Abrahamic religions , the MESSIAH (Hebrew :
מָשִׁיחַ, translit. māšîaḥ, sometimes spelled
MOSHIACH), is the one chosen to lead the world and thereby save it.
The term also appears in the forms MESSIAS (
Ancient Greek :
Μεσσίας), CHRIST (
Ancient Greek : Χριστός), or AL-MASIH
Arabic : المسيح,
ISO 233 : al-masīḥ).
The concepts of the
Messianism , and the
Messianic Age grew
Isaiah 's writings (4:2 and chapter 11) during the latter half of
8th century BCE
8th century BCE . The term comes from the Hebrew verb meaning
"to apply oil to," to anoint. In the
Hebrew Bible , Israel's kings
were sometimes called God's "messiah"—God's anointed one. A messiah
could also be an anointed high priest or prophet . Messiahs did not
even need to descend from
Jacob , as the
Hebrew Bible refers to Cyrus
the Great , king of Persia, as a messiah for his decree to rebuild
the Jerusalem Temple .
In Judaism, the
Jewish Messiah (המשיח, HaMashiach, "the
anointed one"), often referred to as "King Messiah" (מלך
המשיח, Melekh HaMashiach), is expected to descend from King
David and accomplish the unification of the twelve tribes into a
re-established nation. The Jerusalem Temple\'s rebuilding will usher
Messianic Age of global peace.
Christianity , the
Messiah is called the Christ , from Ancient
Greek : χριστός, translating the Hebrew word of the same
meaning. The concept of the
Christianity originated from
Messiah in Judaism . However, unlike the concept of the
Islam , the
Christianity is the Son of
Christ became the accepted Christian designation and title of
Nazareth , because
Christians believe that messianic prophecies in
Old Testament were fulfilled in his mission , death ,
and resurrection . They believe that Christ will fulfill the rest of
the Messianic prophecies in the
Second Coming , specifically the
prophecy of a future leader who would come from the
Davidic line and
usher in either a temporary
Messianic Age or a permanent World to Come
Jesus was a
Prophet and the Masîḥ (مسيح), the
Messiah in Islam, sent to the
Israelites , and will return to Earth at
the end of times , along with the
Mahdi , and defeat al-Masih
ad-Dajjal , the false
Ahmadiyya theology, these prophecies concerning the
Mahdi and the
second coming of
Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835–1908), the founder of the
Ahmadiyya Movement, and the terms
"Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonyms for one and the same person.
Chabad messianism ,
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950),
sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of
Chabad Lubavitch, and Menachem
Mendel Schneerson (1902 - 1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah
claimants , though neither ever claimed to be the messiah themselves
and often vehemently denied claims that they were the messiah.
Resembling early Christianity, the deceased Menachem Mendel
Schneerson is believed to be the
Messiah among adherents of the Chabad
movement; his second coming is believed to be imminent.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Judaism
* 5 Other traditions
* 6 Popular culture
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 Bibliography
* 10 External links
Messiah (Hebrew : מָשִׁיחַ, Modern Mashiaẖ, Tiberian
Māšîăḥ; in modern Jewish texts in English spelled Mashiach;
Aramaic : משיחא, Greek : Μεσσίας, Syriac :
Arabic : المسيح,
al-Masīḥ, Latin : Messias) literally means "anointed one". In
Messiah is often referred to as מלך המשיח (Meleḵ
ha-Mašīaḥ in the
Tiberian vocalization , pronounced , literally
meaning "the Anointed King".
There are also those who like to derive meaning from the actual
structure of the letters themselves. The Hebrew word משיח is
composed of the word שי (Shay - gift or present) found within the
letters מח (Mo'ach - mind, brain, head). So arguably, one who has
Messiah has found the "shay" within his "mo'ach", the gift
within his mind.
Septuagint version of the
Old Testament renders all
thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for "anointed" (Mašíaḥ)
as Χριστός (Khristós). The
New Testament records the Greek
transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John .
al-Masīḥ (proper name, pronounced ) is the
Arabic word for
messiah. In modern Arabic, it is used as one of the many titles of
Jesus . Masīḥ is used by Arab
Christians as well as Muslims , and
is written as Yasūʿ al-Masih (يسوع المسيح) by Arab
Christians or ʿĪsā al-Masīḥ (عيسى المسيح) by Muslims.
