In Abrahamic religions, the
Messiah or Messias (Hebrew:
מָשִׁיחַ, translit. māšîaḥ; Greek:
μεσσίας, translit. messías, Arabic: مسيح,
translit. masîḥ) is a saviour or liberator of a group of
The concepts of Moshiach, Messianism, and of a Messianic Age
originated in Judaism, and in the Hebrew Bible; a moshiach
(messiah) is a king or High Priest traditionally anointed with holy
anointing oil. However, messiahs were not exclusively Jewish, as
Hebrew Bible refers to Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, as a
messiah for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple.
In Judaism, the Jewish Messiah, hamashiach (המשיח, "the Messiah",
"the anointed one"), often referred to as "King Messiah" (מלך
המשיח, melekh mashiach), is to be a human leader, physically
descended from the paternal
Davidic line through King
David and King
Solomon. He is thought to accomplish predetermined things in only one
future arrival, including the unification of the tribes of Israel,
the gathering in of all Jews to Eretz Israel, the rebuilding of the
Temple in Jerusalem, the ushering in of a Messianic Age of global
universal peace, and the annunciation of the World to come (But
the specific expression, "hamashiach" (המשיח, lit. "the
Messiah"), does not occur in the
Tanakh ("Jewish Bible")).
In Christianity, the
Messiah is called the Christ, from Greek:
χριστός, translit. khristós, translating the Hebrew word
of the same meaning. The concept of the
Messiah in Christianity
originated from the
Messiah in Judaism. However, unlike the concept of
Judaism and Islam, the
Christianity is the
Son of God. Christ became the accepted Christian designation and title
Jesus of Nazareth, because
Christians believe that messianic
prophecies in the Christian
Old Testament were fulfilled in his
mission, death, and resurrection. They believe that Christ will
fulfill the rest of the Messianic prophecies in the Second Coming,
specifically the prophecy of a future king who would come from the
Davidic line and usher in a
Messianic Age and World to Come.
Jesus was a Prophet and the Masîḥ (مسيح), the Messiah
in Islam, sent to the Israelites, and that he will return to Earth at
the end of times, along with the Mahdi, and defeat al-Masih ad-Dajjal,
the false Messiah.
Ahmadiyya theology, these prophecies concerning the
Mahdi and the
second coming of
Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835–1908), the founder of the
Ahmadiyya Movement, and the
terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonyms for one and the same
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950),
Rebbe (spiritual leader) of
Chabad Lubavitch, and Menachem
Mendel Schneerson (1902 - 1994), seventh
Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah
claimants. Resembling early
Christianity, the deceased
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson is believed to
Messiah among adherents of the
Chabad movement; his second
coming is believed to be imminent.
4.1 Shia Islam
6 Other traditions
7 Popular culture
8 See also
11 External links
Messiah (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ, Modern Mashiaẖ,
Tiberian Māšîăḥ; in modern Jewish texts in English spelled
Mashiach; Aramaic: משיחא, Greek: Μεσσίας, Classical
Syriac: ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ, Məšîḥā, Arabic: المسيح,
al-Masīḥ, Latin: Messias) literally means "anointed one". In
Messiah is often referred to as מלך המשיח (Meleḵ
ha-Mašīaḥ in the Tiberian vocalization, pronounced [ˈmeleχ
hamaˈʃiaħ], literally meaning "the Anointed King".)
