HOME
The Info List - Metropolitan And Non-metropolitan Counties Of England



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

METROPOLITAN AND NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England
England
used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London
Greater London
and the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
. As originally constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts , had a county council and were also the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies . Later changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and 'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately , based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties.

In 2009, there were further structural changes in some areas , resulting in a total of 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. These 83 counties collectively consist of 292 districts or district-level subdivisions, i.e. 36 metropolitan boroughs and 256 non-metropolitan districts (201 of these are subdivisions of non-metropolitan counties with county councils; 6 are subdivisions (and also unitary authorities, but without non-metropolitan county status) of Berkshire, which is a non-metropolitan county with no county council; and the remaining 49 are unitary authorities that have non-metropolitan county status).

CONTENTS

* 1 Current metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England
England

* 1.1 Metropolitan counties

* 1.2 Non-metropolitan counties

* 1.2.1 Shire
Shire
counties * 1.2.2 Unitary authorities
Unitary authorities

* 2 Exceptions in England
England

* 2.1 London * 2.2 Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly

* 3 History

* 3.1 Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
* 3.2 Map 1974–1996 * 3.3 Abolition of metropolitan county councils * 3.4 Local Government Act 1992

* 4 2009 structural changes * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

CURRENT METROPOLITAN AND NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND

METROPOLITAN AND NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND

* Northumberland
Northumberland
* * Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
† * Durham * * Cumbria
Cumbria
** * Lancashire
Lancashire
** * Blackpool
Blackpool
* * Blackburn with Darwen * * West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
† * North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
** * Darlington * * Stockton-on-Tees * * Middlesbrough * * Hartlepool * * Redcar and Cleveland
Redcar and Cleveland
* * York
York
* * East Riding of Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
* * Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
* * North Lincolnshire * * North East Lincolnshire * * Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
** * Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
** * Nottingham
Nottingham
* * South Yorkshire † * Derbyshire
Derbyshire
** * Derby
Derby
* * Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
† * Merseyside
Merseyside
† * Halton * * Warrington
Warrington
* * Cheshire West and Chester * * Cheshire East * * Shropshire
Shropshire
* * Telford and Wrekin * * Staffordshire
Staffordshire
** * Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
* * West Midlands † * Warwickshire
Warwickshire
** * Leicestershire
Leicestershire
** * Leicester
Leicester
* * Rutland
Rutland
* * Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
** * Peterborough
Peterborough
* * Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
** * Norfolk
Norfolk
** * Suffolk
Suffolk
** * Essex
Essex
** * Southend-on-Sea * * Thurrock
Thurrock
* * Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
** * Bedford * * Central Bedfordshire * * Luton
Luton
* * Milton Keynes * * Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
** * Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
** * Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
** * Worcestershire
Worcestershire
** * Herefordshire
Herefordshire
* * South Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
* * Bristol
Bristol
* * North Somerset * * Bath and North East Somerset * * Wiltshire
Wiltshire
* * Swindon * * Berkshire
Berkshire
‡ * Medway
Medway
* * Kent
Kent
** * East Sussex
East Sussex
** * Brighton and Hove * * West Sussex
West Sussex
** * Surrey
Surrey
** * Hampshire
Hampshire
** * Southampton
Southampton
* * Portsmouth
Portsmouth
* * Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
* * Dorset
Dorset
** * Poole
Poole
* * Bournemouth
Bournemouth
* * Somerset
Somerset
** * Devon
Devon
** * Torbay
Torbay
* * Plymouth
Plymouth
* * Cornwall
Cornwall
*

GL: Greater London
Greater London
¹

Metropolitan county (no county council). ‡ Non-metropolitan county with no county council. ** Non-metropolitan county with county council. * Non-metropolitan county that is also a unitary authority. ¹ Region with no counties.

METROPOLITAN COUNTIES

Main article: Metropolitan county

The metropolitan counties are Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, Merseyside
Merseyside
, South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
, West Midlands and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
. The counties typically have populations of 1.2 to 2.8 million.