The word al-Masīḥ literally means "the anointed", "the traveller",
or the "one who cures by caressing". In Qur'anic scripture,
mentioned as having been sent down by Allah, strengthened by the holy
spirit, and hence, 'anointed' with the task of being a prophet and a
"recipient of sacred scripture". The
Israelites , to whom Isa was
sent, had a traditional practice of anointing their kings with oil. An
Imam Bukhari hadith describes
Jesus as having wet hair that looked as
if water was dripping from it, possibly meaning he was naturally
anointed. Muslims believe that this is just one of the many signs
that proves that
Jesus is the Messiah.
Messiah in Judaism and
Jewish Messiah claimants See
Jewish eschatology and Judaism\'s view of
The literal translation of the Hebrew word mashiach (messiah) is
"anointed", which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or
something by putting holy oil upon it. It is used throughout the
Hebrew Bible in reference to a wide variety of individuals and
objects; for example, a Jewish king, Jewish priests and prophets, the
Jewish Temple and its utensils, unleavened bread, and a non-Jewish
king (Cyrus king of Persia ).
Jewish eschatology , the term came to refer to a future Jewish
king from the
Davidic line , who will be "anointed" with holy
anointing oil , to be king of God\'s kingdom , and rule the Jewish
people during the
Messianic Age . In Judaism, the
Messiah is not
considered to be
God or a pre-existent divine Son of
God . He is
considered to be a great political leader that has descended from King
David. That is why he is referred to as
David , which
means "Messiah, son of David". The messiah, in Judaism, is considered
to be a great, charismatic leader that is well oriented with the laws
that are followed in Judaism. He will be the one who will not "judge
by what his eyes see" or "decide by what his ears hear".
Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental
part of Judaism, and is one of
Maimonides ' 13 Principles of Faith .
Maimonides describes the identity of the
Messiah in the following
And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying
Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according
to the written and oral Torah, and he will impel all of Israel to
follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, and will fight
God's wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one.
If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and
gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the
anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship
the Lord together, as it is stated: "For then I shall turn for the
nations a clear tongue, so that they will all proclaim the Name of the
Lord, and to worship Him with a united resolve (Zephaniah 3:9)."
Even though the eventual coming of the messiah is a strongly upheld
idea in Judaism, trying to predict the actual time when the messiah
will come is an act that is frowned upon. These kinds of actions are
thought to weaken the faith the people have in the religion. This
happened once when
Sabbatai Zevi , from Smirna (now
İzmir , Turkey),
claimed that he was the messiah that the Jewish community have been
waiting for. So in Judaism, there is no specific time when the messiah
comes. Rather, it is the acts of the people that determines when the
messiah comes. It is said that the messiah would come either when the
world needs his coming the most (when the world is so sinful and in
desperate need of saving by the messiah) or deserves it the most (when
genuine goodness prevails in the world).
A common modern rabbinic interpretation is that there is a potential
messiah in every generation. The Talmud, which often uses stories to
make a moral point (aggadah), tells of a highly respected rabbi who
Messiah at the gates of
Rome and asked him, "When will you
finally come?" He was quite surprised when he was told, "Today."
Overjoyed and full of anticipation, the man waited all day. The next
day he returned, disappointed and puzzled, and asked, "You said
messiah would come 'today' but he didn't come! What happened?" The
Messiah replied, "Scripture says, 'Today, if you will but hearken to
A Kabbalistic tradition within Judaism is that the commonly discussed
messiah who will usher in a period of freedom and peace (
David ) will be preceded by
Messiah ben Joseph , who will gather the
children of Israel around him, lead them to Jerusalem. After
overcoming the hostile powers in Jerusalem,
Messiah ben Joseph, will
reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion. Then
Armilus , according to one group of sources, or
Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog ,
according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem,
wage war against
Messiah ben Joseph, and slay him. His corpse,
according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem;
according to the other, it will be hidden by the angels with the
bodies of the Patriarchs, until
David comes and brings him
back to life.
