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METEOROLOGY is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes
atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics , with a major focus on
weather forecasting . The study of meteorology dates back millennia ,
though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the
18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after
weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior
attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It
wasn't until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and, more
particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the
automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather,
in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs
in weather forecasting were achieved.
Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are
explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are
described and quantified by the variables of Earth\'s atmosphere :
temperature , air pressure , water vapor , mass flow , and the
variations and interactions of those variables, and how they change
over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict
weather on local, regional, and global levels.
Meteorology, climatology , atmospheric physics , and atmospheric
chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences .
Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of
hydrometeorology . The interactions between
Earth's atmosphere and its
oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system.
application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy
production , transport, agriculture , and construction .
The word "meteorology" is from Greek μετέωρος metéōros
"lofty; high (in the sky)" (from μετα- meta- "above" and
ἀείρω aeiro "I lift up") and -λογία -logia "-(o)logy", i.e.
"the study of things in the air".
* 1 History
Research of visual atmospheric phenomena
* 1.2 Instruments and classification scales
* 1.3 Atmospheric composition research
Research into cyclones and air flow
* 1.5 Observation networks and weather forecasting
Numerical weather prediction
* 2 Meteorologists
* 3 Equipment
* 4 Spatial scales
* 4.1 Microscale
* 4.2 Mesoscale
* 4.3 Synoptic scale
* 4.4 Global scale
* 5 Some meteorological principles
Boundary layer meteorology
* 5.2 Dynamic meteorology
* 6 Applications
* 6.2 Aviation meteorology
* 6.3 Agricultural meteorology
* 6.5 Nuclear meteorology
* 6.6 Maritime meteorology
* 6.8 Environmental meteorology
* 6.9 Renewable energy
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 9.1 Dictionaries and encyclopedias
* 10 External links
Timeline of meteorology
Parhelion (sundog) in
The ability to predict rains and floods based on annual cycles was
evidently used by humans at least from the time of agricultural
settlement if not earlier. Early approaches to predicting weather were
based on astrology and were practiced by priests. Cuneiform
inscriptions on Babylonian tablets included associations between
thunder and rain. The Chaldeans differentiated the 22° and 46° halos
Upanishads contain mentions of clouds and seasons.
The Samaveda mentions sacrifices to be performed when certain
phenomena were noticed.
Varāhamihira 's classical work
Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, provides evidence of weather
In 350 BC,
Aristotle is considered the
founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements
described in the
Meteorology is the description of what is now known
as the hydrologic cycle .
De Mundo (composed before 250 BC or between 350 and 200 BC)
noted If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to
the Earth it is called a thunderbolt; if it is only half of fire, but
violent also and massive, it is called a meteor; if it is entirely
free from fire, it is called a smoking bolt. They are all called
'swooping bolts' because they swoop down upon the Earth.
sometimes smoky, and is then called 'smoldering lightning"; sometimes
it darts quickly along, and is then said to be vivid. At other times,
it travels in crooked lines, and is called forked lightning. When it
swoops down upon some object it is called 'swooping lightning'.
The Greek scientist
Theophrastus compiled a book on weather
forecasting, called the Book of Signs. The work of Theophrastus
remained a dominant influence in the study of weather and in weather
forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. In 25 AD,
Pomponius Mela , a
geographer for the
Roman Empire , formalized the climatic zone system.
According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century,
the Kitab al-Nabat (Book of Plants), in which he deals with the
application of meteorology to agriculture during the Muslim
Agricultural Revolution . He describes the meteorological character of
the sky, the planets and constellations , the sun and moon , the lunar
phases indicating seasons and rain, the anwa (heavenly bodies of
rain), and atmospheric phenomena such as winds, thunder, lightning,
snow, floods, valleys, rivers, lakes.
Early attempts at predicting weather were often related to prophesy
and divining and sometimes based on astrological ideas. Admiral
FitzRoy tried to separate scientific approaches from prophetic ones.
