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www.metmuseum.org

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

U.S. National Register of Historic Places

U.S. National Historic Landmark

Elevation by Simon Fieldhouse

Built 1874; 144 years ago (1874)

Architect Richard Morris Hunt; also Calvert Vaux; Jacob Wrey Mould

Architectural style Beaux-Arts

NRHP reference # 86003556

Significant dates

Added to NRHP January 29, 1972[5]

Designated NHL

June 24, 1986[6] [7]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
of New York, colloquially "the Met",[a] is the largest art museum in the United States. With 7.06 million visitors in 2016, it was the second most visited art museum in the world, and the fifth most visited museum of any kind. [8] Its permanent collection contains over two million works,[9] divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park
Central Park
along Manhattan's Museum Mile, is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters
Cloisters
at Fort Tryon Park
Fort Tryon Park
in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer
Met Breuer
museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side; it extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program. The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings, and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries. The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue.

Contents

1 Collections

1.1 Collections: Geographically designated collections

1.1.1 Ancient Near Eastern art 1.1.2 Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas 1.1.3 Asian art 1.1.4 Egyptian art 1.1.5 European paintings 1.1.6 European sculpture and decorative arts 1.1.7 American Wing 1.1.8 Greek and Roman art 1.1.9 Islamic art

1.2 Collections: Non-geographically designated collections

1.2.1 Arms and Armor 1.2.2 Costume Institute 1.2.3 Drawings and prints 1.2.4 Robert Lehman Collection 1.2.5 Medieval art and the Cloisters

1.2.5.1 Main building 1.2.5.2 The Cloisters
The Cloisters
museum and gardens

1.2.6 Modern and contemporary art 1.2.7 Musical instruments 1.2.8 Photographs 1.2.9 Digital collection 1.2.10 Met Breuer

2 Libraries

2.1 Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
Library 2.2 Nolen Library

3 Special
Special
exhibitions 4 History 5 Architecture

5.1 Roof garden

6 Management

6.1 Governance 6.2 Finances

6.2.1 2015–2018 setbacks

6.3 Attendance

7 Acquisitions and deaccessioning 8 Selected objects 9 Selected paintings 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 Sources

11 Bibliography

11.1 Further reading

12 External links

Collections[edit]

The Great Hall.

The Met's permanent collection is curated by seventeen separate departments, each with a specialized staff of curators and scholars, as well as six dedicated conservation departments and a Department of Scientific Research.[10] The permanent collection includes works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art.[11] The museum is also home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world.[12] A number of notable interiors, ranging from 1st century
1st century
Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Met's galleries.[13] In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts large traveling shows throughout the year.[citation needed] The current chairman of the board, Daniel Brodsky, was elected in 2011[14] and became chairman three years after director Philippe de Montebello retired at the end of 2008.[15][16] On 1 March 2017, the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss, the Met's president and COO, would also temporarily act as CEO for the museum.[17] Following the departure of Thomas P. Campbell as the Met's director and CEO on June 30, 2017,[18] the search for a new director of the Museum was assigned to the human resources firm Phillips Oppenheim to present a new candidate for the position "by the end of the fiscal year in June" of 2018.[19] The next director will report to Weiss as the current president of the museum.[20] Collections: Geographically designated collections[edit] Ancient Near Eastern art[edit] Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started acquiring ancient art and artifacts from the Near East. From a few cuneiform tablets and seals, the Met's collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces.[21] Representing a history of the region beginning in the Neolithic
Neolithic
Period and encompassing the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the end of Late Antiquity, the collection includes works from the Sumerian, Hittite, Sasanian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Elamite cultures (among others), as well as an extensive collection of unique Bronze Age
Bronze Age
objects. The highlights of the collection include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures, from the Northwest Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II.[22] Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas[edit]

Benin ivory mask, Iyoba, 16th century
16th century
Nigeria

Though the Met first acquired a group of Peruvian antiquities in 1882, the museum did not begin a concerted effort to collect works from Africa, Oceania, and the Americas
Americas
until 1969, when American businessman and philanthropist Nelson A. Rockefeller donated his more than 3,000-piece collection to the museum. Today, the Met's collection contains more than 11,000 pieces from sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the Americas
Americas
and is housed in the 40,000-square-foot (4,000 m2) Rockefeller Wing on the south end of the museum.[23] The collection ranges from 40,000-year-old indigenous Australian rock paintings, to a group of 15-foot-tall (4.6 m) memorial poles carved by the Asmat people
Asmat people
of New Guinea, to a priceless collection of ceremonial and personal objects from the Nigerian Court of Benin donated by Klaus Perls.[24] The range of materials represented in the Africa, Oceania, and Americas
Americas
collection is undoubtedly the widest of any department at the Met, including everything from precious metals to porcupine quills.[citation needed] Asian art[edit]

Bronze
Bronze
Chola
Chola
Statue of Nataraja

The Met's Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces,[25] that is arguably the most comprehensive in the US. The collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum: many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art
Asian art
in their collections. Today, an entire wing of the museum is dedicated to the Asian collection, and spans 4,000 years of Asian art. Every Asian civilization is represented in the Met's Asian department, and the pieces on display include every type of decorative art, from painting and printmaking to sculpture and metalworking. The department is well known for its comprehensive collection of Chinese calligraphy and painting, as well as for its Indian sculptures, Nepalese and Tibetan works, and the arts of Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia and Thailand. All three ancient religions of India – Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism – are well represented in these sculptures.[26] However, not only "art" and ritual objects are represented in the collection; many of the best-known pieces are functional objects. The Asian wing also contains a complete Ming Dynasty-style garden court, modeled on a courtyard in the Master of the Nets Garden in Suzhou. Maxwell K. Hearn is the current department chairman of Asian Art since 2011.[citation needed] Egyptian art[edit]

William the Hippopotamus is a mascot of the Met

Mummy, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
NYC

Though the majority of the Met's initial holdings of Egyptian art came from private collections, items uncovered during the museum's own archeological excavations, carried out between 1906 and 1941, constitute almost half of the current collection. More than 26,000 separate pieces of Egyptian art from the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
era through the Ptolemaic era constitute the Met's Egyptian collection, and almost all of them are on display in the museum's massive wing of 40 Egyptian galleries.[27] Among the most valuable pieces in the Met's Egyptian collection are 13 wooden models (of the total 24 models found together, 12 models and 1 offering bearer figure is at the Met, while the remaining 10 models and 1 offering bearer figure are in the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
in Cairo), discovered in a tomb in the Southern Asasif in western Thebes in 1920. These models depict, in unparalleled detail, a cross-section of Egyptian life in the early Middle Kingdom: boats, gardens, and scenes of daily life are represented in miniature. William the Faience Hippopotamus
William the Faience Hippopotamus
is a miniature shown at right.[citation needed] However, the popular centerpiece of the Egyptian Art department continues to be the Temple of Dendur. Dismantled by the Egyptian government to save it from rising waters caused by the building of the Aswan High Dam, the large sandstone temple was given to the United States in 1965 and assembled in the Met's Sackler Wing in 1978. Situated in a large room and partially surrounded by a reflecting pool and illuminated by a wall of windows opening onto Central Park, the Temple of Dendur
Temple of Dendur
has been one of the Met's most enduring attractions. The oldest items at the Met, a set of Archeulian flints from Deir el-Bahri which date from the Lower Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period (between 300,000 and 75,000 BC), are part of the Egyptian collection. The curator is Diana Craig Patch.[citation needed] European paintings[edit]

European paintings at the museum.

The Met's collection of European paintings numbers around 1,700 pieces.[28] The current Chairman of the European Paintings is Keith Christianson who has been at the museum since 1977.[citation needed] European sculpture and decorative arts[edit]

European sculpture court.

The European Sculpture and Decorative Arts collection is one of the largest departments at the Met, holding in excess of 50,000 separate pieces from the 15th through the early 20th centuries.[29] Although the collection is particularly concentrated in Renaissance sculpture—much of which can be seen in situ surrounded by contemporary furnishings and decoration—it also contains comprehensive holdings of furniture, jewelry, glass and ceramic pieces, tapestries, textiles, and timepieces and mathematical instruments. In addition to its outstanding collections of English and French furniture, visitors can enter dozens of completely furnished period rooms, transplanted in their entirety into the Met's galleries. The collection even includes an entire 16th century
16th century
patio from the Spanish castle of Vélez Blanco, reconstructed in a two-story gallery, and the intarsia studiolo from the ducal palace at Gubbio. Sculptural highlights of the sprawling department include Bernini's Bacchanal, a cast of Rodin's The Burghers of Calais, and several unique pieces by Houdon, including his Bust of Voltaire
Voltaire
and his famous portrait of his daughter Sabine.[citation needed] American Wing[edit]

Washington Crossing the Delaware
Washington Crossing the Delaware
by Emanuel Leutze.