Septuagint version of the
Old Testament renders all
thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for "anointed" (Mašíaḥ)
as Χριστός (Khristós). The
New Testament records the Greek
transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John.[Jn. 1:41][4:25]
al-Masīḥ (proper name, pronounced [mæˈsiːħ]) is the Arabic
word for messiah. In modern Arabic, it is used as one of the many
titles of Jesus. Masīḥ is used by Arab
Christians as well as
Muslims, and is written as Yasūʿ al-Masih (يسوع المسيح) by
Christians or ʿĪsā al-Masīḥ (عيسى المسيح) by
Muslims. The word al-Masīḥ literally means "the anointed", "the
traveller", or the "one who cures by caressing". In Qur'anic
Jesus is mentioned as having been sent down by Allah,
strengthened by the holy spirit, and hence, 'anointed' with the
task of being a prophet and a "recipient of sacred scripture". The
Israelites, to whom Isa was sent, had a traditional practice of
anointing their kings with oil. An
Imam Bukhari hadith describes Jesus
as having wet hair that looked as if water was dripping from it,
possibly meaning he was naturally anointed. Muslims believe that
this is just one of the many signs that proves that
Jesus is the
Jewish Messiah claimants
Jewish eschatology and Judaism's view of Jesus
The literal translation of the Hebrew word mashiach (messiah) is
"anointed", which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or
something by putting holy oil upon it. It is used throughout the
Hebrew Bible in reference to a wide variety of individuals and
objects; for example, a Jewish king, Jewish priests and prophets, the
Jewish Temple and its utensils, unleavened bread, and a non-Jewish
king (Cyrus, King of Persia).
In Jewish eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish king
from the Davidic line, who will be "anointed" with holy anointing oil,
to be king of God's kingdom, and rule the Jewish people during the
Messianic Age. In Judaism, the
Messiah is not considered to be
a pre-existent divine Son of God. He is considered to be a great
political leader that has descended from King David. That is why he is
referred to as
Messiah ben David, which means "Messiah, son of David".
The messiah, in Judaism, is considered to be a great, charismatic
leader that is well oriented with the laws that are followed in
Judaism. He will be the one who will not "judge by what his eyes
see" or "decide by what his ears hear".
Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental
part of Judaism, and is one of Maimonides' 13 Principles of Faith.
Maimonides describes the identity of the
Messiah in the following
And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying
Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according
to the written and oral Torah, and he will impel all of Israel to
follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, and will fight
God's wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one.
If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and
gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the
anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship
the Lord together, as it is stated: "For then I shall turn for the
nations a clear tongue, so that they will all proclaim the Name of the
Lord, and to worship Him with a united resolve (Zephaniah 3:9)."
Even though the eventual coming of the messiah is a strongly upheld
idea in Judaism, trying to predict the actual time when the messiah
will come is an act that is frowned upon. These kinds of actions are
thought to weaken the faith the people have in the religion. This
happened once when Sabbatai Zevi, from Smirna (now İzmir, Turkey),
claimed that he was the messiah that the Jewish community have been
waiting for. So in Judaism, there is no specific time when the messiah
comes. Rather, it is the acts of the people that determines when the
messiah comes. It is said that the messiah would come either when the
world needs his coming the most (when the world is so sinful and in
desperate need of saving by the messiah) or deserves it the most (when
genuine goodness prevails in the world).
A common modern rabbinic interpretation is that there is a potential
messiah in every generation. The Talmud, which often uses stories to
make a moral point (aggadah), tells of a highly respected rabbi who
Messiah at the gates of
Rome and asked him, "When will you
finally come?" He was quite surprised when he was told, "Today."
Overjoyed and full of anticipation, the man waited all day. The next
day he returned, disappointed and puzzled, and asked, "You said
messiah would come 'today' but he didn't come! What happened?" The
Messiah replied, "Scripture says, 'Today, if you will but hearken to
A Kabbalistic tradition within
Judaism is that the commonly discussed
messiah who will usher in a period of freedom and peace (
David) will be preceded by
Messiah ben Joseph, who will gather the
children of Israel around him, lead them to Jerusalem. After
overcoming the hostile powers in Jerusalem,
Messiah ben Joseph, will
reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion. Then
Armilus, according to one group of sources, or Gog and Magog,
according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem,
wage war against
Messiah ben Joseph, and slay him. His corpse,
according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem;
according to the other, it will be hidden by the angels with the
bodies of the Patriarchs, until
David comes and brings him
back to life.
Chabad messianism, Chabad-Lubavitch related
Jewish Messiah claimants
Chabad Halachic ruling declaring "every single Jew" had to believe in
the imminent second coming of the deceased 7th Lubavitcher
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950), sixth
Chabad Lubavitch, and Menachem Mendel Schneerson
(1902 - 1994), seventh
Chabad, are Messiah
claimants, although neither ever claimed to be the Messiah
themselves and often vehemently denied claims that they were the
As per Chabad-Lubavitch messianism, Menachem Mendel Schneerson
openly declared his deceased father-in-law, the former 6th
Chabad Lubavitch, being the Messiah. He published about Yosef
Yitzchak Schneersohn to be "
Atzmus u'mehus alein vi er hat zich
areingeshtalt in a guf" (Yiddish and English for: "Essence and
Existence [of God] which has placed itself in a body").
