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In Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
, the MESSIAH (Hebrew : מָשִׁיחַ‎‎, translit. māšîaḥ‎, sometimes spelled MOSHIACH), is the one chosen to lead the world and thereby save it. The term also appears in the forms MESSIAS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μεσσίας), CHRIST ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Χριστός), or AL-MASIH ( Arabic
Arabic
: المسيح‎‎, ISO 233 : al-masīḥ).

The concepts of the Messiah
Messiah
, Messianism , and the Messianic Age grew from Isaiah
Isaiah
's writings (4:2 and chapter 11) during the latter half of the 8th century BCE
8th century BCE
. The term comes from the Hebrew verb meaning "to apply oil to," to anoint. In the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, Israel's kings were sometimes called God's "messiah"—God's anointed one. A messiah could also be an anointed high priest or prophet . Messiahs did not even need to descend from Jacob
Jacob
, as the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
refers to Cyrus the Great , king of Persia, as a messiah for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple .

In Judaism, the Jewish Messiah (המשיח‎, HaMashiach, "the anointed one"), often referred to as "King Messiah" (מלך המשיח‎, Melekh HaMashiach), is expected to descend from King David
David
and accomplish the unification of the twelve tribes into a re-established nation. The Jerusalem Temple\'s rebuilding will usher in a Messianic Age of global peace.

In Christianity
Christianity
, the Messiah
Messiah
is called the Christ , from Ancient Greek : χριστός, translating the Hebrew word of the same meaning. The concept of the Messiah
Messiah
in Christianity
Christianity
originated from the Messiah in Judaism . However, unlike the concept of the Messiah
Messiah
in Judaism and Islam
Islam
, the Messiah
Messiah
in Christianity
Christianity
is the Son of God
God
. Christ became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth , because Christians
Christians
believe that messianic prophecies in the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
were fulfilled in his mission , death , and resurrection . They believe that Christ will fulfill the rest of the Messianic prophecies in the Second Coming
Second Coming
, specifically the prophecy of a future leader who would come from the Davidic line and usher in either a temporary Messianic Age or a permanent World to Come .

In Islam
Islam
, Jesus
Jesus
was a Prophet
Prophet
and the Masîḥ (مسيح), the Messiah
Messiah
in Islam, sent to the Israelites
Israelites
, and will return to Earth at the end of times , along with the Mahdi
Mahdi
, and defeat al-Masih ad-Dajjal , the false Messiah
Messiah
.

In Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
theology, these prophecies concerning the Mahdi
Mahdi
and the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement, and the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonyms for one and the same person.

In Chabad messianism , Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950), sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of Chabad
Chabad
Lubavitch, and Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902 - 1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah claimants , though neither ever claimed to be the messiah themselves and often vehemently denied claims that they were the messiah. Resembling early Christianity, the deceased Menachem Mendel Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah
Messiah
among adherents of the Chabad movement; his second coming is believed to be imminent.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Judaism

* 2.1 Chabad
Chabad

* 3 Christianity
Christianity

* 4 Islam
Islam

* 4.1 Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya

* 5 Other traditions * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Messiah
Messiah
(Hebrew : מָשִׁיחַ, Modern Mashiaẖ, Tiberian Māšîăḥ; in modern Jewish texts in English spelled Mashiach; Aramaic : משיחא‎‎, Greek : Μεσσίας, Syriac : ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ‎, Məšîḥā, Arabic
Arabic
: المسيح‎‎, al-Masīḥ, Latin : Messias) literally means "anointed one". In Hebrew, the Messiah
Messiah
is often referred to as מלך המשיח (Meleḵ ha-Mašīaḥ in the Tiberian vocalization
Tiberian vocalization
, pronounced , literally meaning "the Anointed King".

There are also those who like to derive meaning from the actual structure of the letters themselves. The Hebrew word משיח is composed of the word שי (Shay - gift or present) found within the letters מח (Mo'ach - mind, brain, head). So arguably, one who has found his Messiah
Messiah
has found the "shay" within his "mo'ach", the gift within his mind.

