London Railway (ELR). Both
companies promoted and obtained an Act of Parliament in 1879 for the
extension and link to the ELR, the Act also ensuring future
co-operation by allowing both companies access to the whole circle. A
large contribution was made by authorities for substantial road and
sewer improvements. In 1882, the Met extended its line from Aldgate to
a temporary station at Tower of
London . Two contracts to build joint
lines were placed, from Mansion House to the Tower in 1882 and from
the circle north of Aldgate to Whitechapel with a curve onto the ELR
in 1883. From 1 October 1884, the District and the Met began working
trains from St Mary\'s via this curve onto the ELR to the SER's New
Cross station . After an official opening ceremony on 17 September
and trial running a circular service started on Monday 6 October 1884.
On the same day the Met extended some H
Metropolitan Railway Extension Line
Legend RAILWAY TRANSFERRED TO LPTB IN 1933
Hammersmith ; background-color:; text-align:center !important;
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St John\'s Wood
Unbuilt route to
LNER to Marylebone
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to South Harrow (
District Railway )
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WATFORD CENTRAL (proposed)
Chorley Wood ; background-color:; text-align:center !important;
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AMERSHAM ; background-color:; text-align:center !important;
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GW ; background-color:; text-align:center !important; width:0px;
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Great Central Main Line (
In April 1868, the Metropolitan & St John's Wood Railway (M&SJWR)
opened a single-track railway in tunnel to Swiss Cottage from new
platforms at Baker Street (called Baker Street East). There were
intermediate stations at St John\'s Wood Road and Marlborough Road ,
both with crossing loops, and the line was worked by the Met with a
train every 20 minutes. A junction was built with the Inner Circle at
Baker Street, but there were no through trains after 1869.
The original intention of the Metropolitan & St. John's Wood Railway
was to run to underground north-east to
Hampstead Village , and indeed
this appeared on some maps. Although in the event this was not
completed in full and the line was built in a north-western direction
instead, a short heading of tunnel was built north of Swiss Cottage
station in the direction of Hampstead. This is still visible today
when traveling on a southbound
Metropolitan line service.
In the early 1870s, passenger numbers were low and the M traffic
would also be fed into the Circle. In 1873, the M&SJWR was given
authority to reach the
Middlesex countryside at Neasden, but as the
nearest inhabited place to
Neasden was Harrow it was decided to build
the line 3.5 miles (5.6 km) further to Harrow and permission was
granted in 1874. To serve the Royal Agricultural Society 's 1879
show at Kilburn, a single line to West Hampstead opened on 30 June
1879 with a temporary platform at Finchley Road . Double track and a
full service to Willesden Green started on 24 November 1879 with a
station at Kilburn & Brondesbury (now Kilburn ). The line was
extended 5 miles 37.5 chains (8.80 km) to Harrow , the service from
Baker Street beginning on 2 August 1880. The intermediate station at
Neasden ) was opened the same day. Two years
later, the single-track tunnel between Baker Street and Swiss Cottage
was duplicated and the M two years later land was given to the
Wesleyan Church for a church building and a school for 200 children.
Harrow To Verney Junction And Brill
In 1868, the Duke of Buckingham opened the Aylesbury and Buckingham
Railway (A&BR), a 12.75-mile (20.5 km) single track from Aylesbury to
a new station at Verney Junction on the
Buckinghamshire Railway 's
Bletchley to Oxford line. At the beginning lukewarm support had been
given by the LNWR, which worked the Bletchley to Oxford line, but by
the time the line had been built the relationship between the two
companies had collapsed. The
Wycombe Railway built a single-track
railway from Princes Risborough to Aylesbury and when the GWR took
over this company it ran shuttles from Princes Risborough through
Aylesbury to Quainton Road and from Quainton Road to Verney Junction.
The A&BR had authority for a southern extension to Rickmansworth,
connecting with the LNWR's
Watford and Rickmansworth Railway .
Following discussions between the Duke and Watkin it was agreed that
this line would be extended south to meet the Met at Harrow and
permission for this extension was granted in 1874 and Watkin joined
the board of the A&BR in 1875. Money was not found for this scheme
and the Met had to return to Parliament in 1880 and 1881 to obtain
permission for a railway from Harrow to Aylesbury.
reached in 1885 and an hourly service from
Rickmansworth and Northwood
to Baker Street started on 1 September 1887. By then raising money
was becoming very difficult although there was local support for a
station at Chesham . Authorised in 1885, double track from
Rickmansworth was laid for 5 miles (8.0 km), then single to Chesham.
Services to Chesham calling at Chorley Wood and Chalfont Road (now
Chalfont & Latimer ) started on 8 July 1889.
The Met took over the A">
Great Central Railway
In 1906 the Great Central had two routes to London, by the Met
via Amersham or the Great Central and Great Western Joint Railway via
Watkin was also director of the Manchester, Sheffield and
Lincolnshire Railway (MS&LR) and had plans for a 99-mile (159 km)
London extension to join the Met just north of Aylesbury. There were
suggestions that Baker Street could be used as the
but by 1891–2 the MS&LR had concluded it needed its own station and
goods facilities in the Marylebone area. An Act for this railway was
passed in 1893, but Watkin became ill and resigned his directorships
in 1894. For a while after his departure the relationship between the
companies turned sour.