The gravesite of his deceased father-in-law Yosef Yitzchak
Schneersohn, known as "the Ohel", became a central point of focus for
Menachem Mendel Schneerson's prayers and supplications.
Regarding the deceased Menachem Mendel Schneerson, a later Chabad
Halachic ruling claims that it was "incumbent on every single Jew to
heed the Rebbe's words and believe that he is indeed King Moshiach,
who will be revealed imminently". Outside of Chabad
messianism, in Judaism, there is no basis to these claims. If
anything, this resembles the faith in the resurrection of
his second coming in early Christianity.
Still today, the deceased rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson is believed
to be the
Messiah among adherents of the Chabad
movement, and his second coming is believed to be
imminent. He is venerated and invocated to by thousands of
visitors and letters each year at the Ohel—especially in a
pilgrimage each year on the anniversary of his death.
The Last Judgment, by
Jean Cousin the Younger
Jean Cousin the Younger (c. late 16th century)
Main article: Christ (title)
Jesus in Christianity, Redeemer (Christianity), and
Christian messianic prophecies
The Greek translation of
Messiah is khristos (χριστός),
anglicized as Christ, and
Christians commonly refer to
Jesus as either
the "Christ" or the "Messiah".
Christians believe that Messianic
prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of
Jesus and that he will return to fulfill the rest of Messianic
The majority of historical and mainline Christian theologies consider
Jesus to be the Son of
God the Son, a concept of the Messiah
fundamentally different from the Jewish and Islamic concepts. In each
of the four
New Testament Gospels, the only literal anointing of Jesus
is conducted by a woman. In the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and John,
this anointing occurs in Bethany, outside Jerusalem. In the
Luke, the anointing scene takes place at an indeterminate location,
but context suggests it to be in Galilee, or even a separate anointing
Part of a series on
Jesus in Christianity
Names and titles
Life of Jesus
Jesus in Islam
Background to the New Testament
Language spoken by Jesus
Jesus' race / genealogy
Jesus in history
Sources for the historicity of Jesus
Quest for the historical Jesus
Christ myth theory
Perspectives on Jesus
Jesus in culture
Life in art
Main articles: Mahdi, Muhammad al-Mahdi, and
Jesus in Islam
While the term "messiah" does appear in Islam, the meaning is starkly
different from that found in
Christianity and Judaism. "Though Islam
shares many of the beliefs and characteristics of the two
Semitic/Abrahamic/monotheistic religions which preceded it, the idea
of messianism, which is of central importance in
Christianity, is alien to
Islam as represented by the Qur'an."
Jesus as the messiah (Masih), who will one day
return to earth. At the time of the second coming, "according to
Jesus will come again and exercise his power of
healing. He will forever destroy falsehood, as embodied in the
Daj-jal, the great falsifier, the anti-Christ. Then
God will reign
The Muslims refer to
Jesus as "Isa".
Jesus is one of the most
important prophets in the Islamic tradition, along with Noah, Abraham,
Muhammad.[Quran 33:7][Quran 42:13-14][Quran 57:26]
Unlike Christians, Muslims see
Jesus as merely a prophet, but not as
God Himself or the son of God. Like all other prophets,
Jesus is an
ordinary man, who receives revelations from God. According to
religious scholar Mona Siddiqui, in Islam, "Prophecy allows
remain veiled and there is no suggestion in the Qur'an that
to reveal of himself just yet. Prophets guarantee interpretation of
revelation and that God's message will be understood." Prophecy in
human form does not represent the true powers of God, contrary to the
Jesus is depicted in mainstream Christianity.