The Greek Septuagint
Septuagint
version of the Old Testament
Old Testament
renders all thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for "anointed" (Mašíaḥ) as Χριστός (Khristós). The New Testament
New Testament
records the Greek transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John .

al-Masīḥ (proper name, pronounced ) is the Arabic
Arabic
word for messiah. In modern Arabic, it is used as one of the many titles of Jesus
Jesus
. Masīḥ is used by Arab Christians
Christians
as well as Muslims , and is written as Yasūʿ al-Masih (يسوع المسيح) by Arab Christians
Christians
or ʿĪsā al-Masīḥ (عيسى المسيح) by Muslims. The word al-Masīḥ literally means "the anointed", "the traveller", or the "one who cures by caressing". In Qur'anic scripture, Jesus
Jesus
is mentioned as having been sent down by Allah, strengthened by the holy spirit, and hence, 'anointed' with the task of being a prophet and a "recipient of sacred scripture". The Israelites
Israelites
, to whom Isa was sent, had a traditional practice of anointing their kings with oil. An Imam
Imam
Bukhari hadith describes Jesus
Jesus
as having wet hair that looked as if water was dripping from it, possibly meaning he was naturally anointed. Muslims believe that this is just one of the many signs that proves that Jesus
Jesus
is the Messiah.

JUDAISM

Main articles: Messiah in Judaism and Jewish Messiah claimants See also: Jewish eschatology and Judaism\'s view of Jesus
Jesus

The literal translation of the Hebrew word mashiach (messiah) is "anointed", which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or something by putting holy oil upon it. It is used throughout the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in reference to a wide variety of individuals and objects; for example, a Jewish king, Jewish priests and prophets, the Jewish Temple and its utensils, unleavened bread, and a non-Jewish king (Cyrus king of Persia ).

In Jewish eschatology , the term came to refer to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line , who will be "anointed" with holy anointing oil , to be king of God\'s kingdom , and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age . In Judaism, the Messiah
Messiah
is not considered to be God
God
or a pre-existent divine Son of God
God
. He is considered to be a great political leader that has descended from King David. That is why he is referred to as Messiah
Messiah
ben David
David
, which means "Messiah, son of David". The messiah, in Judaism, is considered to be a great, charismatic leader that is well oriented with the laws that are followed in Judaism. He will be the one who will not "judge by what his eyes see" or "decide by what his ears hear".

Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental part of Judaism, and is one of Maimonides
Maimonides
' 13 Principles of Faith .

Maimonides
Maimonides
describes the identity of the Messiah
Messiah
in the following terms:

And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according to the written and oral Torah, and he will impel all of Israel to follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, and will fight God's wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one. If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord together, as it is stated: "For then I shall turn for the nations a clear tongue, so that they will all proclaim the Name of the Lord, and to worship Him with a united resolve (Zephaniah 3:9)."

Even though the eventual coming of the messiah is a strongly upheld idea in Judaism, trying to predict the actual time when the messiah will come is an act that is frowned upon. These kinds of actions are thought to weaken the faith the people have in the religion. This happened once when Sabbatai Zevi , from Smirna (now İzmir
İzmir
, Turkey), claimed that he was the messiah that the Jewish community have been waiting for. So in Judaism, there is no specific time when the messiah comes. Rather, it is the acts of the people that determines when the messiah comes. It is said that the messiah would come either when the world needs his coming the most (when the world is so sinful and in desperate need of saving by the messiah) or deserves it the most (when genuine goodness prevails in the world).

A common modern rabbinic interpretation is that there is a potential messiah in every generation. The Talmud, which often uses stories to make a moral point (aggadah), tells of a highly respected rabbi who found the Messiah
Messiah
at the gates of Rome
Rome
and asked him, "When will you finally come?" He was quite surprised when he was told, "Today." Overjoyed and full of anticipation, the man waited all day. The next day he returned, disappointed and puzzled, and asked, "You said messiah would come 'today' but he didn't come! What happened?" The Messiah
Messiah
replied, "Scripture says, 'Today, if you will but hearken to his voice.'"

A Kabbalistic tradition within Judaism is that the commonly discussed messiah who will usher in a period of freedom and peace ( Messiah
Messiah
ben David
David
) will be preceded by Messiah ben Joseph , who will gather the children of Israel around him, lead them to Jerusalem. After overcoming the hostile powers in Jerusalem, Messiah
Messiah
ben Joseph, will reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion. Then Armilus , according to one group of sources, or Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog
, according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem, wage war against Messiah
Messiah
ben Joseph, and slay him. His corpse, according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem; according to the other, it will be hidden by the angels with the bodies of the Patriarchs, until Messiah
Messiah
ben David
David
comes and brings him back to life.

CHABAD

Further information: Chabad messianism , Chabad-Lubavitch related controversies , and Jewish Messiah claimants Chabad-"Halachic Ruling" declaring "every single Jew" had to believe in the imminent second coming of the deceased 7th Lubavitcher Rebbe as the Messiah
Messiah

Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950), sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of Chabad
Chabad
Lubavitch, and Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902 - 1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah
Messiah
claimants (mashiah sheker, “false messiah”), though neither ever claimed to be the messiah themselves and often vehemently denied claims that they were the messiah.