In 1895, the MS&LR put forward a bill to Parliament to build two
Wembley Park to Canfield Place, near Finchley Road
station, to allow its express trains to pass the Met's stopping
service. The Met protested before it was agreed that it would build
the lines for the MS&LR's exclusive use. When rebuilding bridges over
the lines from
Wembley Park to Harrow for the MS&LR, seeing a future
need the Met quadrupled the line at the same time and the MS&LR
requested exclusive use of two tracks. The MS&LR had the necessary
authority to connect to the Circle at Marylebone, but the Met
suggested onerous terms. At the time the MS&LR was running short of
money and abandoned the link.
Because of the state of the relationship between the two companies
the MS&LR was unhappy being wholly reliant on the Met for access to
London and, unlike its railway to the north, south of Aylesbury there
were several speed restrictions and long climbs, up to 1 in 90 in
places. In 1898, the MS&LR and the GWR jointly presented a bill to
Parliament for a railway (the Great Western and Great Central Joint
Railway ) with short connecting branches from
Grendon Underwood ,
north of Quainton Road, to Ashendon and from Northolt to
Neasden . The
Met protested, claiming that the bill was 'incompatible with the
spirit and terms' of the agreements between it and the MS&LR. The
MS&LR was given authority to proceed, but the Met was given the right
to compensation. A temporary agreement was made to allow four MS&LR
coal trains a day over the Met lines from 26 July 1898. The MS&LR
wished these trains to also use the GWR route from Aylesbury via
Princes Risborough into London, whereas the Met considered this was
not covered by the agreement. A train scheduled to use the GWR route
was not allowed access to the Met lines at Quainton Road in the early
hours of 30 July 1898 and returned north. A subsequent court hearing
found in the Met's favour, as it was a temporary arrangement.
The MS&LR changed its name to the
Great Central Railway (GCR) in 1897
Great Central Main Line from
London Marylebone to Manchester
Central opened for passenger traffic on 15 March 1899. Negotiations
about the line between the GCR and the Met took several years and in
1906 it was agreed that two tracks from Canfield Place to Harrow would
be leased to the GCR for £20,000 a year and the Metropolitan and
Great Central Joint Railway was created, leasing the line from Harrow
to Verney Junction and the Brill branch for £44,000 a year, the GCR
guaranteeing to place at least £45,000 of traffic on the line.
Aylesbury station, which had been jointly run by the GWR and the Met,
was placed with a joint committee of the Great Western & Great Central
and Metropolitan & Great Central Joint Committees, and generally known
as Aylesbury Joint Station. The Met "> The jointly owned
experimental passenger train that ran for six months in 1900
At the start of the 20th century, the District and the Met saw
increased competition in central
London from the new electric
deep-level tube lines. With the opening in 1900 of the Central London
Shepherd's Bush to the City with a flat fare of 2d, the
District and the Met together lost four million passengers between the
second half of 1899 and the second half of 1900. The polluted
atmosphere in the tunnels was becoming increasingly unpopular with
passengers and conversion to electric traction was seen as the way
forward. Electrification had been considered by the Met as early as
the 1880s, but such a method of traction was still in its infancy, and
agreement would be needed with the District because of the shared
ownership of the Inner Circle. A jointly owned train of six coaches
ran an experimental passenger service on the Earl's Court to High
Kensington section for six months in 1900. This was considered
a success, tenders were requested and in 1901 a Met and District joint
committee recommended the
Ganz three-phase AC system with overhead
wires. This was accepted by both parties until the Underground
Electric Railways Company of
London (UERL) took control of the
District. The UERL was led by the American
Charles Yerkes , whose
experience in the United States led him to favour DC with a third rail
similar to that on the City & South
London Railway and Central London
Railway. After arbitration by the
Board of Trade
Board of Trade a DC system with four
rails was taken up and the railways began electrifying using
multiple-unit stock and electric locomotives hauling carriages. In
1904, the Met opened a 10.5 MW coal-fired power station at
which supplied 11 kV 33.3 Hz current to five substations that
converted this to 600 V DC using rotary converters .
Meanwhile, the District had been building a line from Ealing to South
Harrow and had authority for an extension to Uxbridge. In 1899, the
District had problems raising the finance and the Met offered a rescue
package whereby it would build a branch from Harrow to Rayners Lane
and take over the line to Uxbridge, with the District retaining
running rights for up to three trains an hour. The necessary Act was
passed in 1899 and construction on the 7.5 miles (12.1 km) long branch
started in September 1902, requiring 28 bridges and a 1.5-mile (2.4
km) long viaduct with 71 arches at Harrow. As this line was under
construction it was included in the list of lines to be electrified,
together with the railway from Baker Street to Harrow, the inner
circle and the joint GWR and Met H&C. The Met opened the line to
Uxbridge on 30 June 1904 with one intermediate station at Ruislip ,
initially worked by steam. Wooden platforms the length of three cars
opened at Ickenham on 25 September 1905, followed by similar simple
structures at Eastcote and Rayners Lane on 26 May 1906.
Running Electric Trains
Electric multiple units began running on 1 January 1905 and by 20
March all local services between Baker Street and Harrow were
electric. The use of six-car trains was considered wasteful on the
lightly used line to Uxbridge and in running an off-peak three-car
shuttle to Harrow the Met aroused the displeasure of the Board of
Trade for using a motor car to propel two trailers. A short steam
train was used for off-peak services from the end of March while some
trailers were modified to add a driving cab, entering service from 1
On 1 July 1905, the Met and the District both introduced electric
units on the inner circle until later that day a Met multiple unit
overturned the positive current rail on the District and the Met
service was withdrawn. An incompatibility was found between the way
the shoe-gear was mounted on Met trains and the District track and Met
trains were withdrawn from the District and modified. Full electric
service started on 24 September, reducing the travel time around the
circle from 70 to 50 minutes.