Chabad messianism , Chabad-Lubavitch related
controversies , and
Jewish Messiah claimants Chabad-"Halachic
Ruling" declaring "every single Jew" had to believe in the imminent
second coming of the deceased 7th Lubavitcher Rebbe as the
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950), sixth Rebbe (spiritual
Chabad Lubavitch, and
Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902 -
1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are
(mashiah sheker, “false messiah”), though neither ever claimed to
be the messiah themselves and often vehemently denied claims that they
were the messiah.
As per Chabad-Lubavitch messianism , Menachem Mendel Schneerson
openly declared his deceased father-in-law, the former 6th Rebbe of
Chabad Lubavitch, being the Messiah. He published about Yosef
Yitzchak Schneersohn to be ″
Atzmus u'mehus alein vi er hat zich
areingeshtalt in a guf ″ (Yiddish and English for: "Essence and
Existence which has placed itself in a body "). The gravesite of
his deceased father-in-law
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn , known as "the
Ohel ", became a central point of focus for Menachem Mendel
Schneerson's prayers and supplications.
Regarding the deceased Menachem Mendel Schneerson, ztz"l , a later
Chabad-"Halachic Ruling" claims that it was "incumbent on every single
Jew to heed the Rebbe's words and believe that he is indeed King
Moshiach , who will be revealed imminently ". Outside of Chabad
messianism, in Judaism, there is no basis to these claims. If
anything, this resembles the faith in the resurrection of
his second coming in early
Still today, the deceased rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson is
believed to be the
Messiah among adherents of the
and his second coming is believed to be imminent. He is venerated
and invocated to by thousands of visitors and letters each year at the
Ohel —especially in a pilgrimage each year on the anniversary of his
Last Judgment , by
Jean Cousin the Younger (c. late 16th
century) Main article:
Christ (title) See also:
Redeemer (Christianity) , and
Jesus and messianic
The Greek translation of
Messiah is khristos (χριστός),
anglicized as Christ , and
Christians commonly refer to
either the "Christ" or the "Messiah".
Christians believe the Messianic
prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of
Jesus and that he will return to fulfill the rest of Messianic
The majority of historical and mainline Christian theologies consider
Jesus to be the Son of
God the Son , a concept of the Messiah
fundamentally different from the Jewish and Islamic concepts. In each
of the four
New Testament Gospels, the only literal anointing of Jesus
is conducted by a woman. In the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and John,
this anointing occurs in Bethany, outside Jerusalem. In the
Luke, the anointing scene takes place at an indeterminate location,
but context suggests it to be in Galilee, or even a separate anointing
Part of a series on
* Names and titles
* Life of
* Virgin birth
* Heavenly Session
* End times
* Background to the
* Language spoken by
* Jesus\' race / genealogy
Jesus in history
* Historicity (Gospels )
Christ myth theory
* Unknown years
* Christian (Lutheran )
* Islamic (Ahmadi )
Jesus in culture
* Life in art
Mahdi , and
While the term "messiah" does appear in Islam, it is important to
acknowledge that the meaning is starkly different than that of
Christianity and Judaism. "Though
Islam shares many of the beliefs and
characteristics of the two Semitic/ Abrahamic/monotheistic religions
which preceded it, the idea of messianism which is of central
importance in Judaism and
Christianity is alien to
represented by the Qur'an."
Jesus as the messiah (Masih), who will one day
return to earth. At the time of the second coming, "according to
Jesus will come again and exercise his power of
healing. He will forever destroy falsehood, as embodied in the
Daj-jal, the great falsifier, the anti-Christ . Then
God will reign
The Muslims refer to
Jesus as "Isa".
Jesus is one of the most
important prophets in the Islamic tradition, along with Noah, Abraham,
Moses, and Muhammad. Unlike Christians, Muslims see
Jesus as merely a
prophet, but not as
God Himself or the son of God. Like all other
Jesus is an ordinary man, who receives revelations from God.
According to religious scholar, Mona Siddiqui, in Islam, "Prophecy
God to remain veiled and there is no suggestion in the Qur'an
God wishes to reveal of himself just yet. Prophets guarantee
interpretation of revelation and that God's message will be
understood." Prophecy in human form does not represent the true
powers of God, contrary to the way
Jesus is depicted in mainstream
Quran states that Isa, the Son of Mariam (Arabic: Isa ibn
Maryam), is the
Prophet sent to the Children of Israel.