The county councils of these were abolished in 1986, but the counties themselves still exist legally. They are used for some administrative and geographic purposes, and are still ceremonial counties . Most of the powers that the former county councils had were devolved to their metropolitan boroughs , which are now in effect unitary authorities ; however, some functions (such as emergency services, civil defence and public transport) are still run jointly on a metropolitan-county-wide basis.

NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES

Main article: Non-metropolitan county

Shire
Shire
Counties

A shire county is a non-metropolitan county that has multiple districts . Its name does not need to have shire in it. The term shire county is however unofficial.

There are 28 such counties:

Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, North Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Worcestershire.

All, apart from Berkshire, have county councils . Sometimes shire county is used to exclude Berkshire, because it has no county council. The counties have populations of 109,000 to 1.4 million. Under local government reforms coming into effect in 2009 , the number of such counties was reduced. The non-metropolitan counties of Bedfordshire and Cheshire
Cheshire
were split into two separate non-metropolitan counties respectively, while Cornwall, County Durham, Northumberland, Shropshire
Shropshire
and Wiltshire
Wiltshire
became unitary authorities each of a single district.

Unitary Authorities

Main article: Unitary authorities of England

Unitary authorities
Unitary authorities
are areas with only one council, and there are 55 in total.

49 are coterminous with a non-metropolitan county: 43 (Bath and North East Somerset, Bedford, Blackburn with Darwen, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Brighton
Brighton
and Hove, Bristol, Central Bedfordshire, Cheshire
Cheshire
East, Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester, Darlington, Derby, East Riding of Yorkshire, Halton, Hartlepool, Herefordshire, Kingston upon Hull, Leicester, Luton, Medway, Middlesbrough, Borough of Milton Keynes, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Poole, Portsmouth, Redcar and Cleveland, Rutland, South Gloucestershire, Southampton, Southend-on-Sea, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon, Telford and Wrekin, Thurrock, Torbay, Warrington, York) of these are defined as counties with a single district council and no county council; the other 6 (the Isle of Wight, Cornwall, Durham, Northumberland, Shropshire
Shropshire
and Wiltshire) are technically counties with a county council and no district councils, but the effect is the same.

The remaining 6 unitary authorities (West Berkshire, Reading, Wokingham, Bracknell Forest, Windsor and Maidenhead, Slough) are districts of Berkshire, however they are not non-metropolitan counties, as the non-metropolitan county of Berkshire
Berkshire
still exists albeit without a county council; this is a unique situation.

EXCEPTIONS IN ENGLAND

The Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
created the system of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts, but specifically excluded two parts of England
England
from the new system, a situation which exists to the present.

LONDON

Greater London
Greater London
was created in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 as a sui generis administrative area, with the Greater London
Greater London
Council functioning as an upper-tier local government. It consists of 33 local authority districts and spans the area which was prior made up of the County of London , most of Middlesex
Middlesex
, and parts of other neighbouring administrative counties . In 1972, no metropolitan or non-metropolitan counties or districts were created in this area. However, the council was abolished along with the metropolitan county councils in 1986.

In 1994, Greater London
Greater London
was designated as one of nine regions of England
England
, which each had a government office up until they were abolished 2011. Since 2000, Greater London
Greater London
has had an elected Assembly and Mayor responsible for strategic local government. In the other eight regions, plans for elected assemblies were abandoned (although they had regional chambers with limited functions between 1999 and 2010), leaving London as the only region with a conterminous authority.

The area does however include two counties for the purposes of lieutenancies: the county of Greater London
Greater London
(which covers the 32 London boroughs
London boroughs
) and the City of London
City of London
.

ISLES OF SCILLY

The Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
are, like Greater London, not covered by the system of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. The Council of the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
remains a district council (constituted in 1890, by way of the Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888
) with county council powers (granted by the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
Order 1930) and is therefore a sui generis unitary authority. Some functions, such as health and economic development, are shared with Cornwall
Cornwall
Council, and the islands form part of the ceremonial county of Cornwall.