The museum's collection of American art returned to view in new galleries on January 16, 2012. The new installation provides visitors with the history of American art from the 18th through the early 20th century. The new galleries encompasses 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) for the display of the museum's collection.[30] The curator in charge of the American Wing since September 2014 is Sylvia Yount.[citation needed] Greek and Roman art[edit]

Greek and Roman gallery

The Met's collection of Greek and Roman art contains more than 17,000 objects.[31] The Greek and Roman collection dates back to the founding of the museum—in fact, the museum's first accessioned object was a Roman sarcophagus, still currently on display. Though the collection naturally concentrates on items from ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, these historical regions represent a wide range of cultures and artistic styles, from classic Greek black-figure and red-figure vases to carved Roman tunic pins.[citation needed]

The Amathus
Amathus
sarcophagus, from Amathus, Cyprus, arguably the single most important object in the Cesnola Collection

Highlights of the collection include the monumental Amathus sarcophagus and a magnificently detailed Etruscan chariot known as the "Monteleone chariot". The collection also contains many pieces from far earlier than the Greek or Roman empires—among the most remarkable are a collection of early Cycladic sculptures from the mid-third millennium BC, many so abstract as to seem almost modern. The Greek and Roman galleries also contain several large classical wall paintings and reliefs from different periods, including an entire reconstructed bedroom from a noble villa in Boscoreale, excavated after its entombment by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. In 2007, the Met's Greek and Roman galleries were expanded to approximately 60,000 square feet (6,000 m2), allowing the majority of the collection to be on permanent display.[32] Islamic art[edit]

Leaf from the Blue Qur'an
Blue Qur'an
showing Chapter 30: 28–32

The Metropolitan Museum owns one of the world's largest collection of works of art of the Islamic world. The collection also includes artifacts and works of art of cultural and secular origin from the time period indicated by the rise of Islam predominantly from the Near East and in contrast to the Ancient Near Eastern collections. The biggest number of miniatures from the "Shahnama" list prepared under the reign of Shah Tahmasp I, the most luxurious of all the existing Islamic manuscripts, also belongs to this museum. Other rarities include the works of Sultan Muhammad and his associates from the Tabriz school "The Sade Holiday", "Tahmiras kills divs", "Bijan and Manizhe", and many others.[citation needed] The Met's collection of Islamic art
Islamic art
is not confined strictly to religious art, though a significant number of the objects in the Islamic collection were originally created for religious use or as decorative elements in mosques. Much of the 12,000 strong collection consists of secular items, including ceramics and textiles, from Islamic cultures ranging from Spain
Spain
to North Africa
North Africa
to Central Asia.[33] The Islamic Art department's collection of miniature paintings from Iran
Iran
and Mughal India
India
are a highlight of the collection. Calligraphy
Calligraphy
both religious and secular is well represented in the Islamic Art department, from the official decrees of Suleiman the Magnificent to a number of Qur'an
Qur'an
manuscripts reflecting different periods and styles of calligraphy. Modern calligraphic artists also used a word or phrase to convey a direct message, or they created compositions from the shapes of Arabic words. Others incorporated indecipherable cursive writing within the body of the work to evoke the illusion of writing.[34] Islamic Arts galleries had been undergoing refurbishment since 2001 and were reopened on November 1, 2011, as the New Galleries for the Art of the Arab Lands, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, and Later South Asia. Until that time, a narrow selection of items from the collection had been on temporary display throughout the museum. As with many other departments at the Met, the Islamic Art galleries contain many interior pieces, including the entire reconstructed Nur Al-Din Room from an early 18th-century house in Damascus. However, the museum has confirmed to the New York Post
New York Post
that it has withdrawn from public display all paintings depicting Muhammad and may not rehang those that were displayed in the Islamic gallery before the renovation.[35] Collections: Non-geographically designated collections[edit] Arms and Armor[edit]

Arms and armor, Middle Ages
Middle Ages
main hall

The Met's Department of Arms and Armor
Armor
is one of the museum's most popular collections.[36] The distinctive "parade" of armored figures on horseback installed in the first-floor Arms and Armor
Armor
gallery is one of the most recognizable images of the museum, which was organized in 1975 with the help of the Russian immigrant and arms and armors' scholar, Leonid Tarassuk (1925–90). The department's focus on "outstanding craftsmanship and decoration," including pieces intended solely for display, means that the collection is strongest in late medieval European pieces and Japanese pieces from the 5th through the 19th centuries. However, these are not the only cultures represented in Arms and Armor; the collection spans more geographic regions than almost any other department, including weapons and armor from dynastic Egypt, ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, the ancient Near East, Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, as well as American firearms (especially Colt firearms) from the 19th and 20th centuries. Among the collection's 14,000 objects[37] are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, and Ferdinand I of Germany.[citation needed] Costume Institute[edit] Main article: Anna Wintour
Anna Wintour
Costume Center

Robe à la française 1740s, as seen in one of the exhibits at the Costume Institute.

The Museum of Costume Art was founded by Aline Bernstein
Aline Bernstein
and Irene Lewisohn.[38] In 1937, they merged with the Met and became its Costume Institute department. Today, its collection contains more than 35,000 costumes and accessories.[39] The Costume Institute used to have a permanent gallery space in what was known as the "Basement" area of the Met because it was downstairs at the bottom of the Met facility. However, due to the fragile nature of the items in the collection, the Costume Institute does not maintain a permanent installation. Instead, every year it holds two separate shows in the Met's galleries using costumes from its collection, with each show centering on a specific designer or theme. The Costume Institute is known for hosting the annual Met Gala
Met Gala
and in the past has presented summer exhibitions such as Savage Beauty and China: Through the Looking Glass.[40][41][42] In past years, Costume Institute shows organized around famous designers such as Cristóbal Balenciaga, Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, and Gianni Versace; and style doyenne like Diana Vreeland, Mona von Bismarck, Babe Paley, Jayne Wrightsman, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Nan Kempner, and Iris Apfel
Iris Apfel
have drawn significant crowds to the Met. The Costume Institute's annual Benefit Gala, co-chaired by Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour, is an extremely popular, if exclusive, event in the fashion world; in 2007, the 700 available tickets started at $6,500 per person.[43] Exhibits displayed over the past decade in the Costume Institute include: Rock Style, in 1999, representing the style of more than 40 rock musicians, including Madonna, David Bowie, and The Beatles; Extreme Beauty: The Body Transformed, in 2001, which exposes the transforming ideas of physical beauty over time and the bodily contortion necessary to accommodate such ideals and fashion; The Chanel
Chanel
Exhibit, displayed in 2005, acknowledging the skilled work of designer Coco Chanel
Chanel
as one of the leading fashion names in history; Superheroes: Fashion and Fantasy, exhibited in 2008, suggesting the metaphorical vision of superheroes as ultimate fashion icons; the 2010 exhibit on the American Woman: Fashioning a National Identity, which exposes the revolutionary styles of the American woman from the years 1890 to 1940, and how such styles reflect the political and social sentiments of the time. The theme of the 2011 event was "Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty". Each of these exhibits explores fashion as a mirror of cultural values and offers a glimpse into historical styles, emphasizing their evolution into today's own fashion world. On January 14, 2014, the Met named the Costume Institute complex after Anna Wintour.[44] The curator is Andrew Bolton.[citation needed] Drawings and prints[edit]

Melencolia I
Melencolia I
by Albrecht Dürer

Though other departments contain significant numbers of drawings and prints, the Drawings and Prints department specifically concentrates on North American pieces and western European works produced after the Middle Ages. The first Old Master drawings, comprising 670 sheets, were presented as a single group in 1880 by Cornelius Vanderbilt II and in effect launched the department, though it was not formally constituted as a department until later. Other early donors to the department include Junius Spencer Morgan II who presented a broad range of material, but mainly dated from the sixteenth century, including 2 woodblocks and many prints by Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
in 1919. Currently, the Drawings and Prints collection contains more than 17,000 drawings, 1.5 million prints, and twelve thousand illustrated books.[45] The great masters of European painting, who produced many more sketches and drawings than actual paintings, are extensively represented in the Drawing
Drawing
and Prints collection. The department's holdings contain major drawings by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Rembrandt, as well as prints and etchings by Van Dyck, Dürer, and Degas among many others. The curator is Nadine Orenstein.[citation needed] Robert Lehman Collection[edit]