The birth of Isa is described
Quran sura 19 verses 1–33, and sura 4
verse 171 explicitly states Isa as the Son of Mariam. Sunni Muslims
believe Isa is alive in Heaven and did not die in the crucifixion, as
depicted in mainstream Christianity. According to religious scholar,
Mahmoud Ayoub, "Jesus' close proximity or nearness (qurb) to
affirmed in the Qur'anic insistence that
Jesus did not die, but was
taken up to
God and remains with
God (Q:3:54; 4:157) "
It is believed that Isa will return to Earth to defeat the Masih
ad-Dajjal (false Messiah), a figure similar to the
Christianity, who will emerge shortly before Yawm al-Qiyāmah ("the
Day of Resurrection"). The community leader ("Mahdi") will come
shortly before the second coming of Jesus. After he has destroyed
ad-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa
will unify the
Ummah (the followers of Islam) under the common
purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending
divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that
at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.
A hadith in
Abu Dawud (37:4310) says:
Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The
Prophet said: There is no prophet between
me and him, that is, Isa. He will descend (to the earth). When you see
him, recognise him: a man of medium height
God will perish all
religions except Islam. He will destroy the
Antichrist who will live
on the earth for forty days and then he will die. The Muslims will
pray behind him.
Both Sunni and Shia Muslims agree that al-
Mahdi will arrive first,
and after him, Isa. Isa will proclaim al-
Mahdi as the Islamic
community leader. A war will be fought—the Dajjal against alMahdi
and Isa. This war will mark the approach of the coming of the Last
Day. After Isa slays alDajjāl at the Gate of Lud , he will bear
witness and reveal that
Islam is indeed the true and last word from
God to humanity as Yusuf Ali's translation reads: "And there is none
of the People of the
Book but must believe in him before his death;
and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them." A
Sahih Bukhari (
Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:55:658) says: Allah's
Apostle said "How will you be when the son of Mariam descends among
you and your
Imam is from among you?"
Quran refutes the crucifixion of Jesus, claiming that he was
neither killed nor crucified. The
Quran also emphasizes the difference
between Allah (
Arabic ) and the Messiah: "Those who say that
Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary, are unbelievers. The
"O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord...
unbelievers too are those who have said that Allah is the third of
three... the Messiah, son of Mary, was only a Messenger before whom
other Messengers had gone."
Shi'i Islam, which significantly values and revolves around the 12
spiritual leaders called Imams , differs significantly from the
beliefs of mainstream Islam. Unlike Sunni Islam, "
Messianism is an
essential part of religious belief and practice for almost all Shi'a
Islam believes that the last
Imam will return again,
with the return of Jesus. According to religious scholar, Mona
Sidique, "Shi'is are acutely aware of the existence everywhere of the
twelfth Imam, who disappeared in 874. Shi'i piety teaches that the
Imam will return with
Jesus Christ to set up the messianic
kingdom before the final Judgement Day, when all humanity will stand
before God. The Imams and Fatima will have a direct impact on the
judgements rendered that day. This will represent the ultimate
intercession." There is debate on whether Shi'i Muslims should
accept the death of Jesus. Religious scholar Mahmou Ayoub argues
"Modern Shi'i thinkers have allowed the possibility that
and only his spirit was taken up to heaven." Conversely, religious
scholar Mona Siddiqui argues that Shi'i thinkers believe
"neither crucified nor slain." She also argues that Shi'i Muslims
believe that the twelfth imam did not die, but "was taken to
return in God's time," and "will return at the end of history to
establish the kingdom of
God on earth as the expected
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , founder of the
Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam,
Ahmadis to be the Promised
Messiah of the latter days
Prophethood (Ahmadiyya) and
Ahmadiyya theology, the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonymous
terms for one and the same person. The term "Mahdi" means guided by
God, thus implying a direct ordainment by
God of a divinely chosen
individual. According to
Ahmadiyya thought, Messiahship is a
phenomenon through which a special emphasis is given on the
transformation of a people by way of offering suffering for the sake
God instead of giving suffering (i.e. refraining from revenge).
Ahmadis believe that this special emphasis was given through the
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908). among others.
Ahmadis hold that the prophesied eschatological figures of
Christianity and Islam, the
Messiah and Mahdi, were in fact to be
fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous prophets.