Quran states that Isa, the Son of Mariam (Arabic: Isa ibn Maryam),
Messiah and Prophet sent to the Children of
Israel.[Quran 3:45] The birth of Isa is described
Quran sura 19
verses 1–33,[Quran 19:1-33] and sura 4 verse 171 explicitly
states Isa as the Son of Mariam.[Quran 4:171] Sunni Muslims
believe Isa is alive in Heaven and did not die in the crucifixion, as
depicted in mainstream Christianity. According to religious scholar,
Mahmoud Ayoub, "Jesus' close proximity or nearness (qurb) to
affirmed in the Qur'anic insistence that
Jesus did not die, but was
taken up to
God and remains with
God (Q:3:54; 4:157) " 
It is believed that Isa will return to Earth to defeat the Masih
ad-Dajjal (false Messiah), a figure similar to the
Christianity, who will emerge shortly before Yawm al-Qiyāmah ("the
Day of Resurrection"). The community leader ("Mahdi") will come
shortly before the second coming of Jesus. After he has destroyed
ad-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa
will unify the
Ummah (the followers of Islam) under the common
purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending
divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that
at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.
A hadith in
Abu Dawud (37:4310) says:
Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet said: There is no prophet between
me and him, that is, Isa. He will descend (to the earth). When you see
him, recognise him: a man of medium height & reddish dusky
complexion, wearing two light yellow garments, looking as if drops of
water were falling down from his head though it will not be wet. He
will fight for the cause of Islam. He will break the cross, kill the
swines, and put an end to war (in another Tradition, there is the word
Jizyah instead of Harb (war), meaning that he will abolish jizyah);
God will perish all religions except Islam. He [Isa] will destroy the
Antichrist who will live on the earth for forty days and then he will
die. The Muslims will pray behind him.
Both Sunni and Shia Muslims agree that al-
Mahdi will arrive
first, and after him, Isa. Isa will proclaim al-
Mahdi as the Islamic
community leader. A war will be fought—the Dajjal against alMahdi
and Isa. This war will mark the approach of the coming of the Last
Day. After Isa slays alDajjāl at the Gate of Lud, he will bear
witness and reveal that
Islam is indeed the true and last word from
God to humanity as Yusuf Ali's translation reads: "And there is none
of the People of the
Book but must believe in him before his death;
and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against
them."[Quran 4:159] A hadith in
Sahih Bukhari (Sahih al-Bukhari,
Allah's Apostle said "How will you be when the son of Mariam descends
among you and your
Imam is from among you?"
Quran refutes the crucifixion of Jesus, claiming that he was
neither killed nor crucified.[Quran 4:157] The
emphasizes the difference between Allah (
God in Arabic) and the
Messiah: "Those who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary, are
Messiah said: "O Children of Israel, worship Allah,
my Lord and your Lord... unbelievers too are those who have said that
Allah is the third of three... the Messiah, son of Mary, was only a
Messenger before whom other Messengers had gone."[Quran 5:72-77]
Shi'i Islam, which significantly values and revolves around the 12
spiritual leaders called Imams, differs significantly from the beliefs
of Sunni Islam. Unlike Sunni Islam, "Messianism is an essential part
of religious belief and practice for almost all Shi'a Muslims." 
Islam believes that the last
Imam will return again, with the
return of Jesus. According to religious scholar Mona Sidique, "Shi'is
are acutely aware of the existence everywhere of the twelfth Imam, who
disappeared in 874. Shi'i piety teaches that the hidden
Jesus Christ to set up the messianic kingdom before the
final Judgement Day, when all humanity will stand before God. The
Imams and Fatima will have a direct impact on the judgements rendered
that day. This will represent the ultimate intercession."  There
is debate on whether Shi'i Muslims should accept the death of Jesus.
Religious scholar Mahmou Ayoub argues "Modern Shi'i thinkers have
allowed the possibility that
Jesus died and only his spirit was taken
up to heaven." Conversely, religious scholar Mona Siddiqui argues
that Shi'i thinkers believe
Jesus was "neither crucified nor
slain." She also argues that Shi'i Muslims believe that the
twelfth imam did not die, but "was taken to
God to return in God's
time,"  and "will return at the end of history to establish the
God on earth as the expected Mahdi."