HISTORY

The current system of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties came into effect on 1 April 1974 and replaced the administrative counties and county boroughs , which were abolished at that time. Greater London was created in 1965 under separate legislation.

In the 1990s, a new type of non-metropolitan county was created: the unitary authority, which combines the functions and powers of county and district. The existing non-metropolitan counties became known as shire counties to distinguish them from the unitary authorities.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT 1972

Main article: Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972

By the late 1960s, it had become obvious that the structure of local government in England
England
and Wales needed reforming. Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
's Labour government set up the Redcliffe-Maud Commission to produce proposals for wholesale reform.

The report proposed that for most of England
England
the two-tier structure be abolished, and replaced with a system of 58 unitary authorities , which would generally ignore the previous administrative boundaries in favour of changes that made geographic sense - a total redrawing of the map. In the South of Lancashire
Lancashire
, North East of Cheshire
Cheshire
and the Birmingham
Birmingham
area , there would be 3 metropolitan areas, with 20 district authorities.

These proposals were opposed by the Conservative Party opposition led by Edward Heath . They won the 1970 general election , and set to work defining their own scheme. This scrapped the concept of unitary authorities (even for existing county boroughs ) – the entire area of England
England
and Wales was to be divided into uniform counties and districts. In England
England
the new divisions were to be largely modelled on the existing counties with quite radical reforms put forward, even in some non-metropolitan areas.

Despite reassurances from the government that nobody's loyalties were expected to change as a result of the local government reform, many changes did incur significant local opposition. Most of the radical changes were withdrawn. One aspect the government stood firm on was the mergers of small counties. Campaigns for the continuation of Rutland
Rutland
and Herefordshire
Herefordshire
were unsuccessful, although due to its special geographic circumstances, the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
was permitted to retain a separate county council, as opposed to being reunified with its historic county of Hampshire
Hampshire
.

The Local Government Act was passed in 1972, and defined the English counties and metropolitan districts, but not the non-metropolitan districts. These were set by a Boundary Commission that had already begun work.

The metropolitan counties were composed as follows:

* Merseyside
Merseyside
- based around Liverpool
Liverpool
, south-west Lancashire, along with the northern part of the Wirral Peninsula in Cheshire
Cheshire
* Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
- the Manchester
Manchester
urban area along with many surrounding towns * South Yorkshire - based upon the Sheffield
Sheffield
- Rotherham
Rotherham
area in the West Riding of Yorkshire * Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
- the Tyneside
Tyneside
conurbation based on Newcastle-upon-Tyne in Northumberland
Northumberland
, along with Sunderland in County Durham
County Durham
* West Midlands - Birmingham
Birmingham
conurbation, including the Black Country and Coventry
Coventry
* West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
- Leeds
Leeds
- Bradford
Bradford
area in the West Riding

Other significant changes were:

* Avon formed from northern Somerset
Somerset
, southern Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
, and Bristol
Bristol
and Bath * Cleveland formed from southern Durham and northern part of the North Riding , focusing on the Teesside
Teesside
conurbation along with Guisborough
Guisborough
and Hartlepool * Cumbria
Cumbria
was formed from Westmorland , Cumberland and part of Lancashire
Lancashire
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
* Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Worcestershire
Worcestershire
were merged into Hereford and Worcester * Humberside formed from eastern Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and northern Lincolnshire

* Huntingdon and Peterborough
Peterborough
was annexed by Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
* Rutland
Rutland
was merged into Leicestershire
Leicestershire
as a district * Vale of White Horse
Vale of White Horse
, including Berkshire
Berkshire
's former county town Abingdon , was ceded to Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
, as was the area around Wallingford and Didcot
Didcot
now comprising the western half of the South Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
District * Bournemouth
Bournemouth
was moved from Hampshire
Hampshire
to Dorset
Dorset
, to join its sister town of Poole
Poole

The changes were adopted by the Royal Mail for the purposes of postal addresses wherever they were able, with the notable exceptions of Hereford and Worcester and Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
. Humberside was divided for this purpose into North Humberside and South Humberside .