Robert Lehman Wing

On the death of banker Robert Lehman in 1969, his Foundation donated 2,600 works of art to the museum.[46] Housed in the "Robert Lehman Wing," the museum refers to the collection as "one of the most extraordinary private art collections ever assembled in the United States".[47] To emphasize the personal nature of the Robert Lehman Collection, the Met housed the collection in a special set of galleries which evoked the interior of Lehman's richly decorated townhouse; this intentional separation of the Collection as a "museum within the museum" met with mixed criticism and approval at the time, though the acquisition of the collection was seen as a coup for the Met.[48] Unlike other departments at the Met, the Robert Lehman collection does not concentrate on a specific style or period of art; rather, it reflects Lehman's personal interests. Lehman the collector concentrated heavily on paintings of the Italian Renaissance, particularly the Sienese school. Paintings in the collection include masterpieces by Botticelli
Botticelli
and Domenico Veneziano, as well as works by a significant number of Spanish painters, El Greco
El Greco
and Goya among them. Lehman's collection of drawings by the Old Masters, featuring works by Rembrandt
Rembrandt
and Dürer, is particularly valuable for its breadth and quality.[49] Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press
has documented the massive collection in a multi-volume book series published as The Robert Lehman Collection Catalogues.[citation needed] Medieval art and the Cloisters[edit]

The Limbourg brothers' Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry

The Met's collection of medieval art consists of a comprehensive range of Western art from the 4th through the early 16th centuries, as well as Byzantine and pre-medieval European antiquities not included in the Ancient Greek and Roman collection. Like the Islamic collection, the Medieval collection contains a broad range of two- and three-dimensional art, with religious objects heavily represented. In total, the Medieval Art department's permanent collection numbers about 11,000 separate objects, divided between the main museum building on Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
and The Cloisters.[citation needed] Main building[edit] The medieval collection in the main Metropolitan building, centered on the first-floor medieval gallery, contains about six thousand separate objects. While a great deal of European medieval art is on display in these galleries, most of the European pieces are concentrated at the Cloisters
Cloisters
(see below). However, this allows the main galleries to display much of the Met's Byzantine art
Byzantine art
side-by-side with European pieces. The main gallery is host to a wide range of tapestries and church and funerary statuary, while side galleries display smaller works of precious metals and ivory, including reliquary pieces and secular items. The main gallery, with its high arched ceiling, also serves double duty as the annual site of the Met's elaborately decorated Christmas tree.[citation needed] The Cloisters
The Cloisters
museum and gardens[edit] Main article: The Cloisters

The Cloisters
The Cloisters
from the Hudson River

The Cloisters
The Cloisters
was a principal project of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a major benefactor of the Met. Located in Fort Tryon Park
Fort Tryon Park
and completed in 1938, it is a separate building dedicated solely to medieval art. The Cloisters
The Cloisters
collection was originally that of a separate museum, assembled by George Grey Barnard
George Grey Barnard
and acquired in toto by Rockefeller in 1925 as a gift to the Met.[50] The Cloisters
The Cloisters
are so named on account of the five medieval French cloisters whose salvaged structures were incorporated into the modern building, and the five thousand objects at the Cloisters
Cloisters
are strictly limited to medieval European works. The collection features items of outstanding beauty and historical importance; including the Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry illustrated by the Limbourg Brothers in 1409, the Romanesque altar cross known as the "Cloisters Cross" or "Bury Cross", and the seven tapestries depicting the Hunt of the Unicorn.[citation needed]

Modern and contemporary art[edit] With some 13,000 artworks, primarily by European and American artists, the modern art collection occupies 60,000 square feet (6,000 m2), of gallery space and contains many iconic modern works. Cornerstones of the collection include Picasso's portrait of Gertrude Stein, Jasper Johns's White Flag, Jackson Pollock's Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), and Max Beckmann's triptych Beginning. Certain artists are represented in remarkable depth, for a museum whose focus is not exclusively on modern art: for example, the collection contains forty paintings by Paul Klee, spanning his entire career. Due to the Met's long history, "contemporary" paintings acquired in years past have often migrated to other collections at the museum, particularly to the American and European Paintings departments.[citation needed] In April 2013, it was reported that the museum was to receive a collection worth $1 billion from cosmetics tycoon Leonard Lauder. The collection of Cubist art includes work by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and Juan Gris and went on display in 2014.[51] Musical instruments[edit]

Grand piano by Sébastien Érard, ~1840

The Met's collection of musical instruments, with about 5,000 examples of musical instruments from all over the world, is virtually unique among major museums.[52] The collection began in 1889 with a donation of 270 instruments by Mary Elizabeth Adams Brown, who joined her collection to become the museum's first curator of musical instruments, named in honor of her husband, John Crosby Brown. By the time she died, the collection had 3,600 instruments that she had donated and the collection was housed in five galleries. Instruments were (and continue to be) included in the collection not only on aesthetic grounds, but also insofar as they embodied technical and social aspects of their cultures of origin. The modern Musical Instruments collection is encyclopedic in scope; every continent is represented at virtually every stage of its musical life. Highlights of the department's collection include several Stradivari violins, a collection of Asian instruments made from precious metals, and the oldest surviving piano, a 1720 model by Bartolomeo Cristofori. Many of the instruments in the collection are playable, and the department encourages their use by holding concerts and demonstrations by guest musicians.[citation needed] Photographs[edit]

La Tour St. Jacques La Boucherie à Paris by Charles Soulier, 1867.

The Met's collection of photographs, numbering more than 25,000 in total,[53] is centered on five major collections plus additional acquisitions by the museum. Alfred Stieglitz, a famous photographer himself, donated the first major collection of photographs to the museum, which included a comprehensive survey of Photo-Secessionist works, a rich set of master prints by Edward Steichen, and an outstanding collection of Stieglitz's photographs from his own studio. The Met supplemented Stieglitz's gift with the 8,500-piece Gilman Paper Company Collection, the Rubel Collection, and the Ford Motor Company Collection, which respectively provided the collection with early French and American photography, early British photography, and post-WWI American and European photography. The museum also acquired Walker Evans's personal collection of photographs, a particular coup considering the high demand for his works. The department of photography was founded in 1992. Though the department gained a permanent gallery in 1997, not all of the department's holdings are on display at any given time, due to the sensitive materials represented in the photography collection. However, the Photographs department has produced some of the best-received temporary exhibits in the Met's recent past, including a Diane Arbus
Diane Arbus
retrospective and an extensive show devoted to spirit photography. In 2007, the museum designated a gallery exclusively for the exhibition of photographs made after 1960.[54] Digital collection[edit] Beginning in 2013, the Met organized the Digital Media Department for the purpose of increasing access of the museum's collections and resources using digital media and expanded website services. The first Chief Digital Officer Sree Sreenivasan
Sree Sreenivasan
from 2013 departed in 2016 and was replaced by Loic Tallon at the time that the department became known by its simplified designation as the Digital Department. At the start of 2017, the department began its Open Access initiative summarized on the Met's website titled "Digital Underground" stating: "It's been six months since The Met launched its Open Access initiative, which made available all 375,000+ images of public-domain works in The Met collection under Creative Commons Zero (CC0). During what is just the dawn of this new initiative, the responses so far have been incredible."[55] At that time, more than 375,000 photographic images from the museum's archival collection were released for public domain reproduction and use both by the general public and by large public access websites such as those available at Google BigQuery.[56] Met Breuer[edit]

Met Breuer
Met Breuer
building in 2010, when it was the Whitney Museum of American Art.