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the
Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam,
Ahmadis to be the Promised
Messiah of the latter days
Prophethood (Ahmadiyya) and
Ahmadiyya theology, the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonymous
terms for one and the same person. The term "Mahdi" means guided
by God, thus implying a direct ordainment by
God of a divinely chosen
individual. According to
Ahmadiyya thought, Messiahship is a
phenomenon through which a special emphasis is given on the
transformation of a people by way of offering suffering for the sake
God instead of giving suffering (i.e. refraining from
Ahmadis believe that this special emphasis
was given through the person of
Jesus and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835–1908) among others.
Ahmadis hold that the prophesied eschatological figures of
Christianity and Islam, the
Messiah and Mahdi, were in fact to be
fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous
Numerous hadith are presented by the
Ahmadis in support of their view,
such as one from Sunan Ibn Majah, which says, "There is No
Jesus son of Mary."
Ahmadis believe that the prophecies concerning the
Mahdi and the
second coming of
Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835–1908), the founder of the
Ahmadiyya Movement. Unlike
mainstream Muslims, the
Ahmadis do not believe that
Jesus is alive in
heaven, but that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the
east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the
promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised
Messiah and Mahdi. He also claimed to have appeared in the
Krishna and that his advent fulfilled certain prophecies
found in Hindu scriptures. He stated that the founder of Sikhism
Muslim saint, who was a reflection of the religious challenges
he perceived to be occurring. Ghulam Ahmad wrote
Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya, in 1880, which incorporated Indian, Sufi, Islamic
and Western aspects in order to give life to
Islam in the face of the
British Raj, Protestant Christianity, and rising Hinduism. He later
declared himself the Promised
Messiah and the
Mahdi following Divine
revelations in 1891. Ghulam Ahmad argued that
Jesus had appeared 1300
after the formation of the
Muslim community and stressed the need for
a current Messiah, in turn claiming that he himself embodied both the
Mahdi and the Messiah. Ghulam Ahmad was supported by Muslims who
especially felt oppressed by Christian and Hindu missionaries.
Maitreya is considered to the next Buddha (awakened one)
that is promised to come. He is expected to come to renew the laws of
Buddhism once the teaching of
Gautama Buddha has completely
Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, claimed to be the figure
prophesied in the scriptures of the world's religions. His name,
when translated literally, means "The Glory of God" in Arabic.
According to the Bahá'í Faith,
Bahá'u'lláh addressed not only
those timeless theological and philosophical questions that have
stayed with humanity since old times such as: Who is God? What is
goodness? and Why are we here? but also the questions that have
preoccupied philosophers of the 20th century: What motivates human
nature? Is real peace indeed possible? Does
God still care for
humanity? and the like. He is considered to be the latest of the
God sent to human beings. He is the one who brought
new spiritual and social teachings for our modern age. He taught that
there is only one God, that all of the world's religions are from God,
and that now is the time for humanity to recognize its oneness and
Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is believed to be the
followers of the
Rastafari movement. This idea further supports
the belief that
God himself is black, which they (followers of the
Rastafarian movement) try to further strengthen by a verse from the
Bible. [Jeremiah 8:21]. Even if the Emperor denied being the messiah,
the followers of the
Rastafari movement believe that he is a messenger
from God. To justify this, Rastafarians used reasons such as Emperor
Haile Selassie's bloodline, which is assumed to come from King Solomon
of Israel, and the various titles given to him, which include Lord of
Lords, King of Kings and Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah.
Kebatinan (Javanese religious tradition),
Satrio Piningit is a
character in Jayabaya's prophecies who is destined to become a great
Nusantara and to rule the world from Java. In Serat
Jayabaya of Kediri foretold that before Satrio
Piningit's coming, there would be flash floods and that volcanoes
would erupt without warning.