RESEARCH OF VISUAL ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA
Baker Beach See also:
Ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context
of astronomical observations. In 1021,
Alhazen showed that
atmospheric refraction is also responsible for twilight ; he estimated
that twilight begins when the sun is 19 degrees below the horizon ,
and also used a geometric determination based on this to estimate the
maximum possible height of the Earth\'s atmosphere as 52,000 passim
(about 49 miles, or 79 km).
St. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of
falling rain had the form of a small sphere, and that this form meant
that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop.
Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the
rainbow. He stated that a rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42
degrees above the horizon. In the late 13th century and early 14th
Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and
Theodoric of Freiberg were the
first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow
phenomenon. Theoderic went further and also explained the secondary
rainbow. In 1716,
Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by
"magnetic effluvia" moving along the Earth\'s magnetic field lines.
INSTRUMENTS AND CLASSIFICATION SCALES
Beaufort Scale ,
Celsius , and
hemispherical cup anemometer
In 1441, King Sejong 's son, Prince Munjong, invented the first
standardized rain gauge . These were sent throughout the Joseon
Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based upon a
farmer's potential harvest. In 1450,
Leone Battista Alberti developed
a swinging-plate anemometer , and was known as the first anemometer.
Galileo Galilei constructed a thermoscope . In 1611, Johannes
Kepler wrote the first scientific treatise on snow crystals: "Strena
Seu de Nive Sexangula (A New Year's Gift of Hexagonal Snow)". In
Evangelista Torricelli invented the mercury barometer . In
Christopher Wren invented the mechanical, self-emptying,
tipping bucket rain gauge. In 1714, Gabriel
Fahrenheit created a
reliable scale for measuring temperature with a mercury-type
thermometer. In 1742, Anders
Celsius , a Swedish astronomer, proposed
the "centigrade" temperature scale, the predecessor of the current
Celsius scale. In 1783, the first hair hygrometer was demonstrated by
Horace-Bénédict de Saussure . In 1802–1803,
Luke Howard wrote On
the Modification of Clouds, in which he assigns cloud types Latin
names. In 1806,
Francis Beaufort introduced his system for
classifying wind speeds . Near the end of the 19th century the first
cloud atlases were published, including the International
, which has remained in print ever since. The April 1960 launch of the
first successful weather satellite ,
TIROS-1 , marked the beginning of
the age where weather information became available globally.
ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION RESEARCH
Blaise Pascal rediscovered that atmospheric pressure
decreases with height, and deduced that there is a vacuum above the
atmosphere. In 1738,
Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamics,
Kinetic theory of gases and established the basic laws
for the theory of gases. In 1761,
Joseph Black discovered that ice
absorbs heat without changing its temperature when melting. In 1772,
Daniel Rutherford discovered nitrogen , which he
called phlogisticated air, and together they developed the phlogiston
theory . In 1777,
Antoine Lavoisier discovered oxygen and developed
an explanation for combustion. In 1783, in Lavoisier's essay
"Reflexions sur le phlogistique", he deprecates the phlogiston theory
and proposes a caloric theory . In 1804, Sir John Leslie observed
that a matte black surface radiates heat more effectively than a
polished surface, suggesting the importance of black body radiation .
John Dalton defended caloric theory in A New System of
Chemistry and described how it combines with matter, especially gases;
he proposed that the heat capacity of gases varies inversely with
atomic weight . In 1824, Sadi Carnot analyzed the efficiency of steam
engines using caloric theory; he developed the notion of a reversible
process and, in postulating that no such thing exists in nature, laid
the foundation for the second law of thermodynamics .
RESEARCH INTO CYCLONES AND AIR FLOW
General Circulation of the Earth's Atmosphere: The westerlies
and trade winds are part of the Earth's atmospheric circulation Main
Coriolis effect and
Christopher Columbus experienced a tropical cyclone, which
led to the first written European account of a hurricane. In 1686,
Edmund Halley presented a systematic study of the trade winds and
monsoons and identified solar heating as the cause of atmospheric
motions. In 1735, an ideal explanation of global circulation through
study of the trade winds was written by
George Hadley . In 1743, when
Benjamin Franklin was prevented from seeing a lunar eclipse by a
hurricane , he decided that cyclones move in a contrary manner to the
winds at their periphery. Understanding the kinematics of how exactly
the rotation of the Earth affects airflow was partial at first.
Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis published a paper in 1835 on the energy yield
of machines with rotating parts, such as waterwheels. In 1856,
William Ferrel proposed the existence of a circulation cell in the
mid-latitudes, and the air within deflected by the Coriolis force
resulting in the prevailing westerly winds. Late in the 19th century,
the motion of air masses along isobars was understood to be the result
of the large-scale interaction of the pressure gradient force and the
deflecting force. By 1912, this deflecting force was named the
Coriolis effect. Just after World War I, a group of meteorologists in
Norway led by
Vilhelm Bjerknes developed the Norwegian cyclone model
that explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the
life cycle) of mid-latitude cyclones , and introduced the idea of
fronts , that is, sharply defined boundaries between air masses . The
Carl-Gustaf Rossby (who was the first to explain the
large scale atmospheric flow in terms of fluid dynamics ), Tor
Bergeron (who first determined how rain forms) and
Jacob Bjerknes .
OBSERVATION NETWORKS AND WEATHER FORECASTING
Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence See also:
History of surface weather analysis
Ferdinando II de Medici established the first weather
observing network, that consisted of meteorological stations in
Osnabrück , Paris and
Warsaw . The collected data were
Florence at regular time intervals. In 1832, an
electromagnetic telegraph was created by
Baron Schilling . The
arrival of the electrical telegraph in 1837 afforded, for the first
time, a practical method for quickly gathering surface weather
observations from a wide area. This data could be used to produce
maps of the state of the atmosphere for a region near the Earth's
surface and to study how these states evolved through time. To make
frequent weather forecasts based on these data required a reliable
network of observations, but it was not until 1849 that the
Smithsonian Institution began to establish an observation network
across the United States under the leadership of
Joseph Henry .
Similar observation networks were established in Europe at this time.
William Clement Ley was key in understanding of cirrus
clouds and early understandings of Jet Streams . Later after this
Charles Kenneth Mackinnon Douglas known as 'CKM' Douglas read Ley's
papers after his death and carried on the early study of weather
systems. Nineteenth century researchers in meteorology were drawn
from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated
scientists. In 1854, the United Kingdom government appointed Robert
FitzRoy to the new office of Meteorological Statist to the Board of
Trade with the task of gathering weather observations at sea.
FitzRoy's office became the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in
1854, the second oldest national meteorological service in the world
(the Central Institution for
Meteorology and Geodynamics ZAMG in
Austria was founded in 1851 and is therefore the oldest weather
service in the world). The first daily weather forecasts made by
FitzRoy's Office were published in
The Times newspaper in 1860. The
following year a system was introduced of hoisting storm warning cones
at principal ports when a gale was expected.
Over the next 50 years many countries established national
meteorological services. The
India Meteorological Department (1875)
was established to follow tropical cyclone and monsoon . The Finnish
Meteorological Central Office (1881) was formed from part of Magnetic
Helsinki University . Japan's Tokyo Meteorological
Observatory, the forerunner of the
Japan Meteorological Agency , began
constructing surface weather maps in 1883. The United States Weather
Bureau (1890) was established under the United States Department of
Agriculture . The Australian
Bureau of Meteorology (1906) was
established by a
Meteorology Act to unify existing state
NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION
Numerical weather prediction A meteorologist at
the console of the IBM 7090 in the Joint Numerical
Unit. c. 1965
In 1904, Norwegian scientist
Vilhelm Bjerknes first argued in his
Weather Forecasting as a Problem in Mechanics and Physics that
it should be possible to forecast weather from calculations based upon
natural laws .
It was not until later in the 20th century that advances in the
understanding of atmospheric physics led to the foundation of modern
numerical weather prediction . In 1922,
Lewis Fry Richardson
Lewis Fry Richardson published
Weather Prediction By Numerical Process", after finding notes and
derivations he worked on as an ambulance driver in World War I. He
described how small terms in the prognostic fluid dynamics equations
that govern atmospheric flow could be neglected, and a numerical
calculation scheme that could be devised to allow predictions.
