METOUSIOSIS is a Greek term (μετουσίωσις) that means a change of οὐσία (essence, inner reality).
* 1 History * 2 Theology and dogmatic status * 3 Eastern Orthodox use of the term metousiosis * 4 Oriental Orthodox * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
Cyril Lucaris (or Lucar), the Patriarch of Alexandria and later of Constantinople , used this Greek term to express the idea for which the Latin term is transsubstantiatio (transubstantiation ), which likewise literally means a change of substantia (substance, inner reality), using, in the 1629 Latin text of his The Eastern Confession of the Orthodox Faith, the term transsubstantiatio, and, in the Greek translation published in 1633, the term μετουσίωσις.
To counter the teaching of Lucaris, who denied transsubstantiatio/μετουσίωσις, Metropolitan Petro Mohyla of Kiev (also called Peter Mogila) drew up in Latin an Orthodox Confession, defending transubstantiation. Translated into Greek, using "μετουσίωσις" for the Latin term "transubstantiation", this Confession was approved by all the Greek-speaking Patriarchs (those of Constantinople , Alexandria , Antioch , and Jerusalem ) in 1643, and again by the Synod of Jerusalem (1672) (also referred to as the Council of Bethlehem).
The declaration of the 1672 Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem is quoted by
J.M. Neale (History of Eastern Church, Parker, Oxford and London,
1858) as follows: "When we use the word metousiosis, we by no means
think it explains the mode by which the bread and wine are converted
into the Body and Blood of
The Catechism of the Catholic Church likewise states that the change is real, but that how it occurs is a mystery: "The signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ."
THEOLOGY AND DOGMATIC STATUS
Eastern Orthodox Church
The term metousiosis is, of course, not found in the text of the
Eastern Orthodox Church's
A. Osipov states that the Orthodox use of the Greek word
μεταβολή (metabole), meaning "change", and the Russian
предложение in relation to the
Some Eastern Orthodox theologians thus appear to deny transubstantiation/metousiosis, but in the view of Adrian Fortescue , what they object to is the associated theory of substance and accident, and they hold that there is a real change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
EASTERN ORTHODOX USE OF THE TERM METOUSIOSIS
An English translation of the full, quite lengthy, declaration by the 1672 Orthodox Council of Jerusalem, convoked by Patriarch Dositheos II of Jerusalem , can be found at the website Chapter VI of Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem.
The first edition of The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church, known also as The Catechism of St. Philaret, did not include the term metousiosis; but it was added in the third edition: "In the exposition of the faith by the Eastern Patriarchs, it is said that the word transubstantiation is not to be taken to define the manner in which the bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of the Lord; for this none can understand but God; but only thus much is signified, that the bread truly, really, and substantially becomes the very true Body of the Lord, and the wine the very Blood of the Lord." The official Greek version of this passage (question 340) uses the word "metousiosis".
Writing in 1929, Metropolitan of Thyatira Germanos said that an
obstacle to the request for union with the Eastern Orthodox Church
presented in the 17th century by some
Church of England
A collection of texts from as early as the 5th century in which
councils, individual ecclesiastics, and other writers and theologians
Eastern Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
* ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1333
* ^ John Anthony McGuckin (editor), The Encyclopedia of Eastern
* The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church, questi