The GWR built a 6 MW power station at Park Royal and electrified the
line between Paddington and
Hammersmith and the branch from Latimer
Kensington (Addison Road). An electric service with jointly
owned rolling stock started on the H&CR on 5 November 1906. In the
same year, the Met suspended running on the East
London Railway ,
terminating instead at the District station at Whitechapel until
that line was electrified in 1913. The H&CR service stopped running
to Richmond over the L the line from Finchley Road to Baker Street
remained double track, causing a bottleneck.
The joint UNDERGROUND map published in 1908. The Metropolitan
Railway is shown in red.
To promote travel by the underground railways in
London a joint
marketing arrangement was agreed. In 1908, the Met joined this scheme,
which included maps, joint publicity and through ticketing.
UNDERGROUND signs were used outside stations in Central London.
Eventually the UERL controlled all the underground railways except the
Met and the Waterloo & City and introduced station name boards with a
red disc and a blue bar. The Met responded with station boards with a
red diamond and a blue bar. Further coordination in the form of a
General Managers' Conference faltered after Selbie withdrew in 1911
when the Central
London Railway, without any reference to the
conference, set its season ticket prices significantly lower than
those on the Met's competitive routes. Suggestions of merger with the
Underground Group were rejected by Selbie, a press release of November
1912 noting the Met's interests in areas outside London, its
relationships with main-line railways and its freight business.
Main article: East
After the Met and the District had withdrawn from the ELR in 1906,
services were provided by the South Eastern Railway , the London,
Brighton, and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) and the Great Eastern
Railway . Both the Met and the District wanted to see the line
electrified, but could not justify the whole cost themselves.
Discussions continued, and in 1911 it was agreed that the ELR would be
electrified with the UERL providing power and the Met the train
service. Parliamentary powers were obtained in 1912 and through
services restarted on 31 March 1913, the Met running two trains an
hour from both the SER's and the LB&SCR's New Cross stations to South
Kensington and eight shuttles an hour alternately from the New Cross
stations to Shoreditch .
Great Northern & City Railway
Northern City Line
The Great Northern & City Railway (GN&CR) was planned to allow trains
to run from the GNR line at Finsbury Park directly into the City at
Moorgate. The tunnels were large enough to take a main-line train with
an internal diameter of 16 feet (4.9 m), in contrast to those of the
London Railway with a diameter less than 12 feet (3.7 m). The
GNR eventually opposed the scheme, and the line opened in 1904 with
the northern terminus in tunnels underneath GNR Finsbury Park station.
Concerned that the GNR would divert its
Moorgate services over the
City Widened Lines to run via the GN&CR, the Met sought to take over
the GN&CR. A bill was presented in 1912–13 to allow this with
extensions to join the GN&CR to the inner circle between
Liverpool Street and to the
Waterloo & City line . The takeover was
authorised, but the new railway works were removed from the bill after
opposition from City property owners. The following year, a bill was
jointly presented by the Met and GNR with amended plans that would
have also allowed a connection between the GN"> The cover of the
Metro-Land guide published in 1921
Unlike other railway companies, which were required to dispose of
surplus land, the Met was in a privileged position with clauses in its
acts allowing it to retain such land that it believed was necessary
for future railway use. Initially, the surplus land was managed by
the Land Committee, made up of Met directors. In the 1880s, at the
same time as the railway was extending beyond Swiss Cottage and
building the workers' estate at Neasden, roads and sewers were built
at Willesden Park Estate and the land was sold to builders. Similar
developments followed at Cecil Park, near
Pinner and, after the
failure of the tower at Wembley, plots were sold at Wembley Park.
In 1912, Selbie, then General Manager, thought that some
professionalism was needed and suggested a company be formed to take
over from the Surplus Lands Committee to develop estates near the
railway. World War I delayed these plans and it was 1919, with
expectation of a housing boom, before
Metropolitan Railway Country
Estates Limited (MRCE) was formed. Concerned that Parliament might
reconsider the unique position the Met held, the railway company
sought legal advice, which was that although the Met had authority to
hold land, it had none to develop it. An independent company was
created, although all but one of its directors were also directors of
the Met. MRCE developed estates at
Kingsbury Garden Village near
Wembley Park , Cecil Park and Grange Estate at
Pinner , and
the Cedars Estate at
Rickmansworth , and created places such as Harrow
Garden Village .
Metro-land was coined by the Met's marketing department in
1915 when the Guide to the Extension Line became the
priced at 1d . This promoted the land served by the Met for the
walker, visitor and later the house-hunter. Published annually until
1932, the last full year of independence, the guide extolled the
benefits of "The good air of the Chilterns", using language such as
"Each lover of Metroland may well have his own favourite wood beech
and coppice — all tremulous green loveliness in Spring and russet
and gold in October". The dream promoted was of a modern home in
beautiful countryside with a fast railway service to central London.
From about 1914 the company promoted itself as "The Met", but after
1920 the commercial manager, John Wardle, ensured that timetables and
other publicity material used "Metro" instead. Land development also
occurred in central
London when in 1929 Chiltern court, a large,
luxurious block of apartments, opened at Baker Street, designed by
the Met's architect
Charles Walter Clark , who was also responsible
for the design of a number of station reconstructions in outer
"Metro-land" at this time.