The prophecies concerning the
Mahdi or the
Second Coming of
Ahmadis as metaphorical and subject to interpretation. It is
argued that one was to be born and rise within the dispensation of
Muhammad , who by virtue of his similarity and affinity with Jesus,
and the similarity in nature, temperament and disposition of the
people of Jesus' time and the people of the time of the promised one
(the Mahdi) is called by the same name.
Numerous hadith are presented by the
Ahmadis in support of their
view, such as one from
Sunan Ibn Majah
Sunan Ibn Majah , which says, "There is No
Jesus son of Mary."
Ahmadis believe that the prophecies concerning the
Mahdi and the
second coming of
Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835–1908), the founder of the
Ahmadiyya Movement. Unlike
mainstream Muslims, the
Ahmadis do not believe that
Jesus is alive in
heaven, but that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the
east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the
promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised
Messiah and Mahdi. He also claimed to have appeared in the likeness
Krishna and that his advent fulfilled certain prophecies found in
Hindu scriptures. Though he held
Krishna to be a prophet of
God and a
human being, rather than
God or an incarnation of God. He stated that
the founder of Sikhism was a
Muslim saint, who was a reflection of the
religious challenges he perceived to be occurring. Ghulam Ahmad wrote
Ahmadiyya , in 1880, which incorporated Indian, Sufi,
Islamic and Western aspects in order to give life to
Islam in the face
British Raj , Protestant Christianity, and rising Hinduism. He
later declared himself the Promised
Messiah and the
Divine revelations in 1891. Ghulam Ahmad argued that
appeared 1300 after the formation of the
Muslim community and stressed
the need for a current Messiah, in turn claiming that he himself
embodied both the
Mahdi and the Messiah. Ghulam Ahmad was supported by
Muslims who especially felt oppressed by Christian and Hindu
King Arthur , he is identified as the defender of England. He is
expected to return when the Britain will need him again.
Saoshyant is a figure in
Zoroastrianism who brings about the
final renovation of the world, the
Frashokereti . The Avestan language
name literally means "one who brings benefit", and is also used as a
common noun. The role of the Saoshyant, or Astvat-ereta, as a future
saviour of the world is briefly described in
Yasht 19.88–96, where
it is stated that he will achieve the frasho.kereti, that he will make
the world perfect and immortal, and evil and
Druj will disappear. He
is identified as the son of Vîspa.taurwairî and it is stated that he
will come forth from Lake Kansaoya/Kansava and will carry the same
Verethragna that a number of Iranian epic heroes and kings have
used in the past against various demonic foes.
and other similar entities will be his companions and together, they
will vanquish the evil creations of Angra Mainyu .
Maitreya is considered to the next Buddha (awakened
one) that is promised to come. He is expected to come to renew the
Buddhism once the teaching of
Gautama Buddha has completely
decayed. He is expected to be, according to page 26 of
Digha Nikaya ,
fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with
knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to
be led, a teacher for gods and men, an Exalted One: a Buddha.
Krishna is the eighth incarnation of the god
Vishnu , the savior,
and is one of the special avatars in
Hinduism . The followers of
Hinduism expect that there will be a new incarnation of the avatar
Kalki Avatar) who, in different periods in history was known as
Vishnu, Rama and
Krishna . This avatar will fight the apocalyptic
snake and achieve the final victory over evil on earth. He will renew
humanity and enable people to lead pure and honorable lives. The
expectations of all religions will be fulfilled in him as he will be
the world messiah that they all looked forward to.
* Bahá\'u\'lláh , founder of the Bahá\'í Faith , claimed to be
the figure prophesied in the scriptures of the world's religions. His
name, when translated literally, means "The Glory of God" in
According to the Baha\'i faith, Bahá\'u\'lláh addressed not only
those timeless theological and philosophical questions that have
stayed with humanity since old times such as: Who is God? What is
goodness? and Why are we here? but also the questions that have
preoccupied philosophers of the 20th century: What motivates human
nature? Is real peace indeed possible? Does
God still care for
humanity? and the like. He is considered to be the latest of the
God sent to human beings. He is the one who brought
new spiritual and social teachings for our modern age. He taught that
there is only one God, that all of the world's religions are from God,
and that now is the time for humanity to recognize its oneness and
Maitreya , a being that
Theosophists believe will physically
manifest sometime in the 21st century and who will be the Messiah
expected by various religions. The followers of this religion consider
Maitreya as "The Messiah" that has been expected for generations by
all of the major religions. That is,
Christians know him as the Christ
, and expect his imminent return; Jews await him as the Messiah;
Hindus look for the coming of Krishna; Buddhists expect him as
Maitreya Buddha; and Muslims anticipate the
Mahdi or Messiah.
