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The Info List - Merriam's Ground Squirrel





Spermophilus
Spermophilus
canus Merriam, 1898 Spermophilus
Spermophilus
vigilis Merriam, 1913

Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
( Urocitellus
Urocitellus
canus) is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae. It occurs in the states of Idaho, Nevada, and Oregon
Oregon
in the United States.[1]

Contents

1 Description 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Behavior 4 References

Description[edit] Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
is a small, grey, ground squirrel with a relatively nondescript appearance. Adults range from 18.8 to 21.8 centimetres (7.4 to 8.6 in) in head-body length, with a 3.1 to 5.0 centimetres (1.2 to 2.0 in) tail. Although their weight varies throughout the year, depending on nutrition, typical adult weights of 144 to 210 grams (5.1 to 7.4 oz) have been recorded for females, and 146 to 300 grams (5.1 to 10.6 oz) for males.[2] The fur is short and lacks any distinctive markings such as stripes or spots. It is greyish buff over most of the body, and pale buff to white on the underparts. The tail is relatively short and narrow compared with most other related ground squirrels, and the ears are small. However, it can only be reliably distinguished from Townsend's ground squirrel and the Piute ground squirrel
Piute ground squirrel
by genetic testing, and, for a long time, these species were not considered to be separate.[2] Distribution and habitat[edit] The species is found throughout much of Oregon, although not in the northern and western regions of the state. Some populations extend south of the state line into the extreme north-eastern corner of California
California
and the extreme north-western corner of Nevada, while other populations extend along the west bank of the Snake River
Snake River
into western Idaho.[2] Two subspecies are generally recognised:

Urocitellus
Urocitellus
canus canus - Oregon, California, Nevada Urocitellus
Urocitellus
canus vigilis - Snake River
Snake River
region (eastern Oregon, western Idaho)

The native habitat of Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
is arid chaparral environments dominated by sagebrush, and, to a lesser extent, by greasewood and shadscale.[3] It is sometimes found in marginal juniper woodland and can be common in man-made pasture and fields.[2] Behavior[edit] Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
is a diurnal omnivore, feeding on a wide range of seeds, roots, and bulbs, as well as on insects, such as cicadas.[4] Although relatively little of its native habitat has been converted into farmland, where it does inhabit agricultural land, it may eat domesticated grains or alfalfa, and be considered as a pest. Known predators include barn owls and great horned owls, and presumably also include hawks, snakes, and various carnivorous mammals.[2] They construct burrows, and rarely wander far from their entrances, typically having a home range of less than 1 hectare (2 acres). They spend most of the year hibernating; although there is some variation with local habitat, they generally emerge in early March, and become dormant again in early August. They give birth to a single litter of up to ten young each year in late April or early May.[4] The gestation period and duration of weaning are unknown, but are probably each in the range of three to four weeks. They are quiet and secretive animals, with a shrill, squeaking, alarm call, and have been observed to climb low bushes in search of food and to be good swimmers.[2] References[edit]

^ a b Yensen, E. & Hammerson, G. (NatureServe) (2008). " Spermophilus
Spermophilus
canus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 January 2009.  ^ a b c d e f Cole, F.R. & Wilson, D.E. (2009). " Urocitellus
Urocitellus
canus (Rodentia: Sciuridae)". Mammalian Species. 834: 1–8. doi:10.1644/834.1.  ^ Feldhammer, G.A. (1979). "Vegetation and edaphic factors affecting abundance and distribution of small mammals in southeast Oregon". Great Basin Naturalist. 39 (3): 207–218.  ^ a b Bailey, V. (1936). "The mammals and life zones of Oregon". North American Fauna. 55 (1): 155–158. doi:10.3996/nafa.55.0001. 

v t e

Living species of tribe Marmotini (ground squirrels)

Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Class: Mammalia  Order: Rodentia  Suborder: Sciuromorpha  Family: Sciuridae  Subfamily: Xerinae

Ammospermophilus (antelope squirrels)

Harris's antelope squirrel
Harris's antelope squirrel
(A. harrisii)  Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel (A. insularis)  Texas antelope squirrel
Texas antelope squirrel
(A. interpres)  White-tailed antelope squirrel
White-tailed antelope squirrel
(A. leucurus)  San Joaquin antelope squirrel
San Joaquin antelope squirrel
(A. nelsoni)

Callospermophilus (golden-mantled ground squirrels)

Golden-mantled ground squirrel
Golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. lateralis)  Sierra Madre ground squirrel
Sierra Madre ground squirrel
(C. madrensis)  Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. saturatus)

Cynomys (prairie dogs)

Gunnison's prairie dog
Gunnison's prairie dog
(C. gunnisoni)  White-tailed prairie dog
White-tailed prairie dog
(C. leucurus)  Black-tailed prairie dog
Black-tailed prairie dog
(C. ludovicianus)  Mexican prairie dog
Mexican prairie dog
(C. mexicanus)  Utah prairie dog
Utah prairie dog
(C. parvidens)

Eutamias

Siberian chipmunk
Siberian chipmunk
(E. sibiricus)

Ictidomys (little ground squirrels)

Mexican ground squirrel
Mexican ground squirrel
(I. mexicanus)  I. parvidens  Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
(I. tridecemlineatus)

Marmota (marmots)

Subgenus Marmota: Gray marmot
Gray marmot
(M. baibacina) 