To improve outer passenger services, powerful 75 mph (121 km/h) H
Class steam locomotives were introduced in 1920, followed in
1922–23 by new electric locomotives with a top speed of 65 mph (105
km/h). The generating capacity of the power station at
increased to approximately 35 MW and on 5 January 1925 electric
Rickmansworth , allowing the locomotive change over
point to be moved.
In 1924 and 1925, the
British Empire Exhibition
British Empire Exhibition was held on the
Wembley Park Estate and the adjacent
Wembley Park station was rebuilt
with a new island platform with a covered bridge linking to the
exhibition. The Met exhibited an electric multiple unit car in 1924,
which returned the following year with electric locomotive No. 15,
subsequently to be named "Wembley 1924". A national sports arena,
Wembley Stadium was built on the site of Watkin's Tower. With a
capacity of 125,000 spectators it was first used for the FA Cup Final
on 28 April 1923 where the match was preceded by chaotic scenes as
crowds in excess of capacity surged into the stadium. In the 1926
Metro-land edition, the Met boasted that that had carried 152,000
Wembley Park on that day.
In 1925, a branch opened from
Rickmansworth to Watford . Although
there had been a railway station in Watford since 1837, in 1895 the
Watford Tradesmen's Association had approached the Met with a proposal
for a line to Watford via Stanmore. They approached again in 1904,
this time jointly with the local District Council, to discuss a new
plan for a shorter branch from Rickmansworth. A possible route was
surveyed in 1906 and a bill deposited in 1912 seeking authority for a
joint Met "> A 1925 plan for a relief line from Kilburn &
Edgware Road to relieve the tunnels between Finchley
Road and Baker Street
There remained a bottleneck at Finchley Road where the fast and slow
tracks converged into one pair for the original M&SJWR tunnels to
Baker Street. In 1925, a plan was developed for two new tube tunnels,
large enough for the Met rolling stock that would join the extension
line at a junction north of Kilburn & Brondesbury station and run
beneath Kilburn High Street, Maida Vale and
Edgware Road to Baker
Street. The plan included three new stations, at Quex Road, Kilburn
Park Road and Clifton Road, but did not progress after Ministry of
Transport revised its Requirements for Passenger Lines requiring a
means of exit in an emergency at the ends of trains running in
deep-level tubes – compartment stock used north of Harrow did not
comply with this requirement.
Edgware Road station had been rebuilt
with four platforms and had train destination indicators including
stations such as Verney Junction and Uxbridge.
In the 1920s, off-peak there was a train every 4–5 minutes from
Wembley Park to Baker Street. There were generally two services per
hour from both Watford and Uxbridge that ran non-stop from Wembley
Park and stopping services started from Rayners Lane, Wembley Park,
and Neasden, although most did not stop at Marlborough Road and St
John's Wood Road. Off-peak, stations north of Moor Park were generally
served by Marylebone trains. During the peak trains approached Baker
Street every 2.5–3 minutes, half running through to Moorgate,
Liverpool Street or Aldgate. On the inner circle a train from
Hammersmith ran through Baker Street every 6 minutes, and Kensington
(Addison Road) services terminated at Edgware Road. Maintaining a
frequency of ten trains an hour on the circle was proving difficult
and the solution chosen was for the District to extend its Putney to
Kensington High Street service around the circle to Edgware Road,
using the new platforms, and the Met to provide all the inner circle
trains at a frequency of eight trains an hour.
Construction started in 1929 on a branch from
Wembley Park to
Stanmore to serve a new housing development at
Canons Park , with
Canons Park (Edgware) (renamed Canons Park
in 1933). The government again guaranteed finance, this time under
the Development Loans Guarantees the Met had always paid a dividend
to its shareholders. The early accounts are untrustworthy, but by the
late 19th century it was paying a dividend of about 5 per cent. This
dropped from 1900 onwards as electric trams and the Central London
Railway attracted passengers away; a low of 1⁄2 per cent was
reached in 1907–8. Dividends rose to 2 per cent in 1911–13 as
passengers returned after electrification; the outbreak of war in 1914
reduced the dividend to 1 per cent. By 1921 recovery was sufficient
for a dividend of 2 1⁄4 per cent to be paid and then, during the
post-war housing boom, for the rate to steadily rise to 5 per cent in
1926 General Strike reduced this to 3 per cent; by 1929
it was back to 4 per cent.
In 1913, the Met had refused a merger proposal made by the UERL and
it remained stubbornly independent under the leadership of Robert
Selbie. The Railways Act 1921, which became law on 19 August 1921,
did not list any of London's underground railways among the companies
that were to be grouped, although at the draft stage the Met had been
included. When proposals for integration of public transport in
London were published in 1930, the Met argued that it should have the
same status as the four main-line railways, and it was incompatible
with the UERL because of its freight operations, although the
government saw the Met in a similar way to the District as they
jointly operated the inner circle. After the
Transport Bill, aimed primarily at co-ordinating the small independent
bus services, was published on 13 March 1931, the Met spent £11,000
opposing it. The bill survived a change in government in 1931 and the
Met gave no response to a proposal made by the new administration that
it could remain independent if it were to lose its running powers over
the circle. The directors turned to negotiating compensation for its
shareholders; by then passenger numbers had fallen due to competition
from buses and the depression. In 1932, the last full year of
operation, a 1 5⁄8 per cent dividend was declared. On 1 July
London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB), was created as a
public corporation and the Met was amalgamated with the other
underground railways, tramway companies and bus operators. Met
shareholders received £19.7 million in LPTB stock.