Richardson envisioned a large auditorium of thousands of people
performing the calculations. However, the sheer number of calculations
required was too large to complete without electronic computers, and
the size of the grid and time steps used in the calculations led to
unrealistic results. Though numerical analysis later found that this
was due to numerical instability .
Starting in the 1950s, numerical forecasts with computers became
feasible. The first weather forecasts derived this way used
barotropic (single-vertical-level) models, and could successfully
predict the large-scale movement of midlatitude Rossby waves , that
is, the pattern of atmospheric lows and highs . In 1959, the UK
Meteorological Office received its first computer, a Ferranti Mercury
In the 1960s, the chaotic nature of the atmosphere was first observed
and mathematically described by
Edward Lorenz , founding the field of
chaos theory . These advances have led to the current use of ensemble
forecasting in most major forecasting centers, to take into account
uncertainty arising from the chaotic nature of the atmosphere.
Mathematical models used to predict the long term weather of the Earth
(climate models ), have been developed that have a resolution today
that are as coarse as the older weather prediction models. These
climate models are used to investigate long-term climate shifts, such
as what effects might be caused by human emission of greenhouse gases
METEOROLOGISTS are scientists who study meteorology. The American
Meteorological Society published and continually updates an
Meteorology Glossary. Meteorologists work in
government agencies , private consulting and research services,
industrial enterprises, utilities, radio and television stations , and
in education . In the United States, meteorologists held about 9,400
jobs in 2009.
Meteorologists are best known by the public for weather forecasting .
Some radio and television weather forecasters are professional
meteorologists, while others are reporters (weather specialist,
weatherman, etc.) with no formal meteorological training. The American
Meteorological Society and National
Weather Association issue "Seals
of Approval" to weather broadcasters who meet certain requirements.
Satellite image of
Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at
the top of the image. Main article:
Each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. In the
atmosphere, there are many things or qualities of the atmosphere that
can be measured. Rain, which can be observed, or seen anywhere and
anytime was one of the first atmospheric qualities measured
historically. Also, two other accurately measured qualities are wind
and humidity. Neither of these can be seen but can be felt. The
devices to measure these three sprang up in the mid-15th century and
were respectively the rain gauge , the anemometer, and the hygrometer.
Many attempts had been made prior to the 15th century to construct
adequate equipment to measure the many atmospheric variables. Many
were faulty in some way or were simply not reliable. Even Aristotle
noted this in some of his work as the difficulty to measure the air.
Sets of surface measurements are important data to meteorologists.
They give a snapshot of a variety of weather conditions at one single
location and are usually at a weather station , a ship or a weather
buoy . The measurements taken at a weather station can include any
number of atmospheric observables. Usually, temperature, pressure ,
wind measurements, and humidity are the variables that are measured by
a thermometer, barometer, anemometer, and hygrometer, respectively.
Professional stations may also include air quality sensors (carbon
monoxide , carbon dioxide , methane , ozone , dust , and smoke ),
ceilometer (cloud ceiling), falling precipitation sensor, flood sensor
, lightning sensor , microphone (explosions , sonic booms , thunder ),
pyranometer /pyrheliometer /spectroradiometer (IR/Vis/UV photodiodes
), rain gauge /snow gauge , scintillation counter (background
radiation , fallout , radon ), seismometer (earthquakes and tremors),
transmissometer (visibility), and a
GPS clock for data logging . Upper
air data are of crucial importance for weather forecasting. The most
widely used technique is launches of radiosondes . Supplementing the
radiosondes a network of aircraft collection is organized by the World
Meteorological Organization .
Remote sensing , as used in meteorology, is the concept of collecting
data from remote weather events and subsequently producing weather
information. The common types of remote sensing are
and satellites (or photogrammetry ). Each collects data about the
atmosphere from a remote location and, usually, stores the data where
the instrument is located.