Main article: Met Breuer On March 18, 2016, the museum opened a new venue in the Marcel Breuer-designed building at Madison Avenue
Madison Avenue
and 75th Street in Manhattan's Upper East Side, the former Whitney Museum of American Art.[57] It extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program.[58] Libraries[edit] Each Department maintains a library, most of the material of which can be requested online through the libraries' catalog.[59] Two of the libraries may be accessed without an appointment: Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
Library[edit] Main article: Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
Library The Thomas J. Watson Library
Thomas J. Watson Library
is the central library of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, and supports the activities of staff and researchers. Watson Library's collection contains approximately 900,000 volumes, including monographs and exhibition catalogs; over 11,000 periodical titles; and more than 125,000 auction and sale catalogs.[60] The Library includes a reference collection, auction and sale catalogs, a rare book collection, manuscript items, and vertical file collections. The Library is accessible to anyone 18 years of age or older simply by registering online and providing a valid photo ID.[61] Nolen Library[edit] The Nolen Library is open to the general public. The collection of some 8,000 items, arranged in open shelves, includes books, picture books, DVDs, and videos. The Nolen Library includes a children's reading room and materials for teachers.[62] Special
Special
exhibitions[edit] The museum regularly hosts notable special exhibitions, often focusing on the works of one artist that have been loaned out from a variety of other museums and sources for the duration of the exhibition. These exhibitions are part of the attraction that draw people both within and outside Manhattan
Manhattan
to explore the Met. Such exhibitions include displays especially designed for the Costume Institute, paintings from artists from across the world, works of art related to specific art movements, and collections of historical artifacts. Exhibitions are commonly located within their specific departments, ranging from American decorative arts, arms and armor, drawings and prints, Egyptian art, Medieval art, musical instruments, and photographs. Typical exhibitions run for months at a time and are open to the general public. Each exhibition provides insight into the world of art as a transformative, cultural experience and often includes a historical analysis to demonstrate the profound impact that art has on society and its dramatic transformation over the years.[63] In 1969, a special exhibition, titled " Harlem
Harlem
on My Mind" was criticized for failing to exhibit work by Harlem
Harlem
artists. The museum defended its decision to portray Harlem
Harlem
itself as a work of art.[64] Norman Lewis, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, Clifford Joseph, Roy DeCarava, Reginald Gammon, Henri Ghent, Raymond Saunders, and Alice Neel were among the artists who picketed the show.[65] History[edit]

Opening reception in the picture gallery at 681 Fifth Avenue, February 20, 1872; wood-engraving published in Frank Leslie's Weekly, March 9, 1872

The New York State Legislature granted the Metropolitan Museum of Art an Act of Incorporation on April 13, 1870 "for the purpose of establishing and maintaining in said City a Museum and Library of Art, of encouraging and developing the Study of the Fine Arts, and the application of Art to manufacture and natural life, of advancing the general knowledge of kindred subjects, and to that end of furnishing popular instruction and recreations".[66] This legislation was supplemented later by the 1893 Act, Chapter 476, which required that its collections "shall be kept open and accessible to the public free of all charge throughout the year."[67] The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day, who wanted to open a museum to bring art and art education to the American people.[3] The museum first opened on February 20, 1872, housed in a building located at 681 Fifth Avenue.[68] John Taylor Johnston, a railroad executive whose personal art collection seeded the museum, served as its first president, and the publisher George Palmer Putnam
George Palmer Putnam
came on board as its founding superintendent. The artist Eastman Johnson
Eastman Johnson
acted as co-founder of the museum.[69] Various other industrialists of the age served as co-founders, including Howard Potter. The former Civil War officer, Luigi Palma di Cesnola, was named as its first director. He served from 1879 to 1904. Under their guidance, the Met's holdings, initially consisting of a Roman stone sarcophagus and 174 mostly European paintings, quickly outgrew the available space. In 1873, occasioned by the Met's purchase of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriot antiquities, the museum decamped from Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
and took up residence at the Mrs. Nicholas Cruger Mansion also known as the Douglas Mansion (James Renwick, 1853–54, demolished) at 128 West 14th Street. However, these new accommodations proved temporary, as the growing collection required more space than the mansion could provide.[70] Between 1879 and 1895, the Museum created and operated a series of educational programs, known as the Metropolitan Museum of Art Schools, intended to provide vocational training and classes on fine arts.[71]

The museum in 1914.

The museum celebrated its 75th anniversary (which it termed Diamond Jubilee) with a variety of events in 1946, culminating in the anniversary of the opening of its first exhibition on February 22, 1947. The anniversary festivities included speeches, exhibitions, cross-promotions with films and plays, and related displays in Fifth Avenue store windows. The celebration also included membership drive and a fundraising campaign to support a planned renovation and expansion of the Central Park
Central Park
building under the chairmanship of the museum's Vice President Thomas J. Watson. Initial plans, which were not realized, included amalgamation of the Whitney Museum of American Art into the Metropolitan Museum.[72] In 1954, to celebrate the opening of its Grace Rainey Rogers concert hall, the museum inaugurated a series of concerts, adding art lectures in 1956. This "Concerts & Lectures program" grew over the years into 200 events each season.[73] The program presented such performers as Marian Anderson, Cecilia Bartoli, Judy Collins, Marilyn Horne, Burl Ives, Juilliard String Quartet, Yo-Yo Ma, Itzhak Perlman, Artur Rubinstein, András Schiff, Nina Simone, Joan Sutherland
Joan Sutherland
and André Watts, as well as lectures on art history, music, dance, theater and social history. The program was directed, from its inception to 1968, by William Kolodney, and from 1969 to 2010, by Hilde Limondjian.[74] In the 1960s, the governance of the Met was expanded to include, for the first time, a Chairman of the Board of Trustees in contemplation of a large bequest from the estate of Robert Lehman. For six decades Lehman built upon an art collection begun by his father in 1911 and devoted a great deal of time the Met, before finally becoming the first chairman of the board at the Metropolitan in the 1960s.[75] After his death in 1969, the Robert Lehman Foundation donated close to 3,000 works of art to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Housed in the Robert Lehman Wing, which opened to the public in 1975 and largely financed by the Lehman Foundation, the museum has called it "one of the most extraordinary private art collections ever assembled in the United States".[citation needed] The Metropolitan Museum of Art Centennial was celebrated with exhibitions, symposia, concerts, lectures, the reopening of refurbished galleries, special tours, social events, and other programming for eighteen months from October 1969 through the spring of 1971. The centennial's events (including an open house, Centennial Ball, year-long art history course for the public, and various educational programming and traveling exhibitions) and publications drew on support from prominent New Yorkers, artists, writers, composers, interior designers, and art historians.[76] In 2009 Michael Gross published The Secret History of the Moguls and the Money That Made the Metropolitan Museum, an unauthorized social history,[77] and the museum bookstore declined to sell it.[78][79] In 2012, following the earlier appointment of Daniel Brodsky as Chairman of the Board at the Met, the by-laws of the museum were formally amended to recognize the office of the Chairman as having authority over the assignment and review of the both the offices of President and Director of the museum.[80] The office of Chairman was first introduced relatively late in the museum's history in the 1960s in contemplation of the anticipated donation of the Lehman collection to the museum and has since that time, under Brodsky, become the most senior administrative position at the museum.[81] In January 2018, Daniel Weiss as president of the museum announced that the century old policy of free admission to the museum would be replaced by a new admission policy which would require a charge of $25 to out-of-state and foreign visitors to the museum effective March 2018.[19] Architecture[edit]

Charles Engelhard Court in the North Wing facing Central Park.

After negotiations with the City of New York in 1871, the Met was granted the land between the East Park Drive, Fifth Avenue, and the 79th and 85th Street
85th Street
Transverse Roads in Central Park. A red-brick and stone "mausoleum" was designed by American architect Calvert Vaux
Calvert Vaux
and his collaborator Jacob Wrey Mould. Vaux's ambitious building was not well received; the building's High Victorian Gothic style being considered already dated prior to completion, and the president of the Met termed the project "a mistake".[82] Within 20 years, a new architectural plan engulfing the Vaux building was already being executed. Since that time, many additions have been made including the distinctive Beaux-Arts Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
facade, Great Hall, and Grand Stairway. These were designed by architect and Met trustee Richard Morris Hunt, but completed by his son, Richard Howland Hunt in 1902 after his father's death.[83] The architectural sculpture on the facade is by Karl Bitter.[84]

Northern view of Central Park
Central Park
through the glass wall of the Temple of Dendur room

The wings that completed the Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
facade in the 1910s were designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. The modernistic glass sides and rear of the museum are the work of Roche-Dinkeloo. Kevin Roche has been the architect for the master plan and expansion of the museum for the past 42 years. He is responsible for designing all of its new wings and renovations including but not limited to the American Wing, Greek and Roman Court, and recently opened Islamic Wing.[85] As of 2010, the Met measures almost 1⁄4-mile (400 m) long and with more than 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of floor space, more than 20 times the size of the original 1880 building.[86] The museum building is an accretion of over 20 structures, most of which are not visible from the exterior. The City of New York owns the museum building and contributes utilities, heat, and some of the cost of guardianship. The Charles Engelhard Court of the American Wing features the facade of the Branch Bank of the United States, a Wall Street bank that was facing demolition in 1913.[87][88] The museum's main building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986, recognizing both its monumental architecture, and its importance as a cultural institution.[89] Roof garden[edit]

Memantra by Frank Stella
Frank Stella
on exhibit in the roof garden.

The Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Roof Garden is located on the roof near the southwestern corner of the museum. The garden's cafe and bar is a popular museum spot during the mild-weathered months, especially on Friday and Saturday evenings when large crowds can lead to long lines at the elevators. The roof garden offers views of Central Park
Central Park
and the Manhattan
Manhattan
skyline.[90][91] The garden is the gift of philanthropists Iris and B. Gerald Cantor, founder and chairman of securities firm Cantor Fitzgerald.[92] The garden was opened to the public on August 1, 1987.[93] Every summer since 1998 the roof garden has hosted a single-artist exhibition.[91] The artists have been: Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly
(1998), Magdalena Abakanowicz
Magdalena Abakanowicz
(1999), David Smith (2000), Joel Shapiro
Joel Shapiro
(2001), Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg
and Coosje van Bruggen (2002), Roy Lichtenstein (2003), Andy Goldsworthy
Andy Goldsworthy
(2004), Sol LeWitt
Sol LeWitt
(2005), Cai Guo-Qiang (2006), Frank Stella
Frank Stella
(2007), Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons
(2008), Roxy Paine
Roxy Paine
(2009) and Big Bambú
Big Bambú
by Doug and Mike Starn (2010).[94] The roof garden has views of the Manhattan
Manhattan
skyline from a vantage point high above Central Park.[95] The views have been described as "the best in Manhattan."[96] Art critics have been known to complain that the view "distracts" from the art on exhibition.[97] New York Times art critic Ken Johnson complains that the "breathtaking, panoramic views of Central Park
Central Park
and the Manhattan
Manhattan
skyline" creates "an inhospitable site for sculpture" that "discourages careful, contemplative looking."[98] Writer Mindy Aloff describes the roof garden as "the loveliest airborne space I know of in New York."[99] The cafe and bar in this garden are considered romantic by many.[95][100][101] Management[edit] Governance[edit] Although the City of New York owns the museum building and contributes utilities, heat, and some of the cost of guardianship, the collections are owned by a private corporation of fellows and benefactors which totals about 950 persons. The museum is governed by a board of trustees of 41 elected members, several officials of the City of New York, and persons honored as trustees by the museum. The current chairman of the board, Daniel Brodsky was elected in 2011.[14] Other notable trustees include Anna Wintour, Richard Chilton, Candace Beinecke, Alejandro Santo Domingo[102] as well as Mayor Bill de Blasio and his appointee Ken Sunshine.[103] On March 10, 2015, the board of trustees chose Daniel Weiss, then president of Haverford College, to be the current president and chief operating officer of the Met, replacing Emily K. Rafferty, who served in that role for a decade.[104] The search for a new director and CEO for the Museum was announced on February 28th, 2017 and assigned to be conducted by the human resources firm Phillips Oppenheim following the departure of Thomas Campbell as the Met's director and previous CEO on June 30, 2017.[18] The activities of Board of Trustees is organized and based upon the activities of the individual trustees and their various committees as of 2016.[102] The several committees of the Board of Trustees include the committees listed as Nominating, Executive, Acquisitions, Finance, Investment, Legal, Education, Audit, Employee Benefits, External Affairs, Merchandising, Membership, Building, Technology and The Fund for the Met.[102] The list of elective trustees of the Met for 2016–2017 included Jeffrey W. Greenberg, Bonnie B. Himmelman, and Andrew Solomon.[102] Finances[edit] As of 2017, the museum's endowment as administered by the museum's new investment officer Lauren Meserve is $3.1 billion USD which provides much of the income for operations while admissions account for only 13 percent of revenue as of fiscal 2016.[105][106][107] The 2009–10 operating budget was $221 million. The museum admission price as of March 2018 is $25 for out-of-state and foreign visitors, while New York state residents can pay what they wish to enter. Although subject to re-assessment,[108] a 1970 agreement between the museum and the city of New York requires New York state visitors to pay at least a nominal amount; a penny is acceptable.[109] The Met's finance committee is led by Hamilton E. James of The Blackstone Group, who is also one of the board members at the Met.[18] The Met is reported to have an Aaa credit rating, the highest such rating possible. This was last affirmed by Moody's in 2015.[110] 2015–2018 setbacks[edit] In September 2016, the Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
first reported financial set-backs at the museum related to servicing its outstanding debts and associated cut-backs in staffing at the museum, with the goal of trying to balance its budget by fiscal year 2018.[111] According to the Met's annual tax filing for fiscal year 2016, several top executives had received disproportionately high compensation, often exceeding 1M USD per annum with over 100K USD bonuses per annum.[112] In April 2017, the New York Times
New York Times
reported that the Met's annual debt was approaching $40 million, in addition to an outstanding museum bond for $250 million. This resulted in the indefinite postponement of a planned $600 million architectural expansion of the exhibition space for the museum's modern art collection as well as started a general discussion over the Met's human resources management.[113] The current chairman of the board at the Met elected in 2011, Daniel Brodsky,[114] stated in response to the Times reports that he "looked forward to working with my administrative and board colleagues to support a climate of candor, transparency, accountability and mutual respect."[113] In January 2018, Daniel Weiss as president of the museum stated that a downsized version of the original $600 million architectural expansion might be reconsidered as early as 2020 at a reduction to the $450 million level.[19] Brodsky, the Chairman of the Met, stated that after the 2017 financial setbacks, the Director position would be appointed separately from the position of CEO. Following a commissioned report from the Boston Consulting Group, the current interim CEO, president, and COO of the Met, Daniel Weiss, said that the Met's 2015–2017 financial setbacks were caused by "slowing revenue, rising costs, and too many projects at once." Weiss was further reported as having hired Will Manzer, formerly an executive at Perry Ellis, to help re-invigorate recently declining revenues at the museum.[115] On April 26, Weiss stated that the budget shortfall of $15 million might require a re-assessment and increase in the museum's current admission payment policy. Weiss added that there remained concerns for a sustainable fiscal model for the Met in which city officials "have a right to a clear understanding of how we would be engaging the public, how we balance access with sustainability."[67] In May 2017, the Met filed formal proposal to attempt to charge admission fees to out-of-state visitors.[116] Robin Pogrebin, writing for the Times, reported that the request for out-of-state admissions would call for the re-legislation of the New York State 1893 Act which requires that the museum's collections "shall be kept open and accessible to the public free of all charge throughout the year," and any unlegislated changes would be subject to challenge by the New York State attorney general, Eric Schneiderman, or one of the tristate counselors, Christopher Porrino
Christopher Porrino
or George Jepsen.[116] In January 2018, Pogrebin writing for The New York Times
The New York Times
reported that amid continuing reverbations from "a period of financial turbulence and leadership turmoil" that the museum president Daniel Weiss had announced that the museum would rescind its century old policy of free admission to the museum and begin charging $25 for out-of-state visitors starting in March 2018.[19] Pogrebin stated that although the museum had made progress in decreasing its deficit from forty million dollars to ten million dollars, that an adverse decision from the City of New York to curtail funding for the Met's operating costs by as much as eight million dollars "for security and building staff" caused Weiss to announce the change in admissions policy. Weiss indicated that the new policy would be estimated to increase revue from the current $43 million it receives from admissions to an enhanced revenue stream as high as $49 million USD.[19] Attendance[edit] For the fiscal year 2017 which ended on June 30th, the museum was reported as having 7 million visitors during the past year, where "37 percent of these were international visitors, while 30 percent came from New York’s five boroughs."[117] Previously in 2016, the museum set a record for attendance, attracting 6.7 million visitors—the highest number since the museum began tracking admissions.[118] Forty percent of the Met's visitors in fiscal year 2016 came from New York City and the tristate area; 41 percent from 190 countries besides the United States.[118] In 2017, the attendance figures indicated seven million annual visitors with 63% of the visitors arriving from outside of New York State.[108] Roberta Smith
Roberta Smith
writing for The New York Times
The New York Times
in September 2017 voiced growing public concern that proposed increases in admissions costs would have an adverse effect upon attendance statistics at the museum. Smith referred to the public perception that such costs would appear "greedy and inapproriate" because "The museum already gets around $39 million a year from its gate -- equal to the entire annual budget of the Brooklyn Museum."[119] Smith's article continued to report the negative response of local communities in the tristate area surrounding the museum which was previously introduced in a series of articles by Robin Pogrebin written during the 2016-2017 fiscal year at the museum which criticized speculative suggestions among current administrators at the museum that an added revenue stream could be pursued by the museum by rescinding existing museum policy since 1893 allowing for free public access to the museum.[108] In January 2018, museum president Daniel Weiss announced that the century-old policy of free museum admission would be replaced. Effective March 2018, the vast majority of visitors who do not live in New York State will have to pay $25 to enter the museum.[19] The City of New York has reduced funding at the Metropolitan as part of Mayor De Blasio's political effort to increase artistic diversity. They made an agreement to allow the fees in exchange for less funding which the city pledged to use at alternate facilities and promote diversity.[120] Both Holland Carter and Roberta Smith
Roberta Smith
of The New York Times
The New York Times
have argued in response to Weiss's decision to rescind the previous free admission policy as lacking in responsible fiscal planning. They stated that a recent $65 million expenditure for renovating fountains seemed to be a poor allocation of the limited available funding. Smith added, "Those new awful Darth Vaderish fountains take huge chunks out of the plaza and disrupt movement," as an indication of the misuse of funds.[121] Further criticism of Weiss's proposal was voiced internationally when The Guardian summarized the backlash from the Weiss proposal for raising the admissions fees. It stated, "Some critics are outraged. The past week has seen a New York Times
New York Times
piece titled "The New Pay Policy Is a Mistake", while Jezebel’s Aimée Lutkin claimed "The Met Should Be Fucking Free". The New York Post writes that the museum has never had the right to charge admission and Alexandra Schwartz in the New Yorker says the new policy diminishes New York City".[122] Acquisitions and deaccessioning[edit] See also: Looted art The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
spent $39 million to acquire art for the fiscal year ending in June 2012.[123] At the same time, the museum is required to list in its annual report the total cash proceeds from art sales each year and to itemize any deaccessioned objects valued at more than $50,000 each. It must also sell those pieces at auction and provide advance public notice of a work being sold if it has been on view in the last ten years. These rules were imposed by the New York State Attorney General in 1972.[124] During the 1970s, under the directorship of Thomas Hoving, the Met revised its deaccessioning policy. Under the new policy, the Met set its sights on acquiring "world-class" pieces, regularly funding the purchases by selling mid- to high-value items from its collection.[48] Though the Met had always sold duplicate or minor items from its collection to fund the acquisition of new pieces, the Met's new policy was significantly more aggressive and wide-ranging than before, and allowed the deaccessioning of items with higher values which would normally have precluded their sale. The new policy provoked a great deal of criticism (in particular, from The New York Times) but had its intended effect.[124] Many of the items then purchased with funds generated by the more liberal deaccessioning policy are now considered the "stars" of the Met's collection, including Diego Velázquez's Portrait of Juan de Pareja and the Euphronios krater
Euphronios krater
depicting the death of Sarpedon (which has since been repatriated to the Republic of Italy). In the years since the Met began its new deaccessioning policy, other museums have begun to emulate it with aggressive deaccessioning programs of their own.[125] The Met has continued the policy in recent years, selling such valuable pieces as Edward Steichen's 1904 photograph The Pond-Moonlight (of which another copy was already in the Met's collection) for a record price of $2.9 million.[126] One of the most serious challenges to the Metropolitan Museum's reputation has been a series of allegations and lawsuits about its status as an institutional buyer of looted and stolen antiquities. Since the 1990s the Met has been the subject of numerous investigative reports and books critical of the Met's laissez-faire attitude to acquisition.[127][128] The Met has lost several major lawsuits, notably against the governments of Italy and Turkey, who successfully sought the repatriation of hundreds of ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern antiquities, with a total value in the hundreds of millions of dollars.[127] Selected objects[edit]