The coat of arms of the Metropolitan Railway, combining the arms
of London, Middlesex,
Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire For a
history of the line from 1933 to 1988, see Metropolitan line
The Met became the
Metropolitan line of
London Transport , the Brill
branch closing in 1935, followed by the line from Quainton Road to
Verney Junction in 1936. The
LNER took over steam workings and
freight. In 1936,
Metropolitan line services were extended from
Whitechapel to Barking along the District line. The New Works
Programme meant that in 1939 the
Bakerloo line was extended from Baker
Street in new twin tunnels and stations to Finchley Road before taking
over the intermediate stations to
Wembley Park and the Stanmore
branch. The branch transferred to the
Jubilee line when that line
opened in 1979. The
Great Northern and City Railway remained isolated
and was managed as a section of the
Northern line until being taken
British Railways in 1976.
Steam locomotives were used north of
Rickmansworth until the early
1960s when they were replaced following the electrification to
Amersham and the introduction of electric multiple units, London
Transport withdrawing its service north of Amersham. In 1988, the
Hammersmith to Aldgate and Barking was branded as the
Hammersmith & City line , and the route from the New Cross stations to
Shoreditch became the East
London line , leaving the Metropolitan line
as the route from Aldgate to Baker Street and northwards to stations
After amalgamation in 1933 the "Metro-land" brand was rapidly
dropped. In the mid-20th century, the spirit of
John Betjeman 's poems such as "The Metropolitan
Railway" published in the A Few Late Chrysanthemums collection in 1954
and he later reached a wider audience with his television documentary
Metro-land , first broadcast on 26 February 1973. The suburbia of
Metro-land is one locale of
Julian Barnes '
Metroland , first published in 1980. A film based on the novel, also
called Metroland , was released in 1997.
On 18 June 1925, electric locomotive No. 4 collided with a passenger
train at Baker Street station when a signal was changed from green to
red just as the locomotive was passing it. Six people were injured.
Until 1880 the Met ran no goods trains, but goods trains ran over its
tracks from 20 February 1866 when the GNR began a service to the LC">
The entrance to Vine Street depot in the 1910s
In 1909, the Met opened Vine Street goods depot near Farringdon with
two sidings each seven wagons long and a regular service from West
Hampstead. Trains were electrically hauled with a maximum length of
14 wagons and restricted to 250 long tons (254 t) inwards and 225 long
tons (229 t) on the return. In 1910, the depot handled 11,400 long
tons (11,600 t), which rose to 25,100 long tons (25,500 t) in 1915.
In 1913, the depot was reported above capacity, but after World War I
motor road transport became an important competitor and by the late
1920s traffic had reduced to manageable levels.
Coal for the steam locomotives, the power station at
local gasworks were brought in via Quainton Road. Milk was conveyed
from Vale of Aylesbury to the
London suburbs and foodstuffs from Vine
Street to Uxbridge for Alfred Button "> One of six K Class 2-6-4
steam locomotives introduced to the
Metropolitan Railway in 1925 to
haul freight trains
Concern about smoke and steam in the tunnels led to new designs of
steam locomotive . Before the line opened, in 1861 trials were made
with the experimental "hot brick" locomotive nicknamed Fowler\'s Ghost
. This was unsuccessful and the first public trains were hauled by
GWR Metropolitan Class condensing 2-4-0 tank locomotives
Daniel Gooch . They were followed by standard-gauge GNR
locomotives until the Met received its own
4-4-0 tank locomotives,
built by Beyer Peacock of Manchester. Their design is frequently
attributed to the Met's Engineer John Fowler , but the locomotive was
a development of one Beyer had built for the Spanish Tudela to Bilbao
Railway , Fowler specifying only the driving wheel diameter, axle
weight and the ability to navigate sharp curves. Eighteen were
ordered in 1864, initially carrying names, and by 1870 40 had been
built. To reduce smoke underground, at first coke was burnt, changed
in 1869 to smokeless Welsh coal.
From 1879, more locomotives were needed, and the design was updated
and 24 were delivered between 1879 and 1885. Originally they were
painted bright olive green lined in black and yellow, chimneys copper
capped with the locomotive number in brass figures at the front and
domes of polished brass. In 1885, the colour changed to a dark red
known as Midcared, and this was to remain the standard colour, taken
up as the colour for the
Metropolitan line by
London Transport in
1933. When in 1925 the Met classified its locomotives by letters of
the alphabet, these were assigned A Class and B Class. When the
M&SJWR was being built, it was considered that they would struggle on
the gradients and five Worcester Engine
0-6-0 tank locomotives were
delivered in 1868. It was soon found that A and B Classes could manage
trains without difficulty and the 0-6-0Ts were sold to the Taff Vale
Railway in 1873 and 1875.
From 1891, more locomotives were needed for work on the extension
line from Baker Street into the country. Four C Class (
locomotives, a development of South Eastern Railway's \'Q\' Class ,
were received in 1891. In 1894, two D Class locomotives were bought
to run between Aylesbury and Verney Junction. These were not fitted
with the condensing equipment needed to work south of Finchley Road.
Four more were delivered in 1895 with condensing equipment, although
these were prohibited working south of Finchley Road. In 1896, two E
0-4-4 ) locomotives were built at
Neasden works, followed by
one in 1898 to replace the original Class A No. 1, damaged in an
accident. Four more were built by Hawthorn Leslie & Co in 1900 and
1901. To cope with the growing freight traffic on the extension line,
the Met received four F Class (
0-6-2 ) locomotives in 1901, similar to
the E Class except for the wheel arrangement and without steam heat.