As per Chabad-Lubavitch messianism , Menachem Mendel Schneerson openly declared his deceased father-in-law, the former 6th Rebbe of Chabad
Chabad
Lubavitch, being the Messiah. He published about Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn to be ″ Atzmus u'mehus alein vi er hat zich areingeshtalt in a guf ″ (Yiddish and English for: "Essence and Existence which has placed itself in a body "). The gravesite of his deceased father-in-law Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn , known as "the Ohel ", became a central point of focus for Menachem Mendel Schneerson's prayers and supplications.

Regarding the deceased Menachem Mendel Schneerson, ztz"l , a later Chabad-"Halachic Ruling" claims that it was "incumbent on every single Jew to heed the Rebbe's words and believe that he is indeed King Moshiach , who will be revealed imminently ". Outside of Chabad messianism, in Judaism, there is no basis to these claims. If anything, this resembles the faith in the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
and his second coming in early Christianity
Christianity
.

Still today, the deceased rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah
Messiah
among adherents of the Chabad
Chabad
movement, and his second coming is believed to be imminent. He is venerated and invocated to by thousands of visitors and letters each year at the Ohel —especially in a pilgrimage each year on the anniversary of his death.

CHRISTIANITY

The Last Judgment
Last Judgment
, by Jean Cousin the Younger (c. late 16th century) Main article: Christ (title)
Christ (title)
See also: Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity
Christianity
, Redeemer (Christianity)
Redeemer (Christianity)
, and Jesus
Jesus
and messianic prophecy

The Greek translation of Messiah
Messiah
is khristos (χριστός), anglicized as Christ , and Christians
Christians
commonly refer to Jesus
Jesus
as either the "Christ" or the "Messiah". Christians
Christians
believe the Messianic prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
and that he will return to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy.

The majority of historical and mainline Christian theologies consider Jesus
Jesus
to be the Son of God
God
and God
God
the Son , a concept of the Messiah fundamentally different from the Jewish and Islamic concepts. In each of the four New Testament
New Testament
Gospels, the only literal anointing of Jesus is conducted by a woman. In the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and John, this anointing occurs in Bethany, outside Jerusalem. In the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, the anointing scene takes place at an indeterminate location, but context suggests it to be in Galilee, or even a separate anointing altogether.

ISLAM

Part of a series on

Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity
Christianity

* Christ * Christology
Christology
* Names and titles * Life of Jesus
Jesus
* Gospels * Gospel
Gospel
harmony * Places * Virgin birth * Nativity * Baptism * Ministry * Miracles * Parables * Humiliation * Execution * Burial * Resurrection * Ascension * Obedience * Heavenly Session * Intercession * Second Coming
Second Coming
* Relics

Jesus
Jesus
in Islam
Islam

* Gospel
Gospel
* Mary * Disciples * Death * Mahdi
Mahdi
* End times

Background

* Background to the New Testament
New Testament
* Language spoken by Jesus
Jesus
* Jesus\' race / genealogy

Jesus
Jesus
in history

* Chronology * Historical Jesus
Jesus
* Historicity (Gospels ) * Mythology * Christ myth theory * Criticism * Unknown years

Perspectives on Jesus
Jesus

* Biblical * Christian (Lutheran ) * Jewish * Talmud * Islamic (Ahmadi ) * Scientology * Josephus * Tacitus * Bar-Serapion

Jesus
Jesus
in culture

* Life in art * Depiction * Jesuism
Jesuism

* Christianity
Christianity
portal * Islam
Islam
portal * Book: Jesus
Jesus

* v * t * e

Main articles: Mahdi
Mahdi
, Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Mahdi
Mahdi
, and Jesus
Jesus
in Islam
Islam

While the term "messiah" does appear in Islam, it is important to acknowledge that the meaning is starkly different than that of Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism. "Though Islam
Islam
shares many of the beliefs and characteristics of the two Semitic/ Abrahamic/monotheistic religions which preceded it, the idea of messianism which is of central importance in Judaism and Christianity
Christianity
is alien to Islam
Islam
as represented by the Qur'an."

The Quran
Quran
identifies Jesus
Jesus
as the messiah (Masih), who will one day return to earth. At the time of the second coming, "according to Islamic tradition, Jesus
Jesus
will come again and exercise his power of healing. He will forever destroy falsehood, as embodied in the Daj-jal, the great falsifier, the anti-Christ . Then God
God
will reign forever."