Standing male worshiper, Mesopotamian, 2750-2600 BC(?)

Sphinx, c 530 BC

Busto de Anicia Iuliana, Roman

Roman c 430

Book Cover with Byzantine Icon of the Crucifixion, before 1085

Tabernacle of Cherves, ca. 1220–1230

Spanish Processional Cross, late 11th–early 12th century, Asturias

Khatchkar. Basalt

Alpan carpet, 1800s

Scuola di biduino, portale da san leonardo al frigido, vicino massa carrara, c. 1170-80

Tomb of Ermengol IX of Urgell (died 1243)

Enthroned Virgin and Child, c 1300, England

The Crucified Christ, c. 1300, Northern Europe

Serpent labret with articulated tongue, c. 1300–1521, Aztec

Attributed to Jean de Touyl (French, died 1349), Reliquary
Reliquary
Shrine from the convent of the Poor Clares at Buda

Attributed to Jean Le Noir or follower, Psalter of Bonne de Luxembourg, 14th-c illuminated manuscript

Doorway in granite, in oak, France, Limousin, 15th c, Aixe sur Vienne

Andrea da Giona, Altarpiece with Christ in Majesty, c 1434

Schwaben, c. 1489

Jain Shvetambara Tirthankara
Tirthankara
in Meditation, Chaulukya dynasty, India, c. 1000-1050 CE.

Muisca
Muisca
tunjo on stool, c. 10th-16th century, Lake Guatavita
Lake Guatavita
region, Altiplano Cundiboyacense

Andre-Charles Boulle
Andre-Charles Boulle
(11 November 1642 – 29 February 1732) - Commode

Selected paintings[edit]

Robert Campin, Triptych
Triptych
with the Annunciation, known as the Mérode Altarpiece, c. 1425–1428

Jan van Eyck, Crucifixion and Last Judgement diptych, c. 1430–40

Rogier van der Weyden, Polyptych with the Nativity, c. 1450

Paolo Uccello, Portrait of a Lady, c. 1450, Florence

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Harvesters, 1565

Caravaggio, The Musicians, 1595

El Greco, View of Toledo, 1596

El Greco, Opening of the Fifth Seal
Opening of the Fifth Seal
1608–1614

Georges de La Tour, The Fortune Teller, c.1630

Diego Velázquez, Portrait of Juan de Pareja, 1650

Rembrandt, Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, 1653

Johannes Vermeer, Woman with a Lute, 1662

Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Socrates, 1787

Marie-Denise Villers, Young Woman Drawing, 1801

Francisco Goya, Majas on a Balcony, 1835

J.M.W. Turner, The Grand Canal, 1835

Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836

George Caleb Bingham, Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, c. 1845

Eugène Delacroix, Christ Asleep during the Tempest, 1853

Rosa Bonheur, The Horse Fair, 1853–1855

Édouard Manet, The Dead Christ with Angels, 1864

Edgar Degas, The Dancing Class, 1872

Édouard Manet, Boating 1874

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mme. Charpentier and Her Children, 1878

Jules Bastien-Lepage, Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc), 1879

John Singer Sargent, Portrait of Madame X, 1884

Vincent van Gogh, Self-Portrait with Straw Hat, 1887

Vincent van Gogh, Cypresses,1889

Paul Cézanne, Madame Cézanne (Hortense Fiquet, 1850–1922) in a Red Dress, 1888–90

Paul Cézanne, The Card Players, 1890–1892

Claude Monet, The Four Trees, (Four Poplars on the Banks of the Epte River near Giverny), 1891

Paul Gauguin, The Midday Nap, 1894

Winslow Homer, The Gulf Stream, 1899

Claude Monet, The Houses of Parliament (Effect of Fog), 1903–1904

Pablo Picasso, l'Acteur (The Actor), 1904–05

Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906

Henri Matisse, The Young Sailor II, 1906

Henri Rousseau, The Repast of the Lion, c. 1907

Georges Braque, Still Life with Mandola and Metronome, late 1909

Pablo Picasso, The Oil Mill (Moulin à huile), 1909

Pablo Picasso, Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, 1911

Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 27, Garden of Love II, 1912 (exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show)

Arthur Dove, Cow, 1914

Amedeo Modigliani, Jeanne Hébuterne, 1919

Charles Demuth, I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold, 1928

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ The Metropolitan Opera
Metropolitan Opera
in New York is also nicknamed "The Met"

