METAKNOWLEDGE or META-KNOWLEDGE is knowledge about a preselected knowledge.
For the reason of different definitions of knowledge in the subject matter literature, meta-information may or may not be included in meta-knowledge. Detailed cognitive, systemic and epistemic study of human knowledge requires a distinguishing of these concepts. However, the common language knowledge includes information, for example, bibliographic data are considered as a meta-knowledge.
Meta-knowledge is a fundamental conceptual instrument in such research and scientific domains as, knowledge engineering , knowledge management , and others dealing with study and operations on knowledge, seen as a unified object /entities, abstracted from local conceptualizations and terminologies. Examples of the first-level individual meta-knowledge are methods of planning, modeling, tagging , learning and every modification of a domain knowledge . According to the TOGA meta-theory, the procedures, methodologies and strategies of teaching, coordination of e-learning courses are individual META-META-KNOWLEDGE of an intelligent entity (a person , organization or society ). Indeed, universal meta-knowledge frameworks have to be valid for the organization of meta-levels of individual meta-knowledge.
Metaknowledge may be automatically harvested from electronic publication archives, to reveal patterns in research, relationships between researchers and institutions and to identify contradictory results.
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