HOME
The Info List - Mesopotamian Arabic



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

MESOPOTAMIAN ARABIC is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic
Arabic
native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq
Iraq
as well as spanning into Syria
Syria
, Iran
Iran
, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Phonology

* 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants

* 3 Varieties * 4 Distribution * 5 References

HISTORY

Aramaic was the lingua franca in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the early 1st millennium BCE until the late 1st millennium CE, and as may be expected, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
shows signs of an Aramaic substrate . The Gelet and the Judeo-Iraqi varieties have retained features of Babylonian Aramaic .

Due to Iraq
Iraq
's inherent multiculturalism as well as history, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
in turn bears extensive borrowings in its lexicon from Aramaic, Akkadian , Persian and Turkish .

PHONOLOGY

VOWELS

CONSONANTS

Even in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background. Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic
Arabic
is particularly rich in uvular , pharyngeal , and pharyngealized ("emphatic ") sounds. The emphatic coronals (/sˤ/, /dˤ/, /tˤ/, and /ðˤ/) cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants. The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and they can be pronounced as /b/ ⟨ ب ⟩ and /f/ ⟨ ف ⟩ respectively depending on the speaker.

Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
consonant phonemes

LABIAL DENTAL DENTI-ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR UVULAR PHARYNGEAL GLOTTAL

PLAIN EMPHATIC 1

NASAL m

n

STOP VOICELESS (p )

t tˤ

k q

ʔ

VOICED b

d dˤ

g

FRICATIVE VOICELESS f θ s sˤ ʃ x ~ χ ħ h

VOICED (v ) ð z ðˤ

ɣ ~ ʁ ʕ

AFFRICATE VOICELESS f θ s sˤ tʃ x ~ χ ħ h

VOICED

d͡ʒ

TAP

ɾ

APPROXIMANT

l (ɫ ) j w

Phonetic notes:

* /p / and /v / occur mostly in borrowings from Persian, and may be assimilated to /b/ or /f/ in some speakers. * Original /q/ splits lexically into /q/ and /ɡ/ in most dialects, but /ɡ/ is pronounced in southern Mesopotamian dialects, even in in Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
. * The gemination of the flap /ɾ/ results in a trill /r/.

VARIETIES

Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
has two major varieties. A distinction is recognised between Gelet Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
and Qeltu Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
, the names deriving from the form of the word for "I said".

The southern (Gelet) group includes a Tigris
Tigris
dialect cluster, of which the best-known form is Baghdadi Arabic
Arabic
, and a Euphrates
Euphrates
dialect cluster, known as _Furati_ ( Euphrates
Euphrates
Arabic). The Gelet variety is also spoken in the Khuzestan Province of Iran
Iran
.

The northern (Qeltu) group includes the north Tigris
Tigris
dialect cluster, also known as North Mesopotamian Arabic or _Maslawi_ ( Mosul
Mosul
Arabic), as well as both Jewish and Christian sectarian dialects (such as Baghdad Jewish Arabic ).

DISTRIBUTION

Both the Gelet and the Qeltu varieties of Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
are spoken in Syria
Syria
, the former is spoken on the Euphrates
Euphrates
east of Aleppo
Aleppo
and in Kuwait
Kuwait
, while the latter is spoken in the Upper Khabur area and across the border in Turkey
Turkey
.

Cypriot Arabic
Arabic
shares a large number of common features with Mesopotamian Arabic; particularly the northern variety, and has been reckoned as belonging to this dialect area.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken - Ethnologue" . _Ethnologue_. Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth edition. Retrieved 21 March 2017. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Mesopotamian Arabic". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Arabic, Mesopotamian Ethnologue * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Arabic, North Mesopotamian Ethnologue * ^ _A_ _B_ Muller-Kessler, Christa (July–September 2003). "Aramaic 'K', Lyk' and Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
'Aku, Maku: The Mesopotamian Particles of Existence.". _The Journal of the American Oriental Society _. 123 (3): 641–646. * ^ Holes (2004 :58) * ^ Teach Yourself Arabic, by Jack Smart (Author), Frances Altorfer (Author) * ^ Hans Wehr, _ Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic _ (transl. of _Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart_, 1952) * ^ Mitchell, T. F. (1990). _Pronouncing Arabic, Volume 2_. Clarendon Press . p. 37. ISBN 0-19-823989-0 . * ^ Versteegh, Kees (2001). _The Arabic
Arabic
Language_. Edinburgh University Press . p. 212. ISBN 0-7486-1436-2 . * ^ Owens, Jonathan (2006). _A Linguistic History of Arabic_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 274. ISBN 0-19-929082-2 .