The Muslims refer to Jesus
Jesus
as "Isa". Jesus
Jesus
is one of the most important prophets in the Islamic tradition, along with Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad. Unlike Christians, Muslims see Jesus
Jesus
as merely a prophet, but not as God
God
Himself or the son of God. Like all other prophets, Jesus
Jesus
is an ordinary man, who receives revelations from God. According to religious scholar, Mona Siddiqui, in Islam, "Prophecy allows God
God
to remain veiled and there is no suggestion in the Qur'an that God
God
wishes to reveal of himself just yet. Prophets guarantee interpretation of revelation and that God's message will be understood." Prophecy in human form does not represent the true powers of God, contrary to the way Jesus
Jesus
is depicted in mainstream Christianity.

The Quran
Quran
states that Isa, the Son of Mariam (Arabic: Isa ibn Maryam), is the Messiah
Messiah
and Prophet
Prophet
sent to the Children of Israel. The birth of Isa is described Quran
Quran
sura 19 verses 1–33, and sura 4 verse 171 explicitly states Isa as the Son of Mariam. Sunni Muslims believe Isa is alive in Heaven and did not die in the crucifixion, as depicted in mainstream Christianity. According to religious scholar, Mahmoud Ayoub, "Jesus' close proximity or nearness (qurb) to God
God
is affirmed in the Qur'anic insistence that Jesus
Jesus
did not die, but was taken up to God
God
and remains with God
God
(Q:3:54; 4:157) "

It is believed that Isa will return to Earth to defeat the Masih ad-Dajjal (false Messiah), a figure similar to the Antichrist
Antichrist
in Christianity, who will emerge shortly before Yawm al-Qiyāmah ("the Day of Resurrection"). The community leader ("Mahdi") will come shortly before the second coming of Jesus. After he has destroyed ad-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa will unify the Muslim
Muslim
Ummah (the followers of Islam) under the common purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.

A hadith in Abu Dawud (37:4310) says:

Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet
Prophet
said: There is no prophet between me and him, that is, Isa. He will descend (to the earth). When you see him, recognise him: a man of medium height God
God
will perish all religions except Islam. He will destroy the Antichrist
Antichrist
who will live on the earth for forty days and then he will die. The Muslims will pray behind him.

Both Sunni and Shia Muslims agree that al- Mahdi
Mahdi
will arrive first, and after him, Isa. Isa will proclaim al- Mahdi
Mahdi
as the Islamic community leader. A war will be fought—the Dajjal against alMahdi and Isa. This war will mark the approach of the coming of the Last Day. After Isa slays alDajjāl at the Gate of Lud , he will bear witness and reveal that Islam
Islam
is indeed the true and last word from God
God
to humanity as Yusuf Ali's translation reads: "And there is none of the People of the Book
Book
but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them." A hadith in Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
( Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
, 4:55:658) says: Allah's Apostle said "How will you be when the son of Mariam descends among you and your Imam
Imam
is from among you?"

The Quran
Quran
refutes the crucifixion of Jesus, claiming that he was neither killed nor crucified. The Quran
Quran
also emphasizes the difference between Allah ( God
God
in Arabic
Arabic
) and the Messiah: "Those who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary, are unbelievers. The Messiah
Messiah
said: "O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord... unbelievers too are those who have said that Allah is the third of three... the Messiah, son of Mary, was only a Messenger before whom other Messengers had gone."

SHI\'I ISLAM

Shi'i Islam, which significantly values and revolves around the 12 spiritual leaders called Imams , differs significantly from the beliefs of mainstream Islam. Unlike Sunni Islam, " Messianism is an essential part of religious belief and practice for almost all Shi'a Muslims." Shi'i Islam
Islam
believes that the last Imam
Imam
will return again, with the return of Jesus. According to religious scholar, Mona Sidique, "Shi'is are acutely aware of the existence everywhere of the twelfth Imam, who disappeared in 874. Shi'i piety teaches that the hidden Imam
Imam
will return with Jesus
Jesus
Christ to set up the messianic kingdom before the final Judgement Day, when all humanity will stand before God. The Imams and Fatima will have a direct impact on the judgements rendered that day. This will represent the ultimate intercession." There is debate on whether Shi'i Muslims should accept the death of Jesus. Religious scholar Mahmou Ayoub argues "Modern Shi'i thinkers have allowed the possibility that Jesus
Jesus
died and only his spirit was taken up to heaven." Conversely, religious scholar Mona Siddiqui argues that Shi'i thinkers believe Jesus
Jesus
was "neither crucified nor slain." She also argues that Shi'i Muslims believe that the twelfth imam did not die, but "was taken to God
God
to return in God's time," and "will return at the end of history to establish the kingdom of God
God
on earth as the expected Mahdi
Mahdi
."