Maitreya to inspire all human beings to be one family and
create a civilization that is based on sharing and cooperation. He
(Maitreya) will make the basic needs of human beings such as food,
clothing, education and medical care a universal right. According to
the beliefs of Theosophy, under Maitreya's inspiration, humanity
itself will make the required changes and create a sensible and more
just world for all.
Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is believed to be the Messiah
by followers of the
Rastafari movement. This idea further supports
the belief that
God himself is black, which they (followers of the
Rastafarian movement) try to further strengthen by a verse from the
Bible. . Even if the Emperor denied being the messiah, the followers
Rastafari movement believe that he is a messenger from God. To
Rastafarians used reasons such as Emperor Haile
Selassie's bloodline, which is assumed to come from
King Solomon of
Israel, and the various titles given to him, which include Lord of
Lords, King of Kings and Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah.
Kebatinan (Javanese religious tradition),
Satrio Piningit is a
Jayabaya 's prophecies who is destined to become a great
Nusantara and to rule the world from Java . In Serat
Jayabaya of Kediri foretold that before Satrio
Piningit's coming, there would be flash floods and that volcanoes
would erupt without warning.
Satrio Piningit is a
Krishna -like figure
known as "Ratu Adil" (Indonesian King of Justice) and his weapon is a
Messiah , a 2007 Persian film depicting the life of
an Islamic perspective
* The Young
Messiah , a 2016 American film depicting the childhood
Jesus from a Christian perspective
Dune Messiah , a 1969 novel by Frank Herbert, second in his Dune
trilogy, also part of a miniseries, one of the widest selling works of
fiction in the 1960s
Messiah is the final persona of Persona 3's protagonist, obtained
after he understands the meaning of his journey
The following works include the concept of a messiah as a leader of a
cause or liberator of a people:
* The Jewish Messiah, a 2008 novel by
* Messiah, a 1999 novel by
Kalki , a figure in
* Li Hong , a figure in
List of messiah claimants
Jewish Messiah claimants
* List of people claimed to be
* List of
Maitreya , a bodhisattva in
Saoshyant , a figure in
Zoroastrianism who brings about the final
renovation of the world
* ^ Ginsberg, HL, "Encyclopedia Judaica: Messiah," *Jewish Virtual
Library*(2008; The Gale Group). Accessed at
https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/messiah on 2/13/17.
* ^ Potok, C (ed), "P'shat Commentary," *Etz Hayim* (2001; The
Rabbinical Assembly), 838 & Kushner, H (ed), "D'rash Commentary," 45.
* ^ "
Book of Isaiah," *Wikipedia* (2/9/17), Composition-Historical
* ^ Wright, Robert (June 2009). The Evolution of
God (1st ed.). New
York, NY: Little, Brown, and Company. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-316-73491-2 .
* ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Cyrus: Cyrus and the Jews: "This prophet,
Cyrus, through whom were to be redeemed His chosen people, whom he
would glorify before all the world, was the promised Messiah, 'the
shepherd of Yhwh' (xliv. 28, xlv. 1)."
* ^ Telushkin, Joseph. "The Messiah". The Jewish Virtual Library
Jewish Literacy. NY: William Morrow and Co., 1991. Reprinted by
permission of the author. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
* ^ Flusser, David. "
Second Temple Period". Messiah. Encyclopaedia
Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
* ^ Megillah 17b–18a, Taanit 8b
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The Messiah (2007 film)
The Messiah (2007 film)
The Young Messiah (film)
* ^ http://www.amazon.com/The-Jewish-Messiah-A-Novel/dp/0143114972
* Aryeh Kaplan, From
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* GND : 4038832-3
* NDL : 00567616
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