In 1897 and 1899, the Met received two
0-6-0 saddle tank locomotives
to a standard Peckett design. Unclassified by the Met, these were
generally used for shunting at
Neasden and Harrow.
Many locomotives were made redundant by the electrification of the
London lines in 1905–06. By 1907, 40 of the class A and B
locomotives had been sold or scrapped and by 1914 only 13 locomotives
of these classes had been retained for shunting, departmental work
and working trains over the
Brill Tramway . The need for more
powerful locomotives for both passenger and freight services meant
that, in 1915, four G Class (
0-6-4 ) locomotives arrived from
Yorkshire Engine Co. Eight 75 mph (121 km/h) capable H Class (
locomotives were built in 1920 and 1921 and used mainly on express
passenger services. To run longer, faster and less frequent freight
services in 1925 six K Class (
2-6-4 ) locomotives arrived, rebuilt
from 2-6-0 locomotives manufactured at Woolwich Arsenal after World
War I. These were not permitted south of Finchley Road.
Two locomotives survive: A Class No. 23 (LT L45) at the London
Transport Museum , and E Class No. 1 (LT L44) at the Buckinghamshire
Railway Centre . No.1 ran in steam as part of the Met's 150th
anniversary celebrations during 2013.
The Met opened with no stock of its own, with the GWR and then the
GNR providing services. The GWR used eight-wheeled compartment
carriages constructed from teak. By 1864, the Met had taken delivery
of its own stock, made by the Ashbury Railway Carriage ">
Metropolitan Railway Jubilee carriage No. 353 at Ongar station in July
In 1870, some close-coupled rigid-wheelbase four-wheeled carriages
were built by Oldbury. After some derailments in 1887, a new design
of 27 feet 6 inches (8.38 m) long rigid-wheelbase four-wheelers known
as Jubilee Stock was built by the
Cravens Railway Carriage and Wagon
Co. for the extension line. With the pressurised gas lighting system
and non-automatic vacuum brakes from new, steam heating was added
later. More trains followed in 1892, although all had been withdrawn
by 1912. By May 1893, following an order by the Board of Trade,
automatic vacuum brakes had been fitted to all carriages and
locomotives. A Jubilee Stock first class carriage was restored to
carry passengers during the Met's 150th anniversary celebrations.
Bogie stock was built by Ashbury in 1898 and by
Cravens and at
Neasden Works in 1900. This gave a better ride quality, steam heating,
automatic vacuum brakes, electric lighting and upholstered seating in
all classes. The
Bluebell Railway has four 1898–1900 Ashbury and
Cravens carriages and a fifth, built at Neasden, is at the London
Competition with the GCR on outer suburban services on the extension
line saw the introduction of more comfortable Dreadnought Stock
carriages from 1910. Ninety-two of these wooden compartment carriages
were built, fitted with pressurised gas lighting and steam heating.
Electric lighting had replaced the gas by 1917 and electric heaters
were added in 1922 to provide warmth when hauled by an electric
locomotive. Later formed into rakes of five, six or seven coaches,
conductor rail pick-ups on the leading and trailing guard coaches were
joined by a bus line and connected to the electric locomotive to help
prevent gapping . Two rakes were formed with a Pullman coach that
provided a buffet service for a supplementary fare. The Vintage
Carriages Trust has three preserved Dreadnought carriages.
From 1906, some of the Ashbury bogie stock was converted into
electric multiple units. Some Dreadnought carriages were used with
electric motor cars, although two-thirds remained in use as locomotive
hauled stock on the extension line.
An electric locomotive and train on the
Metropolitan Railway in
the 1920s See also:
Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives
After electrification, the outer suburban routes were worked with
carriage stock hauled from Baker Street by an electric locomotive that
was exchanged for a steam locomotive en route. The Met ordered 20
electric locomotives from Metropolitan Amalgamated with two types of
electrical equipment. The first ten, with Westinghouse equipment,
entered service in 1906. These 'camel-back' bogie locomotives had a
central cab, weighed 50 tons, and had four 215 hp (160 kW) traction
motors The second type were built to a box car design with British
Thomson-Houston equipment, replaced with the Westinghouse type in
In the early 1920s, the Met placed an order with Metropolitan-Vickers
Barrow-in-Furness for rebuilding the 20 electric locomotives. When
work started on the first locomotive, it was found to be impractical
and uneconomical and the order was changed to building new locomotives
using some equipment recovered from the originals. The new locomotives
were built in 1922–23 and named after famous
London residents. They
had four 300 hp (220 kW) motors, totalling 1,200 hp (890 kW) (one-hour
rating), giving a top speed of 65 mph (105 km/h).
