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METAKNOWLEDGE or META-KNOWLEDGE is knowledge about a preselected knowledge.

For the reason of different definitions of knowledge in the subject matter literature, meta-information may or may not be included in meta-knowledge. Detailed cognitive, systemic and epistemic study of human knowledge requires a distinguishing of these concepts. However, the common language knowledge includes information, for example, bibliographic data are considered as a meta-knowledge.

Meta-knowledge is a fundamental conceptual instrument in such research and scientific domains as, knowledge engineering , knowledge management , and others dealing with study and operations on knowledge, seen as a unified object /entities, abstracted from local conceptualizations and terminologies. Examples of the first-level individual meta-knowledge are methods of planning, modeling, tagging , learning and every modification of a domain knowledge . According to the TOGA meta-theory, the procedures, methodologies and strategies of teaching, coordination of e-learning courses are individual META-META-KNOWLEDGE of an intelligent entity (a person , organization or society ). Indeed, universal meta-knowledge frameworks have to be valid for the organization of meta-levels of individual meta-knowledge.

Metaknowledge may be automatically harvested from electronic publication archives, to reveal patterns in research, relationships between researchers and institutions and to identify contradictory results.

SEE ALSO

* Epistemic logic * Knowledge
Knowledge
* Macropædia * Meta
Meta
* Metaprogramming (in computer science ) * Metahistory (concept) * Metahistory , a book by Hayden White * Meta-philosophy * Meta-epistemology * Metalogic * Metamathematics * Metaphysics * Meta-ethics * Meta-ontology * Metatheory * Metadata

REFERENCES

* ^ *Meta- Knowledge
Knowledge
Unified Framework (A.M. Gadomski) - the TOGA meta-theory, Italian Research Agency ENEA * ^ James A. Evans, et al. 2011. Metaknowledge. Science 331,