AHMADIYYA

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , founder of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement in Islam, considered by Ahmadis to be the Promised Messiah
Messiah
of the latter days See also: Prophethood (Ahmadiyya)
Prophethood (Ahmadiyya)
and Jesus
Jesus
in Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Islam
Islam

In Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
theology, the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonymous terms for one and the same person. The term "Mahdi" means guided by God, thus implying a direct ordainment by God
God
of a divinely chosen individual. According to Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
thought, Messiahship is a phenomenon through which a special emphasis is given on the transformation of a people by way of offering suffering for the sake of God
God
instead of giving suffering (i.e. refraining from revenge). Ahmadis believe that this special emphasis was given through the person of Jesus
Jesus
and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908). among others.

Ahmadis hold that the prophesied eschatological figures of Christianity
Christianity
and Islam, the Messiah
Messiah
and Mahdi, were in fact to be fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous prophets. The prophecies concerning the Mahdi
Mahdi
or the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Jesus
Jesus
are seen by Ahmadis as metaphorical and subject to interpretation. It is argued that one was to be born and rise within the dispensation of Muhammad
Muhammad
, who by virtue of his similarity and affinity with Jesus, and the similarity in nature, temperament and disposition of the people of Jesus' time and the people of the time of the promised one (the Mahdi) is called by the same name.

Numerous hadith are presented by the Ahmadis in support of their view, such as one from Sunan Ibn Majah
Sunan Ibn Majah
, which says, "There is No Mahdi
Mahdi
but Jesus
Jesus
son of Mary."

Ahmadis believe that the prophecies concerning the Mahdi
Mahdi
and the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement. Unlike mainstream Muslims, the Ahmadis do not believe that Jesus
Jesus
is alive in heaven, but that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised Messiah
Messiah
and Mahdi. He also claimed to have appeared in the likeness of Krishna
Krishna
and that his advent fulfilled certain prophecies found in Hindu scriptures. Though he held Krishna
Krishna
to be a prophet of God
God
and a human being, rather than God
God
or an incarnation of God. He stated that the founder of Sikhism was a Muslim
Muslim
saint, who was a reflection of the religious challenges he perceived to be occurring. Ghulam Ahmad wrote Barahin-e- Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
, in 1880, which incorporated Indian, Sufi, Islamic and Western aspects in order to give life to Islam
Islam
in the face of the British Raj
British Raj
, Protestant Christianity, and rising Hinduism. He later declared himself the Promised Messiah
Messiah
and the Mahdi
Mahdi
following Divine revelations in 1891. Ghulam Ahmad argued that Jesus
Jesus
had appeared 1300 after the formation of the Muslim
Muslim
community and stressed the need for a current Messiah, in turn claiming that he himself embodied both the Mahdi
Mahdi
and the Messiah. Ghulam Ahmad was supported by Muslims who especially felt oppressed by Christian and Hindu missionaries.

OTHER TRADITIONS

* King Arthur
King Arthur
, he is identified as the defender of England. He is expected to return when the Britain will need him again. * The Saoshyant is a figure in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
who brings about the final renovation of the world, the Frashokereti . The Avestan language name literally means "one who brings benefit", and is also used as a common noun. The role of the Saoshyant, or Astvat-ereta, as a future saviour of the world is briefly described in Yasht 19.88–96, where it is stated that he will achieve the frasho.kereti, that he will make the world perfect and immortal, and evil and Druj will disappear. He is identified as the son of Vîspa.taurwairî and it is stated that he will come forth from Lake Kansaoya/Kansava and will carry the same weapon Verethragna that a number of Iranian epic heroes and kings have used in the past against various demonic foes. Haurvatat , Ameretat , and other similar entities will be his companions and together, they will vanquish the evil creations of Angra Mainyu . * In Buddhism
Buddhism
, Maitreya
Maitreya
is considered to the next Buddha (awakened one) that is promised to come. He is expected to come to renew the laws of Buddhism
Buddhism
once the teaching of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
has completely decayed. He is expected to be, according to page 26 of Digha Nikaya , fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods and men, an Exalted One: a Buddha. * Krishna
Krishna
is the eighth incarnation of the god Vishnu
Vishnu
, the savior, and is one of the special avatars in Hinduism
Hinduism
. The followers of Hinduism
Hinduism
expect that there will be a new incarnation of the avatar (the Kalki Avatar) who, in different periods in history was known as Vishnu, Rama and Krishna
Krishna
. This avatar will fight the apocalyptic snake and achieve the final victory over evil on earth. He will renew humanity and enable people to lead pure and honorable lives. The expectations of all religions will be fulfilled in him as he will be the world messiah that they all looked forward to. * Bahá\'u\'lláh , founder of the Bahá\'í Faith , claimed to be the figure prophesied in the scriptures of the world's religions. His name, when translated literally, means "The Glory of God" in Arabic
Arabic
. According to the Baha\'i faith, Bahá\'u\'lláh addressed not only those timeless theological and philosophical questions that have stayed with humanity since old times such as: Who is God? What is goodness? and Why are we here? but also the questions that have preoccupied philosophers of the 20th century: What motivates human nature? Is real peace indeed possible? Does God
God
still care for humanity? and the like. He is considered to be the latest of the messengers that God
God
sent to human beings. He is the one who brought new spiritual and social teachings for our modern age. He taught that there is only one God, that all of the world's religions are from God, and that now is the time for humanity to recognize its oneness and unite. * Maitreya
Maitreya
, a being that Theosophists believe will physically manifest sometime in the 21st century and who will be the Messiah expected by various religions. The followers of this religion consider Maitreya
Maitreya
as "The Messiah" that has been expected for generations by all of the major religions. That is, Christians
Christians
know him as the Christ , and expect his imminent return; Jews await him as the Messiah; Hindus look for the coming of Krishna; Buddhists expect him as Maitreya
Maitreya
Buddha; and Muslims anticipate the Imam
Imam
Mahdi
Mahdi
or Messiah. They expect Maitreya
Maitreya
to inspire all human beings to be one family and create a civilization that is based on sharing and cooperation. He (Maitreya) will make the basic needs of human beings such as food, clothing, education and medical care a universal right. According to the beliefs of Theosophy, under Maitreya's inspiration, humanity itself will make the required changes and create a sensible and more just world for all. * Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I of Ethiopia is believed to be the Messiah by followers of the Rastafari
Rastafari
movement. This idea further supports the belief that God
God
himself is black, which they (followers of the Rastafarian movement) try to further strengthen by a verse from the Bible. . Even if the Emperor denied being the messiah, the followers of the Rastafari
Rastafari
movement believe that he is a messenger from God. To justify this, Rastafarians used reasons such as Emperor Haile Selassie's bloodline, which is assumed to come from King Solomon of Israel, and the various titles given to him, which include Lord of Lords, King of Kings and Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah. * In Kebatinan
Kebatinan
(Javanese religious tradition), Satrio Piningit is a character in Jayabaya 's prophecies who is destined to become a great leader of Nusantara
Nusantara
and to rule the world from Java . In Serat Pararaton, King Jayabaya of Kediri foretold that before Satrio Piningit's coming, there would be flash floods and that volcanoes would erupt without warning. Satrio Piningit is a Krishna
Krishna
-like figure known as "Ratu Adil" (Indonesian King of Justice) and his weapon is a trishula .

POPULAR CULTURE

* The Messiah
Messiah
, a 2007 Persian film depicting the life of Jesus
Jesus
from an Islamic perspective * The Young Messiah
Messiah
, a 2016 American film depicting the childhood life of Jesus
Jesus
from a Christian perspective * Dune Messiah , a 1969 novel by Frank Herbert, second in his Dune trilogy, also part of a miniseries, one of the widest selling works of fiction in the 1960s * Messiah
Messiah
is the final persona of Persona 3's protagonist, obtained after he understands the meaning of his journey

The following works include the concept of a messiah as a leader of a cause or liberator of a people:

* The Jewish Messiah, a 2008 novel by Arnon Grunberg * Messiah, a 1999 novel by Andrei Codrescu

SEE ALSO

* Antichrist
Antichrist
* Kalki , a figure in Hindu eschatology
Hindu eschatology
* Li Hong , a figure in Taoist
Taoist
eschatology

* List of messiah claimants

* Jewish Messiah claimants * List of people claimed to be Jesus
Jesus
* List of Mahdi
Mahdi
claimants

* Maitreya
Maitreya
, a bodhisattva in Buddhist eschatology * Maitreya
Maitreya
(Theosophy) * Messianism * Saoshyant , a figure in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
who brings about the final renovation of the world * Soter * Year 6000

NOTES

* ^ Ginsberg, HL, "Encyclopedia Judaica: Messiah," *Jewish Virtual Library*(2008; The Gale Group). Accessed at https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/messiah on 2/13/17. * ^ Potok, C (ed), "P'shat Commentary," *Etz Hayim* (2001; The Rabbinical Assembly), 838 & Kushner, H (ed), "D'rash Commentary," 45. * ^ " Book
Book
of Isaiah," *Wikipedia* (2/9/17), Composition-Historical context. * ^ Wright, Robert (June 2009). The Evolution of God
God
(1st ed.). New York, NY: Little, Brown, and Company. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-316-73491-2 .

* ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Cyrus: Cyrus and the Jews: "This prophet, Cyrus, through whom were to be redeemed His chosen people, whom he would glorify before all the world, was the promised Messiah, 'the shepherd of Yhwh' (xliv. 28, xlv. 1)." * ^ Telushkin, Joseph. "The Messiah". The Jewish Virtual Library Jewish Literacy. NY: William Morrow and Co., 1991. Reprinted by permission of the author. Retrieved 2 December 2012. * ^ Flusser, David. " Second Temple
Second Temple
Period". Messiah. Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012. * ^ Megillah 17b–18a, Taanit 8b * ^ Sotah 9a * ^ Schochet, Rabbi
Rabbi
Prof. Dr. Jacob
Jacob
Immanuel. "Moshiach ben Yossef". Tutorial. moshiach.com. Retrieved 2 December 2012. * ^ Blidstein, Prof. Dr. Gerald J. " Messiah
Messiah
in Rabbinic Thought". MESSIAH. Jewish Virtual Library and Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012. * ^ A B Etymology Online * ^ Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity, born c. 4 BC. * ^ A B "Muttaqun OnLine - Dajjal (The Anti-Christ): According to Quran
Quran
and Sunnah". Muttaqun.com. Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ A B Ask Islam: What is the different between a messiah and a prophet? (audio) * ^ A B Messiah
Messiah
and Mahdi
Mahdi
- Review of Religions * ^ A B also: Habad messianism, Lubavitcher messianism, mishichism, meshichism. * ^ A B Susan Handelman, The Lubavitcher Rebbe Died 20 Years Ago Today. Who Was He?, Tablet Magazine * ^ A B C Adin Steinsaltz, My Rebbe. Maggid Books, page 24 * ^ A B C Dara Horn, June 13, 2014 "Rebbe of Rebbe\'s". The Wall Street Journal. * ^ A B C Aharon Lichtenstein, Euligy for the Rebbe. June 16, 1994. * ^ A B The New York Times, Statement From Agudas Chasidei Chabad, Feb 9, 1996. * ^ A B Famed Posek Rabbi
Rabbi
Menashe Klein: Messianic Group Within Chabad
Chabad
Are Apikorsim * ^ A B C On Chabad
Chabad
Archived 19 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ A B Public Responsa from Rabbi
Rabbi
Aharon Feldman on the matter of Chabad
Chabad
messiansim (Hebrew), 23 Sivan, 5763 - http://moshiachtalk.tripod.com/feldman.pdf. See also Rabbi
Rabbi
Feldman's letter to David
David
Beger: http://www.stevens.edu/golem/llevine/feldman_berger_sm_2.jpg * ^ A B C Berger, David
David
(April 1, 2008). The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. Littman Library Of Jewish Civilization. ISBN 978-1904113751 . for further information see the article: The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference * ^ A B C D Berger, Rabbi
Rabbi
Prof. Dr. David. "On the Spectrum of Messianic Belief in Contemporary Lubavitch Chassidism". Shema Yisrael Torah Network. Retrieved 3 July 2016. * ^ A B Freeman, Charles. The Closing of the Western Mind , p. 133. Vintage. 2002. * ^ A B C D E Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "The False Mashiah of Lubavitch-Habad". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June 2016. * ^ A B C D E Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "Habad and Jewish Messianism (audio)". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June 2016. * ^ http://etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=messiah&searchmode=none * ^ Toledano, Omer (18 May 2009). "Messiah, the Gift Within Your Mind" (in Hebrew). Retrieved 23 June 2017. * ^ A B Badawi, Elsaid; Haleem, Muhammad
Muhammad
Abdel (2008). Arabic–English Dictionary of Qur'anic Usage. Koninklijke Brill. p. 881. * ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "2:87". The Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary. * ^ http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/hadith/bukhari/055.sbt.html#004.055.650

* ^ Tanakh
Tanakh
verses:

* 1 Samuel 10:1-2 * 1 Kings 1:39 * Leviticus 4:3 * Exodus 40:9-11 * Numbers 6:15 * Isaiah
Isaiah
45:1

* ^ "Judaism 101: Mashiach: The Messiah". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ Isaiah
Isaiah
11:3-4 * ^ A B "Judaism 101: Mashiach: The Messiah". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ Mishneh Torah, Laws of Kings 11:4 * ^ Psalms 95:7 * ^ "Messiah". Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ William Horbury, Markus Bockmuehl, James Carleton Paget: Redemption and resistance: the messianic hopes of Jews and Christians in antiquity Page 294 : (2007) ISBN 978-0567030443 * ^ Likutei Sichos , Vol 2, pp. 510-511. * ^ Identifying Chabad
Chabad
: what they teach and how they influence the Torah world. (Revised ed.). Illinois: Center for Torah Demographics. 2007. p. 13. ISBN 978-1411642416 . Retrieved 29 June 2016. * ^ Singer, HaRav Tovia. "Why did some expect the Lubavitcher Rebbe to Resurrect as the Messiah? Rabbi
Rabbi
Tovia Singer Responds (video-lecture)". Tovia Singer Youtube.com. Retrieved 26 June 2016. * ^ "Halachic Ruling". Psak Din. Retrieved March 22, 2014. * ^ Gryvatz Copquin, Claudia (2007). The Neighborhoods of Queens. Yale University Press. pp. 20–23. ISBN 0-300-11299-8 . * ^ The New York Observer, "Rebbe to the city and Rebbe to the world". Editorial, 07/08/14. * ^ A B Hassan, Riffat (Spring 1985). " Messianism and Islam". Journal of Ecumenical Studies. 22:2: 263. * ^ A B C Ayoub, Mahmoud (2007). A Muslim
Muslim
View of Christianity: Essays on Dialogue. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-57075-690-0 . * ^ A B C D Albert, Alexander. "Orientating, Developing, and Promoting an Islamic Christology". FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Retrieved 1 May 2014. * ^ Wensick, A.J. (2012). "al- Masih". Encyclopedia of Islam. * ^ A B C D Siddique, Mona (2013). Christians, Muslims, and Jesus. Yale University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-300-16970-6 . * ^ Siddiqui, Mona (2013). Christians, Muslims, and Jesus. Yale University Press. p. 12. * ^ A B "The Holy Quran". Alislam.org. Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ Khalidi, Tarif (2001). Muslim
Muslim
Jesus. President and Fellows of Harvard College. p. 25. ISBN 0-674-00477-9 . * ^ "Sunni and Shi\'a". BBC. Retrieved 1 May 2014. * ^ Bill, James; Williams, John Alden (2002). Roman Catholics and Shi'i Muslims. The University of North Carolina Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-8078-2689-8 . * ^ ""Mahdi" in a Special
Special
Meaning and Technical Usage". Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Retrieved 30 April 2014. * ^ "The Muslim
Muslim
Jesus". Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ Ibn Majah, Bab, Shahadatu-Zaman * ^ "Jesus: A humble prophet of God". Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community. Retrieved 30 April 2014. * ^ http://www.alislam.org/library/books/LectureSialkot.pdf Lecture Sialkot * ^ A B Robinson, Francis. "Prophets without honour? Ahmad and the Ahmadiyya". History Today. 40 (June): 46. * ^ " Maitreya
Maitreya
(Buddhism)". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ "Buddhist - Prophecies - Mission of Maitreya". Buddhist - Prophecies - Mission of Maitreya. www.maitreya.org. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ "Messianic Expectations in the Eastern Religions". Messianic Expectations in the Eastern Religions. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ Momen, Moojan (2004). " Baha'i
Baha'i
Faith and Holy People". In Jestice, Phyllis G. Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-355-6 . * ^ "Bahá\'u\'lláh - History". Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ "The life of Baha\'u\'llah". www.Baha'i.org. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ " Maitreya
Maitreya
The World Teacher". Maitreya
Maitreya
The World Teacher. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ "Rastafarian beliefs". BBC. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2010. * ^ " Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I - God
God
of the Black race". BBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2014. * ^ R.M. Mangkudimedja. 1979. Serat Pararaton Jilid 2. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Proyek Penerbitan Buku Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah. p. 168 (In Indonesian ) * ^ Mulder, Niel. 1980. "Kedjawen: Tussen de Geest en Persoonlijkheid van Javaans". The Hague: Droggstopel. p. 72 (In Dutch ) * ^ The Messiah (2007 film)
The Messiah (2007 film)
* ^ The Young Messiah (film) * ^ http://www.amazon.com/The-Jewish-Messiah-A-Novel/dp/0143114972 * ^ http://www.amazon.com/Messiah-A-Novel-Andrei-Codrescu/dp/0684803143

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Aryeh Kaplan, From Messiah
Messiah
to Christ,, New York: Orthodox Union, 2004. * Joseph Klausner, The Messianic Idea in Israel from Its Beginning to the Completion of the Mishnah, London: George Allen border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* GND : 4038832-3 * NDL : 00567616

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