MAP 1974–1996

COUNTIES OF ENGLAND FROM 1974 TO 1996

* Northumberland
Northumberland
* Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
* Durham * Cleveland * North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
* Cumbria
Cumbria
* Lancashire
Lancashire
* Merseyside
Merseyside
* Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
* West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
* South Yorkshire * Humberside * Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
* Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
* Derbyshire
Derbyshire
* Cheshire
Cheshire
* Shropshire
Shropshire
* Staffordshire
Staffordshire
* West Midlands * Warwickshire
Warwickshire
* Leicestershire
Leicestershire
* Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
* Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
* Norfolk
Norfolk
* Suffolk
Suffolk
* Essex
Essex
* Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
* Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
* Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
* Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
* Hereford and Worcester * Avon * Wiltshire
Wiltshire
* Berkshire
Berkshire
* Greater London
Greater London
* Kent
Kent
* East Sussex
East Sussex
* West Sussex
West Sussex
* Surrey
Surrey
* Hampshire
Hampshire
* Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
* Dorset
Dorset
* Somerset
Somerset
* Devon
Devon
* Cornwall
Cornwall

ABOLITION OF METROPOLITAN COUNTY COUNCILS

Main article: Local Government Act 1985

In 1986, the county councils of the metropolitan counties and the Greater London
Greater London
Council were abolished by Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
's government following disputes with central government, but the counties themselves remained legally in existence.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT 1992

Main article: Local Government Commission for England
England
(1992) 1 April 1996 to 31 March 1997 1 April 1997 to 31 March 1998 1 April 1998 to 31 March 2009

The 1990s led to the restoration of county boroughs under a new name, unitary authorities , which radically changed the administrative map of England. The changes were carried out in several waves.

On 1 April 1995, the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
became a single unitary authority. It had previously had a two-tier structure with an Isle of Wight County Council, Medina Borough Council and South Wight Borough Council. Also on this day, two small areas were ceded from Surrey
Surrey
and Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
to Berkshire
Berkshire
, giving it a border with Greater London .

On 1 April 1996, the unpopular counties of Avon , Humberside and Cleveland were abolished and their former area divided into unitary districts. Also at this time, the city of York
York
was expanded and separated from North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
.

On 1 April 1997, the districts of Bournemouth
Bournemouth
, Darlington , Derby
Derby
, Leicester
Leicester
, Luton
Luton
, Milton Keynes , Poole
Poole
, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, Rutland
Rutland
, Southampton
Southampton
, Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
and Swindon (based on the former Thamesdown district) became unitary authorities. Also, the districts of Brighton and Hove were merged to form the new unitary authority of Brighton and Hove .

On 1 April 1998, Blackburn with Darwen (based on the former Blackburn district), Blackpool
Blackpool
, Halton , Nottingham
Nottingham
, Peterborough
Peterborough
, Plymouth
Plymouth
, Southend-on-Sea , Telford and Wrekin (based on the former Wrekin district), Torbay
Torbay
, Thurrock
Thurrock
and Warrington
Warrington
became unitary authorities. Also, the districts of Rochester-upon- Medway
Medway
and Gillingham were merged to form the new unitary authority of Medway
Medway
, and the county of Hereford and Worcester was abolished and replaced by the unitary authority of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and the shire county of Worcestershire
Worcestershire
. Berkshire
Berkshire
was split into six unitary authorities, but not formally abolished.

2009 STRUCTURAL CHANGES

Main article: 2009 structural changes to local government in England
England

In April 2009, the following changes were made to the non-metropolitan counties:

NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTY ACTION

Borough of Bedford Also became a non-metropolitan county

Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
Abolished

Central Bedfordshire New non-metropolitan county

Cheshire
Cheshire
Abolished

Cheshire East New non-metropolitan county

Cheshire West and Chester New non-metropolitan county

The effect was that Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Cheshire
Cheshir