Satrio Piningit is a Krishna-like figure
known as "Ratu Adil" (Indonesian King of Justice) and his weapon is a
The Messiah, a 2007 Persian film depicting the life of
Jesus from an
The Young Messiah, a 2016 American film depicting the childhood life
Jesus from a Christian perspective
Dune Messiah, a 1969 novel by Frank Herbert, second in his Dune
trilogy, also part of a miniseries, one of the widest-selling works of
fiction in the 1960s
Messiah is the final persona of Persona 3's protagonist, obtained
after he understands the meaning of his journey
The following works include the concept of a messiah as a leader of a
cause or liberator of a people:
The Jewish Messiah, a 2008 novel by Arnon Grunberg
Messiah, a 1999 novel by Andrei Codrescu
Kalki, a figure in Hindu eschatology
Li Hong, a figure in
List of messiah claimants
Jewish Messiah claimants
List of people claimed to be Jesus
Saoshyant, a figure in
Zoroastrianism who brings about the final
renovation of the world
^ a b Schochet,
Rabbi Prof. Dr. Jacob Immanuel. "
Moshiach ben Yossef".
Tutorial. moshiach.com. Archived from the original on 20 December
2002. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
^ a b Blidstein, Prof. Dr. Gerald J. "
Messiah in Rabbinic Thought".
MESSIAH. Jewish Virtual Library and Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The
Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
^ Exodus 30:22-25
^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Cyrus: Cyrus and the Jews: "This prophet,
Cyrus, through whom were to be redeemed His chosen people, whom he
would glorify before all the world, was the promised Messiah, 'the
shepherd of Yhwh' (xliv. 28, xlv. 1)."
^ Telushkin, Joseph. "The Messiah". The Jewish Virtual Library Jewish
Literacy. NY: William Morrow and Co., 1991. Reprinted by permission of
the author. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
^ Flusser, David. "
Second Temple Period". Messiah. Encyclopaedia
Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
^ Megillah 17b–18a, Taanit 8b
^ Sotah 9a
^ "The Jewish Concept of
Messiah and the Jewish Response to Christian
Claims - Jews For Judaism". jewsforjudaism.org. Jews For Judaism.
Retrieved 31 August 2016.
^ a b Etymology Online
Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity, born c. 4 BC.
^ a b "Muttaqun OnLine - Dajjal (The Anti-Christ): According to Quran
and Sunnah". Muttaqun.com. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
^ a b Ask Islam: What is the different between a messiah and a
^ a b
Mahdi - Review of Religions
^ a b also: Habad messianism, Lubavitcher messianism, mishichism,
^ a b Susan Handelman, The Lubavitcher
Rebbe Died 20 Years Ago Today.
Who Was He?, Tablet Magazine
^ a b c Adin Steinsaltz, My Rebbe. Maggid Books, page 24
^ a b c Dara Horn, June 13, 2014 "
Rebbe of Rebbe's". The Wall Street
^ a b c Aharon Lichtenstein, Euligy for the Rebbe. June 16, 1994.
^ a b The New York Times, Statement From Agudas Chasidei Chabad, Feb
^ a b Famed Posek
Rabbi Menashe Klein: Messianic Group Within Chabad
^ a b c On
Chabad Archived 19 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b Public Responsa from
Rabbi Aharon Feldman on the matter of
Chabad messiansim (Hebrew), 23 Sivan, 5763 -
http://moshiachtalk.tripod.com/feldman.pdf. See also
^ a b c Berger,
David (April 1, 2008). The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the
Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. Littman Library Of Jewish
Civilization. ISBN 978-1904113751. for further information
see the article: The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox
^ a b c d Berger,
Rabbi Prof. Dr. David. "On the Spectrum of Messianic
Belief in Contemporary Lubavitch Chassidism". Shema Yisrael Torah
Network. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
^ a b Freeman, Charles. The Closing of the Western Mind, p. 133.
^ a b c d e Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "The False Mashiah of
Lubavitch-Habad". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June
^ a b c d e Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "Habad and Jewish Messianism
(audio)". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June
^ Online Etymology Dictionary
^ a b Badawi, Elsaid; Haleem, Muhammad Abdel (2008). Arabic–English
Dictionary of Qur'anic Usage. Koninklijke Brill. p. 881.
^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "2:87". The Qur'an: Text, Translation and
^ Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4,
Book 55, Number 649
1 Samuel 10:1-2
1 Kings 1:39
Judaism 101: Mashiach: The Messiah". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2 May
^ Isaiah 11:3-4
^ a b "
Judaism 101: Mashiach: The Messiah". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 9
^ Mishneh Torah, Laws of Kings 11:4
^ Psalms 95:7
^ "Messiah". Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
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