Sources[edit]

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(But Were Too Afraid To Ask)". NBC New York. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-02.  ^ Trebay, Guy (29 April 2015). "At the Met, Andrew Bolton Is the Storyteller in Chief". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.  ^ Tomkins, Calvin (25 March 2013). "Anarchy Unleashed". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.  ^ Postrel, Virginia (May 2007). "Dress Sense". The Atlantic. p. 133.  ^ Karimzadeh, Marc (14 January 2014). "Met Names Costume Institute Complex in Honor of Anna Wintour". Women's Wear Daily. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.  ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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– Drawings and Prints". Metmuseum.org. Archived from the original on 2012-06-09. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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The Cloisters
Museum and Gardens". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15.  ^ Nolan, Steve. "Collection worth $1BILLION is donated to New York Metropolitan Museum of Art
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by cosmetics tycoon Leonard Lauder". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on 2015-02-07. Retrieved 2015-03-19.  ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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– Musical Instruments". Metmuseum.org. Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Met Breuer
Before the Doors Open" Archived 2016-04-22 at the Wayback Machine. by Randy Kennedy, The New York Times, March 1, 2016 ^ The Met Breuer
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Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Anna Quindlen
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Big Bambú
to Open April 27 April 27– October 31, 2010 (weather permitting)" (Press release). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. April 27, 2010. Archived from the original on July 3, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ a b Louie, Elaine (July 17, 1996). "A Sip and a View, Without the Grit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ Miller, Lori (August 2, 1987). "Met's Garden: Where Views Enhance Art". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ "Museum and Gallery Listings". The New York Times. May 16, 2008. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ Johnson, Ken (April 22, 2008). "Art Review, A Panoramic Backdrop for Meaning and Mischief". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 25, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ Aloff, Mindy (August 22, 1997). "Where to Cool Both Soul and Heels". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ Bykofsky, Sheree; Arthur Schwart (2001). The 52 Most Romantic Dates in and Around New York City. Avon, Massachusetts: Adams Media. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-58062-462-6.  ^ Bennett, Bruce. "Nightlife: The Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Roof Garden". New York. Archived from the original on September 16, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  ^ a b c d "Annual Report: Board of Trustees" (PDF). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. November 1, 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 17, 2014.  ^ Smith, Emily (September 13, 2014). " Ken Sunshine Joins the Met's Board of Trustees". New York Post. Archived from the original on November 15, 2014.  ^ Kennedy, Randy (10 March 2015). " Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Names New President: Daniel Weiss". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ " Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Names Lauren A. Meserve Senior Vice President and Chief Investment Officer", BY Alex Greenberger, Artnews Journal, October 18, 2017. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2017-10-18. . ^ "Annual Report for the Year 2009–2010" (PDF). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. November 9, 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 13, 2014.  ^ Katchka, Boris (2017). "What Broke the Met?", April 17, 2017, New York magazine, pp44-50. ^ a b c Pogrebin, Robin (2017-04-26). "Visit to the Met Could Cost You, if You Don't Live in New York". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-01-13. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ "NYC art museum accused of duping visitors on admission fees". Associated Press/Fox News. 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ " Moody's assigns Aaa to Metropolitan Museum of Art's (NY) $250M Series 2015 bonds; outlook stable". Moody's. 2015-01-20. Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ Jennifer Smith, " Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Cuts Staff" Archived 2017-03-29 at the Wayback Machine., The Wall Street Journal, September 28, 2016. ^ Kinsella, Eileen (2017-03-16). "Met Execs Got Hefty Bonuses Amid Rising Deficit". artnet News. Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ a b Pogrebin, Robin (2017-04-02). "A Hushed Departure at the Met Museum Reveals Entrenched Management Culture". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2017-04-14. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ Taylor, Kate (May 5, 2011). " Daniel Brodsky is Voted Chairman of the Metropolitan Museum of Art". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 14, 2017.  ^ Kachka, Boris (April 16, 2017). "With Rumors, Scandal, and a Record Budget Shortfall, What Broke the Met?". Vulture. New York Magazine. pp. 44–50. Archived from the original on May 1, 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ a b Pogrebin, Robin (2017-05-05). "The Met Files a Formal Proposal to Charge Admission to Out-of-State Visitors". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2017-05-06. Retrieved 2017-05-06.  ^ Staff authors (July 12, 2017), The Met Museum Boasts Record Attendance Numbers Archived 2018-01-12 at the Wayback Machine. ArtNet News. ^ a b Pogrebin, Robin (2016-08-05). "The Metropolitan Museum of Art Announces Record Attendance". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-01-12. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ Smith, Roberta. "The Fall's Most Fascinating Art Show." The New York Times. 4 September 2017. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-09-05. Retrieved 2017-09-05.  ^ Pogrebin, Robin (2017-05-08). "De Blasio, With 'Cultural Plan,' Proposes Linking Money to Diversity". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-01-11. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ Robert Smith and Holland Carter. "The Met Should Be Open to All. The New Pay Policy Is a Mistake." Jan. 4, 2018, The New York Times. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2018-01-08. . ^ Nadja Sayej. The Guardian. "'Museums should be accessible': the backlash to the Met's new pricing policy". January 8, 2018. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2018-01-09. . ^ Robin Pogrebin (July 22, 2013), "Qatar Uses Its Riches to Buy Art Treasures" Archived 2017-02-13 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times. ^ a b Pogrebin, Robin (January 26, 2011). "The Permanent Collection May Not Be So Permanent". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015.  ^ Bone, James (October 31, 2005). "Brimful museums put art under the hammer". The Times. London. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ "Rare photo sets $2.9m sales record". BBC News. 2006-02-15. Archived from the original on 2009-01-31. Retrieved 2013-02-18.  ^ a b Peter Watson, Cecilia Todeschini (2007), The Medici Conspiracy: The Illicit Journey of Looted Antiquities from Italy's Tomb Raiders to the World's Greatest Museums Archived 2017-02-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Vernon Silver, The Lost Chalice: The Epic Hunt for a Priceless Masterpiece. Harper Collins Books, 2009. ISBN 978-0-06-188296-8

Bibliography[edit]

Danziger, Danny (2007). Museum: Behind the Scenes at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Viking, New York City. ISBN 9780670038619. Howe, Winifred E., and Henry Watson Kent (2009). A History of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1. General Books, Memphis. ISBN 9781150535482. Tompkins, Calvin (1989). Merchants & Masterpieces: The Story of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Henry Holt and Company, New York. ISBN 0805010343. Trask, Jeffrey (2012). Things American: Art Museums and Civic Culture in the Progressive Era. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 9780812243628; A history that relates it the political context of the Progressive Era.

Further reading[edit]

Vogel, Carol, "Grand Galleries for National Treasures", January 5; and Holland Cotter, "The Met Reimagines the American Story", review, January 15; two 2012 New York Times
New York Times
articles about American painting and sculpture galleries reopening after four-year renovation.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Official website The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
presents a Timeline of Art History Chronological list of special exhibitions at the Metropolitan Museum of Art Digital Collections from the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Libraries Watsonline: The Catalog of the Libraries of The Metropolitan Museum of Art Museum Libraries. " Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Publications". Digital Collections. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.  (annual reports, collection catalogs, exhibit catalogs, etc.) Artwork owned by The Metropolitan Museum of Art Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
at's GLAM initiative

v t e

Metropolitan Museum of Art

Places

Fifth Avenue

Anna Wintour
Anna Wintour
Costume Center Astor Court Iris B. and Gerald Cantor Roof Garden Robert Goldwater Library Temple of Dendur Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
Library

Other sites

The Cloisters Met Breuer

Directors

Luigi Palma di Cesnola Caspar Purdon Clarke Edward Robinson Herbert Eustis Winlock Francis Henry Taylor James Rorimer Thomas Hoving Philippe de Montebello Thomas P. Campbell

Miscellaneous

Costume Institute Gala (Met Gala) Museum Mile Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Guide

v t e

Popular visitor attractions in New York City

More than 10 million annual visitors

Times Square
Times Square
(50 M) Central Park
Central Park
(40 M) Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal
(21.6 M) South Street Seaport
South Street Seaport
(12 M) Rockefeller Center

1 to 10 million annual visitors

High Line
High Line
(7.6 M) Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
(6.3 M) American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
(5.0 M) National September 11 Memorial & Museum (5.0 M) Empire State Building
Empire State Building
(3.5 M) Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
(2.8 M) Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(2.4 M) One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
(2.3 M) Bronx Zoo
Bronx Zoo
(1.8 M) Ellis Island
Ellis Island
(1.7 M)