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

_ Languages of Iraq
Iraq

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* Standard Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
(Main) * Bedawi

* Kurdish

MINORITY LANGUAGES

* Kurdish (Main)

* Neo-Aramaic

* Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

* Armenian * South Azerbaijani * Luri * Persian

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Iraqi Sign Language

* v * t * e

Languages of Iran
Iran

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* Persian

REGIONAL LANGUAGES

* Azerbaijani * Kurdish * Luri * Gilaki * Mazanderani * Arabic
Arabic
* Balochi * Talysh * Tati * Qashqai * Turkmen * Semnani

MINORITY LANGUAGES

* Armenian * Assyrian * Circassian * Georgian * Hebrew * Domari

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Persian Sign Language

* v * t * e

Languages of Syria
Syria

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* Standard Arabic
Arabic

MINORITY LANGUAGES

* Adyghe * Afshar * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Domari

* Kurdish

* Kurmanji

* Turoyo * Western Neo-Aramaic

VARIETIES OF ARABIC

* Bedawi * Levantine * Mesopotamian * Najdi * North Syrian

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Levantine Arabic
Arabic
Sign Language

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet * Perso- Arabic alphabet * Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics * i‘jām * Tashkil * Harakat
Harakat
* Tanwin * Shaddah * Hamza * Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ
Ṯāʾ
* Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl * Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād * Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ * ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre-Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija * Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology * Sun and moon letters * ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy * Script

* Diwani * Jawi script * Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq * Hijazi script * Muhaqqaq * Thuluth * Naskh (script) * Ruqʿah script * Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script * Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode * ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

Varieties of Arabic

PRE-ISLAMIC

* Old Arabic
Arabic
_

MODERN LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

PENINSULAR

NORTHEASTERN

* Gulf

* Omani * Shihhi * Dhofari * Kuwaiti

* Najdi

WESTERN

* Bareqi

* Hejazi

* Sedentary * Bedouin

SOUTHERN

* Baharna

* Yemeni

* Hadhrami * Sanaani * Ta\'izzi-Adeni * Tihami * Judeo-Yemeni

NORTHWESTERN

* Bedouin

EASTERN

MESOPOTAMIAN

* North Mesopotamian

* Cypriot Maronite * Anatolian * Judeo-Iraqi

* South Mesopotamian

* Baghdad Koiné * Khuzestani

CENTRAL ASIAN

* Afghani * Khorasani * Central Asian Arabic
Arabic

LEVANTINE

NORTH LEVANTINE

* North Syrian

* Central Levantine

* Central Syrian * Lebanese

SOUTH LEVANTINE

* Jordanian

* Palestinian

* Urban * Central village

* Outer southern

NILO-EGYPTIAN

* Egyptian * Chadian * Sa\'idi * Sudanese

WESTERN

IBERIAN

* _Andalusian _

MAGHREBI

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Central and Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

SICULO-ARABIC

* Maltese * _Sicilian _

UNDESCRIBED

* _Shirvani _

JUDEO-ARABIC

* Judeo-Iraqi

* Judeo-Baghdadi

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian * Judeo-Yemeni

CREOLES AND PIDGINS

* Babalia * _Bimbashi _ * Juba * Nubi * _Maridi _ * _Turku _

_Italics_ indicate extinct languages .

* v * t * e

Iraq
Iraq
articles

HISTORY

ANCIENT

* Sumer
Sumer
* Akkadian Empire * Babylonia
Babylonia
* Assyria
Assyria
* Neo-Assyrian Empire * Neo-Babylonian Empire * Achaemenid Assyria
Assyria
* Seleucid Babylonia
Babylonia
* Parthian Babylonia
Babylonia
* Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958

* Muslim conquest of Persia * Abbasid Caliphate * Buyid dynasty * Kara Koyunlu * Ak Koyunlu * Safavids * Ottoman Iraq
Iraq
(Mamluk dynasty ) * Mandatory Iraq
Iraq
* Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
* Arab Federation
Arab Federation

REPUBLIC

* 1958–68 * 1968–2003 * 2003–11 * 2011–present

* Arab Socialist Ba\'ath Party – Iraq
Iraq
Region (National Command ) * Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
* Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War * Invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
* Gulf War
Gulf War
* Sanctions

* Iraq
Iraq
War

* U.S. invasion * Iraqi insurgency * U.S. troop withdrawal

* Insurgency (2011–2013)

* Civil War (2014–present)

* Mosul
Mosul
liberation

GEOGRAPHY

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Al-Jazira * Euphrates
Euphrates
* Hamrin Mountains * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Islands * Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* Mesopotamian Marshes * Places * Lakes * Shatt al-Arab * Syrian Desert * Tigris
Tigris
* Umm Qasr * Zagros Mountains

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Council of Representatives (legislative) * Elections * Foreign aid * Foreign relations

* Government

* Council of Ministers * Presidency Council * President * Prime Minister

* Human rights

* in pre-Saddam Iraq
Iraq
* in Saddam Hussein\'s Iraq
Iraq

* in post-invasion Iraq
Iraq

* in ISIL-controlled territory

* LGBT * Freedom of religion * Women

* Law * Military * Police * Political parties * Judiciary * Wars and conflicts

ECONOMY

* Central Bank * D