Lidar are not passive because
EM radiation to illuminate a specific portion of the
Weather satellites along with more general-purpose
Earth-observing satellites circling the earth at various altitudes
have become an indispensable tool for studying a wide range of
phenomena from forest fires to
El Niño .
The study of the atmosphere can be divided into distinct areas that
depend on both time and spatial scales. At one extreme of this scale
is climatology. In the timescales of hours to days, meteorology
separates into micro-, meso-, and synoptic scale meteorology.
Respectively, the geospatial size of each of these three scales
relates directly with the appropriate timescale.
Other subclassifications are used to describe the unique, local, or
broad effects within those subclasses.
TYPICAL SCALES OF ATMOSPHERIC MOTION SYSTEMS
TYPE OF MOTION
HORIZONTAL SCALE (METER)
Molecular mean free path
Minute turbulent eddies
10−2 - 10−1
10−1 - 1
1 - 10
10 - 102
Fronts, squall lines
104 - 105
Mean zonal wind
Microscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena on a
scale of about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) or less. Individual
thunderstorms, clouds, and local turbulence caused by buildings and
other obstacles (such as individual hills) are modeled on this scale.
Mesoscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena that has
horizontal scales ranging from 1 km to 1000 km and a vertical scale
that starts at the Earth's surface and includes the atmospheric
boundary layer, troposphere, tropopause , and the lower section of the
stratosphere . Mesoscale timescales last from less than a day to
weeks. The events typically of interest are thunderstorms , squall
lines , fronts , precipitation bands in tropical and extratropical
cyclones , and topographically generated weather systems such as
mountain waves and sea and land breezes .
NOAA : Synoptic scale weather analysis. Main article: Synoptic
Synoptic scale meteorology predicts atmospheric changes at scales up
to 1000 km and 105 sec (28 days), in time and space. At the synoptic
Coriolis acceleration acting on moving air masses (outside
of the tropics) plays a dominant role in predictions. The phenomena
typically described by synoptic meteorology include events such as
extratropical cyclones, baroclinic troughs and ridges, frontal zones ,
and to some extent jet streams . All of these are typically given on
weather maps for a specific time. The minimum horizontal scale of
synoptic phenomena is limited to the spacing between surface
observation stations .
Annual mean sea surface temperatures.
Global scale meteorology is the study of weather patterns related to
the transport of heat from the tropics to the poles . Very large scale
oscillations are of importance at this scale. These oscillations have
time periods typically on the order of months, such as the
Madden–Julian oscillation , or years, such as the El
Niño–Southern Oscillation and the
Pacific decadal oscillation .
Global scale meteorology pushes into the range of climatology. The
traditional definition of climate is pushed into larger timescales and
with the understanding of the longer time scale global oscillations,
their effect on climate and weather disturbances can be included in
the synoptic and mesoscale timescales predictions.
Weather Prediction is a main focus in understanding
air–sea interaction, tropical meteorology, atmospheric
predictability, and tropospheric/stratospheric processes. The Naval
Research Laboratory in Monterey, California, developed a global
atmospheric model called Navy Operational Global Atmospheric
Prediction System (NOGAPS). NOGAPS is run operationally at Fleet
Oceanography Center for the United States
Military. Many other global atmospheric models are run by national
SOME METEOROLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
BOUNDARY LAYER METEOROLOGY
Boundary layer meteorology is the study of processes in the air layer
directly above Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary
layer (ABL). The effects of the surface – heating, cooling, and
friction – cause turbulent mixing within the air layer. Significant
movement of heat , matter , or momentum on time scales of less than a
day are caused by turbulent motions.
Boundary layer meteorology
includes the study of all types of surface–atmosphere boundary,
including ocean, lake, urban land and non-urban land for the study of
Dynamic meteorology generally focuses on the fluid dynamics of the
atmosphere. The idea of air parcel is used to define the smallest
element of the atmosphere, while ignoring the discrete molecular and
chemical nature of the atmosphere. An air parcel is defined as a point
in the fluid continuum of the atmosphere. The fundamental laws of
fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and motion are used to study the
atmosphere. The physical quantities that characterize the state of the
atmosphere are temperature, density, pressure, etc. These variables
have unique values in the continuum.