Bobak marmot
Bobak marmot
(M. bobak)  Alaska marmot
Alaska marmot
(M. broweri)  Black-capped marmot
Black-capped marmot
(M. camtschatica)  Long-tailed marmot
Long-tailed marmot
(M. caudata)  Himalayan marmot
Himalayan marmot
(M. himalayana)  Alpine marmot
Alpine marmot
(M. marmota)  Menzbier's marmot
Menzbier's marmot
(M. menzbieri)  Groundhog
Groundhog
or woodchuck (M. monax)  Tarbagan marmot
Tarbagan marmot
(M. sibirica) Subgenus Petromarmota: Hoary marmot
Hoary marmot
(M. caligata)  Yellow-bellied marmot
Yellow-bellied marmot
(M. flaviventris)  Olympic marmot
Olympic marmot
(M. olympus)  Vancouver Island marmot
Vancouver Island marmot
(M. vancouverensis)

Neotamias (western chipmunks)

Alpine chipmunk
Alpine chipmunk
(N. alpinus)  Yellow-pine chipmunk
Yellow-pine chipmunk
(N. amoenus)  Buller's chipmunk
Buller's chipmunk
(N. bulleri)  Gray-footed chipmunk
Gray-footed chipmunk
(N. canipes)  Gray-collared chipmunk
Gray-collared chipmunk
(N. cinereicollis)  Cliff chipmunk
Cliff chipmunk
(N. dorsalis)  Durango chipmunk
Durango chipmunk
(N. durangae)  Merriam's chipmunk
Merriam's chipmunk
(N. merriami)  Least chipmunk
Least chipmunk
(N. minimus)  California
California
chipmunk (N. obscurus)  Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
(N. ochrogenys)  Palmer's chipmunk
Palmer's chipmunk
(N. palmeri)  Panamint chipmunk
Panamint chipmunk
(N. panamintinus)  Long-eared chipmunk
Long-eared chipmunk
(N. quadrimaculatus)  Colorado chipmunk
Colorado chipmunk
(N. quadrivittatus)  Red-tailed chipmunk
Red-tailed chipmunk
(N. ruficaudus)  Hopi chipmunk
Hopi chipmunk
(N. rufus)  Allen's chipmunk
Allen's chipmunk
(N. senex)  Siskiyou chipmunk
Siskiyou chipmunk
(N. siskiyou)  Sonoma chipmunk
Sonoma chipmunk
(N. sonomae)  Lodgepole chipmunk
Lodgepole chipmunk
(N. speciosus)  Townsend's chipmunk
Townsend's chipmunk
(N. townsendii)  Uinta chipmunk
Uinta chipmunk
(N. umbrinus)

Notocitellus

Tropical ground squirrel
Tropical ground squirrel
(N. adocetus)  Ring-tailed ground squirrel
Ring-tailed ground squirrel
(N. annulatus)

Otospermophilus (rock squirrels)

Baja California
California
rock squirrel (O. atricapillus)  California
California
ground squirrel (O. beecheyi)  Rock squirrel
Rock squirrel
(O. variegatus)

Poliocitellus

Franklin's ground squirrel
Franklin's ground squirrel
(P. franklinii)

Sciurotamias (Asian rock squirrels)

Père David's rock squirrel
Père David's rock squirrel
(S. davidianus)  Forrest's rock squirrel
Forrest's rock squirrel
(S. forresti)

Spermophilus
Spermophilus
sensu stricto (Old World ground squirrels)

Alashan ground squirrel
Alashan ground squirrel
(S. alashanicus)  S. brevicauda  European ground squirrel
European ground squirrel
(S. citellus)  Daurian ground squirrel
Daurian ground squirrel
(S. dauricus)  Red-cheeked ground squirrel
Red-cheeked ground squirrel
(S. erythrogenys)  Yellow ground squirrel
Yellow ground squirrel
(S. fulvus)  Russet ground squirrel
Russet ground squirrel
(S. major)  S. pallicauda  Little ground squirrel
Little ground squirrel
(S. pygmaeus)  S. ralli  S. relictus  Speckled ground squirrel
Speckled ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
suslicus)  Taurus ground squirrel ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
taurensis)  Asia Minor ground squirrel
Asia Minor ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
xanthoprymnus)

Tamias

Eastern chipmunk
Eastern chipmunk
(T. striatus)

Urocitellus (Holarctic ground squirrels)

Uinta ground squirrel
Uinta ground squirrel
(U. armatus)  Belding's ground squirrel
Belding's ground squirrel
(U. beldingi)  Northern Idaho
Idaho
ground squirrel (U. brunneus)  Southern Idaho
Idaho
ground squirrel (U. endemicus)  Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
(U. canus)  Columbian ground squirrel
Columbian ground squirrel
(U. columbianus)  Wyoming ground squirrel
Wyoming ground squirrel
(U. elegans)  Piute ground squirrel
Piute ground squirrel
(U. mollis)  Arctic ground squirrel
Arctic ground squirrel
(U. parryii)  Richardson's ground squirrel
Richardson's ground squirrel
(U. richardsonii)  Townsend's ground squirrel
Townsend's ground squirrel
(U. townsendii)  Washington ground squirrel
Washington ground squirrel
(U. washingtoni)  Long-tailed ground squirrel
Long-tailed ground squirrel
(U. undulatus)

Xerospermophilus (pygmy ground squirrels)

Mohave ground squirrel
Mohave ground squirrel
(X. mohavensis)  Perote ground squirrel
Perote ground squirrel
(X. perotensis)  Spotted ground squirrel
Spotted ground squirrel
(X. spilosoma)  Round-tailed ground squirrel
Round-tailed ground squirrel
(X. tereticaudus)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1761219 GBIF: 2437324 ITIS: 552499 M

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