Note: Visitor numbers are estimates only. See also: Tourism in New York City

v t e

Museums in Manhattan

Financial District and Battery Park (Below Chambers St)

Castle Clinton China
China
Institute Federal Hall Fraunces Tavern George Gustav Heye Center Mmuseumm Museum of American Finance Museum of Jewish Heritage New York City
New York City
Police Museum Skyscraper Museum South Street Seaport

Lower Manhattan (Chambers-14th Sts)

Asian American Arts Centre Drawing
Drawing
Center Eldridge Street Synagogue FusionArts Museum International Center of Photography Lower East Side Tenement Museum Merchant's House Museum Museum of Chinese in America New Museum New York City
New York City
Fire Museum The Theatre Museum Ukrainian Museum Whitney Museum of American Art

Chelsea, Flatiron, Gramercy (14th-34th Sts)

Center for Jewish History International Print Center New York John J. Harvey The Museum at FIT Museum of Mathematics Museum of Sex Rubin Museum of Art Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace Tibet
Tibet
House

Midtown (34th-59th Sts)

Girl Scout Museum and Archives Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum Japan
Japan
Society John M. Mossman Lock Museum Madame Tussauds Morgan Library & Museum Museum of Arts and Design Museum of Modern Art New York Public Library Main Branch New York Transit Museum Paley Center for Media Scandinavia House United Nations Art Collection

Upper West Side (59th-125th Sts west of 5th Av)

American Folk Art Museum American Museum of Natural History

Rose Center for Earth and Space

Children's Museum of Manhattan Museum of Biblical Art New York Public Library for the Performing Arts New-York Historical Society Nicholas Roerich Museum Rose Museum

Upper East Side
Upper East Side
and East Harlem (59th-125th Sts along or east of 5th Av)

Asia
Asia
Society El Museo del Barrio Frick Collection Gracie Mansion Grolier Club Guggenheim Museum Jewish Museum Met Breuer Metropolitan Museum of Art Mount Vernon Hotel Museum Museum of Motherhood Museum of the City of New York National Academy Museum and School

Upper Manhattan (Above 125th St)

American Academy of Arts and Letters The Cloisters Dyckman House Hamilton Grange National Memorial Hispanic Society of America Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center Morris–Jumel Mansion National Jazz Museum in Harlem National Track and Field Hall of Fame Neue Galerie New York Yeshiva University Museum Studio Museum in Harlem

Islands

Ellis Island Statue of Liberty

Defunct

Chelsea Art Museum Dahesh Museum of Art Forbes Galleries Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art Museum of Primitive Art

See also: Museum Mile

v t e

U.S. National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in New York

Topics

Contributing property Keeper of the Register Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places National Park Service Property types

Lists by county

Albany Allegany Bronx Broome Cattaraugus Cayuga Chautauqua Chemung Chenango Clinton Columbia Cortland Delaware Dutchess Erie Essex Franklin Fulton Genesee Greene Hamilton Herkimer Jefferson Kings (Brooklyn) Lewis Livingston Madison Monroe Montgomery Nassau New York (Manhattan) Niagara Oneida Onondaga Ontario Orange Orleans Oswego Otsego Putnam Queens Rensselaer Richmond (Staten Island) Rockland Saratoga Schenectady Schoharie Schuyler Seneca St. Lawrence Steuben Suffolk Sullivan Tioga Tompkins Ulster Warren Washington Wayne Westchester

Northern Southern

Wyoming Yates

Lists by city

Albany Buffalo New Rochelle New York City

Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Manhattan

Below 14th St. 14th–59th St. 59th–110th St. Above 110th St. Minor islands

Niagara Falls Peekskill Poughkeepsie Rhinebeck Rochester Syracuse Yonkers

Other lists

Bridges and tunnels National Historic Landmarks

Category: National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in New York (state) Portal:National Register of Historic Places

v t e

Muisca

Topics

General

Agriculture Architecture Art Astronomy Calendar Cuisine Economy Mummification Music Muysccubun Mythology Numerals Religion Society Toponyms Warfare Women

Specific

Battle of Pasca
Battle of Pasca
(~1470) Battle of Chocontá
Battle of Chocontá
(~1490) Chicha Duit Emeralds Muisca
Muisca
raft Ruana Tejo Tunjo Zoratama

The Salt People

Zipaquirá Nemocón Tausa Sesquilé

Geography and history

Altiplano Cundiboyacense

Bogotá River

Frío Fucha Juan Amarillo Soacha Teusacá Torca Tunjuelo

Bogotá savanna

Suba Hills Wetlands

Eastern Hills Flora & fauna Suárez River Ubaté-Chiquinquirá Valley

Neighbouring areas

Ocetá Páramo Tenza Valley

History

Prehistory (<10,000 BP)

Lake Humboldt El Abra Tibitó Sueva Tequendama

Lithic (10,000 - 2800 BP)

Piedras del Tunjo Checua Galindo Nemocón Sáchica Aguazuque Lake Herrera El Infiernito

Ceramic (>800 BC)

Herrera (800 BC - 800) Early Muisca
Muisca
(800 - 1200) Muisca
Muisca
Confederation (~1450 - 1540) Cabildo Mayor (>2002)

Religion and mythology

Deities

Chiminigagua Bachué Chía Sué Bochica Huitaca Chibchacum Cuchavira Nencatacoa Chaquén Chibafruime Guahaioque

Sacred sites

Built

Sun Temple Moon Temple Cojines del Zaque Goranchacha
Goranchacha
Temple Hunzahúa
Hunzahúa
Well

Natural

Fúquene Guasca Guatavita Iguaque Siecha Suesca Tota Ubaque Tequendama
Tequendama
Falls

Mythology

Myths

El Dorado Monster of Lake Tota

Mythological figures

Goranchacha Idacansás Pacanchique Thomagata

Caciques and neighbours

Northern caciques

zaque of Hunza

Hunzahúa Michuá Quemuenchatocha Aquiminzaque

iraca of Suamox

Nompanim Sugamuxi

cacique of Tundama 

Tundama

Southern caciques

zipa of Bacatá

Meicuchuca Saguamanchica Nemequene Tisquesusa Sagipa

cacique of Turmequé

Diego de Torres y Moyachoque

Neighbours

Chibcha-speaking

U'wa Sutagao Guane Lache

Arawak-speaking

Achagua Tegua Guayupe

Cariban-speaking

Panche Muzo Yarigui

Spanish conquest

Conquistadors

Major

Gonzalo de Quesada Hernán de Quesada Baltasar Maldonado Gonzalo Suárez Rendón Juan de Céspedes Juan de San Martín

Minor

Antonio Díaz de Cardoso Antonio de Lebrija Bartolomé Camacho Zambrano Gonzalo García Zorro Gonzalo Macías Hernán Venegas Carrillo Juan de Albarracín Juan del Junco Juan Tafur Lázaro Fonte Luis Lanchero Martín Galeano Martín Yañéz Tafur Miguel Holguín y Figueroa Ortún Velázquez de Velasco Pedro Fernández de Valenzuela Pedro Ruíz Corredor

Neighbouring conquests

Conquest of the Chibchan Nations Conquest of the Muzo Conquest of the Panche

Battle of Tocarema
Battle of Tocarema
(1538)

Research and collections

Scholars

Acosta Acosta Samper De Aguado Arango Broadbent De Castellanos Celis Correal Duquesne Freyle Friede Gamboa Groot Hammen Humboldt Izquierdo Langebaek De Lugo Ocampo De Piedrahita De Quesada Reichel-Dolmatoff Schrimpff Simón Triana Uricoechea Zerda

Publications

Elegías (1589) El Carnero (1638) Epítome (1889)

Research institutes

ICANH Universidad Nacional Universidad de los Andes Universidad La Javeriana University of Pittsburgh UPTC

Collections

Museo del Oro Archaeology Museum of Sogamoso Archaeology Museum of Pasca Metropolitan Museum of Art

Category Portal Images

Coordinates: 40°46′44″N 73°57′49″W / 40.77891°N 73.96367°W / 40.77891; -73.96367

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126238294 LCCN: n79129629 ISNI: 0000 0001 2097 3481 GND: 1008914-7 SELIBR: 290971 SUDOC: 026460386 BNF: cb118704754 (data) ULAN: 50012

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