Forecast of surface pressures five days into the future for the
north Pacific, North America, and north Atlantic Ocean Main article:
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to
predict the state of the atmosphere at a future time and given
location. Humans have attempted to predict the weather informally for
millennia and formally since at least the 19th century. Weather
forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current
state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of
atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve.
Once an all-human endeavor based mainly upon changes in barometric
pressure , current weather conditions, and sky condition, forecast
models are now used to determine future conditions. Human input is
still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the
forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills,
teleconnections , knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of
model biases. The chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive
computational power required to solve the equations that describe the
atmosphere, error involved in measuring the initial conditions, and an
incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes mean that forecasts
become less accurate as the difference in current time and the time
for which the forecast is being made (the range of the forecast)
increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the
error and pick the most likely outcome.
There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather
warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect life
and property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are
important to agriculture, and therefore to commodity traders
within stock markets.
Temperature forecasts are used by utility
companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday
basis, people use weather forecasts to determine what to wear. Since
outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow, and
wind chill , forecasts can be used to plan activities around these
events, and to plan ahead and survive them.
Aviation meteorology deals with the impact of weather on air traffic
management . It is important for air crews to understand the
implications of weather on their flight plan as well as their
aircraft, as noted by the
Aeronautical Information Manual :
The effects of ice on aircraft are cumulative—thrust is reduced,
drag increases, lift lessens, and weight increases. The results are an
increase in stall speed and a deterioration of aircraft performance.
In extreme cases, 2 to 3 inches of ice can form on the leading edge of
the airfoil in less than 5 minutes. It takes but 1/2 inch of ice to
reduce the lifting power of some aircraft by 50 percent and increases
the frictional drag by an equal percentage.
Meteorologists, soil scientists , agricultural hydrologists, and
agronomists are persons concerned with studying the effects of weather
and climate on plant distribution, crop yield , water-use efficiency,
phenology of plant and animal development, and the energy balance of
managed and natural ecosystems. Conversely, they are interested in the
role of vegetation on climate and weather.
Hydrometeorology is the branch of meteorology that deals with the
hydrologic cycle , the water budget, and the rainfall statistics of
storms . A hydrometeorologist prepares and issues forecasts of
accumulating (quantitative) precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and
highlights areas with the potential for flash flooding. Typically the
range of knowledge that is required overlaps with climatology,
mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, and other geosciences.
The multidisciplinary nature of the branch can result in technical
challenges, since tools and solutions from each of the individual
disciplines involved may behave slightly differently, be optimized for
different hard- and software platforms and use different data formats.
There are some initiatives - such as the DRIHM project - that are
trying to address this issue.
Nuclear meteorology investigates the distribution of radioactive
aerosols and gases in the atmosphere.
Maritime meteorology deals with air and wave forecasts for ships
operating at sea. Organizations such as the
Ocean Prediction Center ,
Weather Service forecast office, United Kingdom Met
Office , and JMA prepare high seas forecasts for the world's oceans.
Military meteorology is the research and application of meteorology
for military purposes. In the United States, the
United States Navy
United States Navy 's
Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command oversees
meteorological efforts for the Navy and Marine Corps while the United
States Air Force 's Air Force
Weather Agency is responsible for the
Air Force and Army .
Environmental meteorology mainly analyzes industrial pollution
dispersion physically and chemically based on meteorological
parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind, and various weather
Meteorology applications in renewable energy includes basic research,
"exploration", and potential mapping of wind power and solar radiation
for wind and solar energy.
Outline of meteorology
American Practical Navigator
Automated airport weather station
Eddy covariance flux (eddy correlation, eddy flux)
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
Index of meteorology articles
List of cloud types
List of meteorology institutions
List of Russian meteorologists
List of weather instruments
* National Weatherperson\'s Day
Weather and climate
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DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS
* Glickman, Todd S. (June 2000).
Meteorology Glossary (electronic)
(2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: