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Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic
Arabic
native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq
Iraq
as well as spanning into Syria,[3] Iran,[3] southeastern Turkey,[4] and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.

Contents

1 History 2 Phonology

2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants

3 Varieties 4 Distribution 5 References

History[edit] Aramaic was the lingua franca in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the early 1st millennium BCE until the late 1st millennium CE, and as may be expected, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
shows signs of an Aramaic substrate.[5] The Gelet and the Judeo-Iraqi varieties have retained features of Babylonian Aramaic.[5] Due to Iraq's inherent multiculturalism as well as history, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
in turn bears extensive borrowings in its lexicon from Aramaic, Akkadian, Persian and Turkish. Phonology[edit] Vowels[edit] Consonants[edit] Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background.[6] Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic
Arabic
is particularly rich in uvular, pharyngeal, and pharyngealized ("emphatic") sounds. The emphatic coronals (/sˤ/, /dˤ/, /tˤ/, and /ðˤ/) cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants.[citation needed] The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and they can be pronounced as /b/ ⟨ب⟩ and /f/ ⟨ف⟩ respectively depending on the speaker.[7][8]

Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
consonant phonemes

Labial Dental Denti-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal

plain emphatic1

Nasal m

n

Stop voiceless (p)

t tˤ

k q

ʔ

voiced b

d dˤ

g

Fricative voiceless f θ s sˤ ʃ x ~ χ ħ h

voiced (v) ð z ðˤ

ɣ ~ ʁ ʕ

Affricate voiceless

voiced

d͡ʒ

Tap

ɾ

Approximant

l (ɫ) j w

Phonetic notes:

/p/ and /v/ occur mostly in borrowings from Persian, and may be assimilated to /b/ or /f/ in some speakers. Original /q/ splits lexically into /q/ and /ɡ/ in most dialects, but /ɡ/ is pronounced in southern Mesopotamian dialects, even in Modern Standard Arabic. The gemination of the flap /ɾ/ results in a trill /r/.

Varieties[edit] Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
has two major varieties. A distinction is recognised between Gelet Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
and Qeltu Mesopotamian Arabic, the names deriving from the form of the word for "I said".[9] The southern (Gelet) group includes a Tigris
Tigris
dialect cluster, of which the best-known form is Baghdadi Arabic, and a Euphrates
Euphrates
dialect cluster, known as Furati ( Euphrates
Euphrates
Arabic). The Gelet variety is also spoken in the Khuzestan Province
Khuzestan Province
of Iran.[3] The northern (Qeltu) group includes the north Tigris
Tigris
dialect cluster, also known as North Mesopotamian Arabic
North Mesopotamian Arabic
or Maslawi ( Mosul
Mosul
Arabic), as well as both Jewish and Christian sectarian dialects (such as Baghdad Jewish Arabic). Distribution[edit] Both the Gelet and the Qeltu varieties of Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
are spoken in Syria,[3][4] the former is spoken on the Euphrates
Euphrates
east of Aleppo
Aleppo
and in Kuwait, while the latter is spoken in the Upper Khabur area and across the border in Turkey.[4] Cypriot Arabic
Arabic
shares a large number of common features with Mesopotamian Arabic;[10] particularly the northern variety, and has been reckoned as belonging to this dialect area.[11] References[edit]

^ "Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken - Ethnologue". Ethnologue. Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth edition. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mesopotamian Arabic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b c d Arabic, Mesopotamian Ethnologue ^ a b c Arabic, North Mesopotamian Ethnologue ^ a b Muller-Kessler, Christa (July–September 2003). "Aramaic 'K', Lyk' and Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
'Aku, Maku: The Mesopotamian Particles of Existence". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. 123 (3): 641–646.  ^ Holes (2004:58) ^ Teach Yourself Arabic, by Jack Smart (Author), Frances Altorfer (Author) ^ Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic
Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic
(transl. of Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart, 1952) ^ Mitchell, T. F. (1990). Pronouncing Arabic, Volume 2. Clarendon Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-19-823989-0.  ^ Versteegh, Kees (2001). The Arabic
Arabic
Language. Edinburgh University Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-7486-1436-2.  ^ Owens, Jonathan (2006). A Linguistic History of Arabic. Oxford University Press. p. 274. ISBN 0-19-929082-2. 

Links to related articles

v t e

Languages of Iraq

Official languages

Standard Arabic

Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
(Main) Bedawi

Kurdish

Minority languages

Kurdish (Main) Neo-Aramaic

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Armenian South Azerbaijani Luri Persian

Sign languages

Iraqi Sign Language

v t e

Languages of Iran

Official languages

Persian

Regional languages

Azerbaijani Kurdish Luri Gilaki Mazanderani Arabic Balochi Talysh Tati Qashqai Turkmen Semnani

Minority languages

Armenian Assyrian Circassian Georgian Hebrew Domari

Sign languages

Persian Sign Language

v t e

Languages of Syria

Official language

Standard Arabic

Minority languages

Adyghe Afshar Armenian Azerbaijani Domari Kurdish

Kurmanji

Turoyo Western Neo-Aramaic

Varieties of Arabic

Bedawi Levantine Mesopotamian Najdi North Syrian

Sign languages

Levantine Arabic
Arabic
Sign Language

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Varieties of Arabic

Pre-Islamic

Old Arabic

Modern literary

Classical Modern Standard

Nilo-Egyptian

Egyptian Chadian Sa'idi Sudanese

Peninsular

Northeastern

Gulf

Omani Shihhi Dhofari Kuwaiti

Najdi

Western

Bareqi Hejazi

Sedentary Bedouin

Southern

Baharna Yemeni

Hadhrami San'ani Ta'izzi-Adeni Tihami Judeo-Yemeni

Northwestern

Northwest Arabian

Eastern

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian

Cypriot Anatolian Judeo-Iraqi

South Mesopotamian

Baghdad Koiné Khuzestani

Central Asian

Afghani Khorasani Central Asian Arabic

Levantine

North Levantine

North Syrian Central Levantine

Central Syrian Lebanese

South Levantine

Jordanian Palestinian

Urban Central village

Outer southern

Western

Iberian

Andalusian

Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian

Urban

North-Eastern Tunisian

Eastern Village

Sahel Sfaxian Lesser Kabylia

Western Village

Traras-Msirda Mountain

Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian

Hilalian

Sulaym

Libyan koiné

Eastern Hilal

Tunisian koiné

Central Hilal

Algerian koiné Algerian Saharan Eastern Algerian Western Algerian

Maqil

Western Moroccan Eastern Moroccan Moroccan koiné Hassānīya

Siculo-Arabic

Sicilian Arabic
Arabic
(extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the Arabic
Arabic
macrolanguage[1])

Undescribed

Shirvani

Judeo-Arabic

Judeo-Iraqi

Judeo-Baghdadi

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian Judeo-Yemeni

Creoles and pidgins

Babalia Bimbashi Juba Nubi Maridi Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages.

v t e

Iraq articles

History

Ancient

Sumer Akkadian Empire Babylonia Assyria Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Achaemenid Assyria Seleucid Babylonia Parthian Babylonia Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958

Muslim conquest of Persia Abbasid Caliphate Buyid dynasty Kara Koyunlu Ak Koyunlu Safavids Ottoman Iraq (Mamluk dynasty) Mandatory Iraq Kingdom of Iraq Arab Federation

Republic

1958–68 1968–2003 2003–11 2011–present

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq
Iraq
Region (National Command) Saddam Hussein Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Invasion of Kuwait Gulf War Sanctions Iraq
Iraq
War

U.S. invasion Iraqi insurgency U.S. troop withdrawal

Insurgency (2011–2013) Civil War (2014–present)

Mosul
Mosul
liberation

Geography

Al-Faw Peninsula Al-Jazira Euphrates Hamrin Mountains Persian Gulf Islands Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Marshes Places Lakes Shatt al-Arab Syrian Desert Tigris Umm Qasr Zagros Mountains

Politics

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Society

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diaspora refugees

Languages

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Iraqi Turkmen
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Religion

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