No. 5 "
John Hampden " is preserved as a static display at the London
Transport Museum and No. 12 "
Sarah Siddons " has been used for
heritage events, and ran during the Met's 150th anniversary
ELECTRIC MULTIPLE UNITS
Metropolitan Railway electric multiple units
The first order for electric multiple units was placed with
Metropolitan Amalgamated in 1902 for 50 trailers and 20 motor cars
with Westinghouse equipment, which ran as 6-car trains. First and
third class accommodation was provided in open saloons, second class
being withdrawn from the Met. Access was at the ends via open lattice
gates and the units were modified so that they could run off-peak as
3-car units. For the joint
Hammersmith "> A T stock multiple unit
Between 1927 and 1933 multiple unit compartment stock was built by
the Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon and Birmingham Railway Carriage
and Wagon Co. for services from Baker Street and the City to Watford
and Rickmansworth. The first order was only for motor cars; half had
Westinghouse brakes, Metro-Vickers control systems and four MV153
motors; they replaced the motor cars working with bogie stock
trailers. The rest of the motor cars had the same motor equipment but
used vacuum brakes, and worked with converted 1920/23 Dreadnought
carriages to form 'MV' units. In 1929, 'MW' stock was ordered, 30
motor coaches and 25 trailers similar to the 'MV' units, but with
Westinghouse brakes. A further batch of 'MW' stock was ordered in
1931, this time from the Birmingham Railway Carriage ">
* ^ The company promoted itself as "The Met" from about 1914. The
Railway is referred to as "the Met" or "the Metropolitan" in
historical accounts such as Jackson 1986 , Simpson 2003 , Horne 2003 ,
Green 1987 , and Bruce 1983 .
* ^ In 1801, approximately one million people lived in the area
that is now Greater
London . By 1851 this had doubled.
* ^ The area of the ban was bounded by
London Bridge , Borough High
Street , Blackman Street, Borough Street,
Lambeth Road , Vauxhall
Vauxhall Bridge ,
Vauxhall Bridge Road , Grosvenor Place , Park
Edgware Road , New Road,
City Road ,
Finsbury Square , and
* ^ The route was to run from the south end of Westbourne Terrace,
under Grand Junction Road (now Sussex Gardens), Southampton Road (now
Old Marylebone Road) and New Road (now
Marylebone Road and Euston Road
). A branch was planned to connect to the GWR terminus.
* ^ Time limits were included in such legislation to encourage the
railway company to complete the construction of its line as quickly as
possible. They also prevented unused permissions acting as an
indefinite block to other proposals.
* ^ Instead of connecting to the GWR's terminus, the Met built its
own station at Bishop's Road parallel to Paddington station and to the
north. The Met connected to the GWR's tracks beyond Bishop's Road
* ^ The shares were later sold by the corporation for a profit.
* ^ Contractors for the works were Smith & Knight to the west of
Euston Square and John Jay on the eastern section.
* ^ According to the Metropolitan Railway, the cost of constructing
the line on an elevated viaduct would have been four times the cost of
constructing it in tunnel.
* ^ Built by Beyer Peacock of Manchester the design of the
locomotives is frequently attributed to the Metropolitan Engineer John
Fowler , but the locomotive was a development of one Beyer Peacock had
built for the Spanish
Tudela to Bilbao Railway , Fowler specifying
only the driving wheel diameter, axle weight, and the ability to
navigate sharp curves.
* ^ This report noted that between
Edgware Road and King's Cross
there were 528 passenger and 14 freight trains every weekday and
during the peak hour there were 19 trains each way between Baker
Street and King's Cross, 15 long cwt (760 kg) of coal was burnt and
1,650 imp gal (7,500 L) water was used, half of which was condensed,
the rest evaporating.
* ^ In the
Metropolitan Railway Act 1861 and the Metropolitan
Railway (Finsbury Circus Extension) Act 1861 and Metropolitan Railway
Act was given royal assent on 25 July 1864 approving the additional
tracks to King's Cross.
* ^ One of these tunnels, completed in 1862, was used to bring the
GNR-loaned rolling stock on to the
Metropolitan Railway when the GWR
withdrew its trains in August 1863.
* ^ For a Hammersmith, Paddington and City Junction Railway.
* ^ The L&SWR tracks to Richmond now form part of the London
Underground's District line. Stations between
Hammersmith and Richmond
served by the Met were Ravenscourt Park , Turnham Green , Gunnersbury
, and Kew Gardens .
* ^ In November 1863,
The Times reported that about 30 railway
London had been submitted for consideration in the next
parliamentary session. Many of which seemed "to have been prepared on
the spur of the moment, without much consideration either as to the
cost of construction or as to the practicability of working them when
* ^ These Acts were the
Metropolitan Railway (
Notting Hill and
Brompton Extension) Act and the
Metropolitan Railway (Tower Hill
Extension) Act, and the Metropolitan
District Railway Act created the
Metropolitan District Railway.
* ^ Sources differ about the running of the first 'inner circle'
services. Jackson 1986 , p. 56 says the operation was shared equally,
whereas Lee 1956 , pp. 28–29 states the Met ran all the services.
* ^ The station was completed on 19 July 1871, the Metropolitan and
the District running a joint connecting bus service from the station
to the 1871 International Exhibition .
* ^ Watkin was also MP for
Hythe, Kent and encouraged the SER to
back a channel tunnel between English and France. By 1883 a tunnel
2,026 yards (1.853 km) long, 7 feet (2.1 m) in diameter had been dug
from the English side, with a similar tunnel 1,825 yards (1.669 km)
long from the French side, but in 1882 work was halted after the High
Court ruled that permission had not been granted to proceed beyond the
low water mark. Subsequent efforts to obtain such permission were
unsuccessful due to military advice which emphasised the risk of
invasion. It is commonly reported that Watkin had aspirations to
build a through route from Manchester or Sheffield to the continent
via this channel tunnel, but no evidence exists of this ambition.
* ^ The Metropolitan and District Railways (City Lines and
Extensions) Act, 1879 received royal assent on 11 August 1879.
* ^ The East
London Railway now forms part of the
. It passes under the
Thames through the 1843
Thames tunnel . Stations
between St Mary's and New Cross served by the Met were Shadwell ,
Wapping , Rotherhithe and Deptford Road (now Surrey Quays ).
* ^ The Metropolitan & Saint John's Wood Railway Act was given
royal assent on 21 July 1873.
* ^ The
Kingsbury and Harrow Bill was jointly promoted by the Met
and M&SJWR and received royal assent on 16 July 1874.
* ^ The streets were labelled 'A' and 'B' until they became
Quainton Street and Verney Street in 1903. The estate was made a
conservation area in 1989.
* ^ The LNWR leased the line, absorbing the
on 21 July 1879.
* ^ The
London & Aylesbury Railway Act was given royal assent in
Rickmansworth and Harrow Extension Act received royal assent
on 16 July 1874
* ^ The
Rickmansworth Extension Railway Act authorising the line to
Rickmansworth was given royal assent on 6 August 1880. The Aylesbury
Rickmansworth Railway Act for the line to Aylesbury received royal
assent on 18 July 1881.
* ^ Some trains continued to be steam hauled. In September 1909, an
excursion train travelled from Verney Junction to Ramsgate and
returned, a Met locomotive being exchanged for a SE&CR locomotive at
Blackfriars. On 1 October 1961, the Southern Counties Touring Society
arranged a train hauled by steam locomotive Met No. 1 (then L44) from
Stanmore to New Cross Gate via Farringdon and the East
* ^ Robert Hope Selbie
CBE (1868–1930) was educated at Manchester
Grammar School and Owen\'s College , Manchester, and joined the
Lancashire electric heating being fitted in 1925.
* ^ A B Jackson 1986 , pp. 195, 325, see also the publicity
material reprinted in Simpson 2003 , p. 70
* ^ Day & Reed 2008 , p. 8.
* ^ "Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time.
University of Portsmouth
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Jisc . 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , p. 22.
* ^ Green 1987 , p. 3.
* ^ Simpson 2003 , p. 7.
* ^ A B "
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1846. p. 6. Retrieved 9 March 2012. (Subscription required (help)).
* ^ "Grand Central Railway Terminus".
The Times (19234). 12 May
1846. p. 8. Retrieved 21 April 2012. (Subscription required (help)).
* ^ A B C D Day & Reed 2008 , p. 9.
* ^ A B "No. 21386". The
London Gazette . 30 November 1852. p.
* ^ Green 1987 , pp. 3–4.
* ^ A B C D "Fowler\'s Ghost" 1962 , p. 299.
* ^ "No. 21497". The
London Gazette . 25 November 1853. pp.
* ^ "No. 21581". The
London Gazette . 11 August 1854. pp.
* ^ Day & Reed 2008 , pp. 8–9.
* ^ A B C D Day & Reed 2008 , p. 10.
* ^ A B Wolmar 2004 , p. 31.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , p. 32.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , p. 33.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , p. 29.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 24.
* ^ A B Walford 1878 .
* ^ Day & Reed 2008 , pp. 10–11.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , pp. 35–36.
* ^ Simpson 2003 , pp. 13, 25.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , p. 36.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , p. 37.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , pp. 30 & 37.
* ^ A B Day & Reed 2008 , p. 14.
* ^ A B Wolmar 2004 , p. 39.
* ^ A B Green 1987 , p. 5.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Rose 2007 .
* ^ Simpson 2003 , p. 16.
* ^ Simpson 2003 , p. 21.
* ^ Simpson 2003 , pp. 16, 19.
* ^ Day . London:
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* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 117.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 31.
* ^ A B Jackson 1986 , pp. 117–118.
* ^ A B Jackson 1986 , p. 119.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , pp. 119–120.
* ^ "Fowler\'s Ghost" 1962 , p. 303.
* ^ "No. 22529". The
London Gazette . 12 July 1861. pp.
* ^ "No. 22537". The
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* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 130.
* ^ A B "Fowler\'s Ghost" 1962 , p. 301.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 35.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 37.
* ^ "Fowler\'s Ghost" 1962 , p. 304.
* ^ Green 1987 , p. 6.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 47.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 49.
* ^ "No. 22450". The
London Gazette . 23 November 1860. pp.
* ^ Wolmar 2004 , pp. 66–67.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 38.
* ^ "No. 22532". The
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* ^ A B Jackson 1986 , pp. 39–40.
* ^ A B Jackson 1986 , pp. 38–39.
* ^ Bruce 1983 , p. 11.
* ^ Simpson 2003 , p. 43.
* ^ Horne 2006 , p. 5.
* ^ "
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* ^ A B C Day & Reed 2008 , p. 18.
* ^ Horne 2006 , pp. 5–6.
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* ^ Wolmar 2004 , p. 72.
* ^ A B Day & Reed 2008 , p. 24.
* ^ Horne 2006 , p. 9.
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* ^ Day & Reed 2008 , pp. 25–26.
* ^ Horne 2006 , pp. 11–12.
* ^ Lee 1956 , p. 7.
* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 56.
* ^ Day & Reed 2008 , p. 27.
* ^ Day & Reed 2008 , p. 25.
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* ^ "No. 24121". The
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* ^ "No. 24751". The
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* ^ Green 1987 , p. 11.
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* ^ Demuth & Leboff 1999 , p. 9.
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* ^ Horne 2003 , pp. 6–9.
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* ^ Jackson 1986 , p. 93.
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