HOME
The Info List - Mercia



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

MERCIA ( Old English
Old English
: Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Heptarchy
Heptarchy
. The name is a Latinisation of the Old English Mierce or Myrce, meaning "border people" (see March ).

The kingdom was centred on the valley of the River Trent
River Trent
and its tributaries, in the region now known as the English Midlands
English Midlands
. The kingdom's "capital" was the town of Tamworth , which was the seat of the Mercian Kings from at least around AD 584, when King Creoda built a fortress at the town.

For 300 years (between AD 600 and 900), having annexed or gained submissions from five of the other six kingdoms of the Heptarchy
Heptarchy
(East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex), Mercia
Mercia
dominated England south of the River Humber
River Humber
: this period is known as the Mercian Supremacy . The reign of King Offa
Offa
, who is best remembered for his Dyke that designated the boundary between Mercia
Mercia
and the Welsh kingdoms, is sometimes known as the "Golden Age of Mercia". Nicholas Brooks noted that "the Mercians stand out as by far the most successful of the various early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
peoples until the later ninth century", and some historians, such as Sir Frank Stenton , believe the unification of England
England
south of the Humber
Humber
estuary was achieved during the reign of Offa.

Mercia
Mercia
was originally a pagan kingdom, but King Peada
Peada
converted to Christianity
Christianity
around 656, and Christianity
Christianity
was firmly established in the kingdom by the late 7th century. The Diocese of Mercia was founded in 656, with the first bishop, Diuma , based at Repton
Repton
. After only 13 years at Repton, in 669 the fifth bishop, Saint Chad , moved the bishopric to Lichfield
Lichfield
, where it has been based ever since. In 691, the Diocese of Mercia became the Diocese of Lichfield
Lichfield
. For a brief period between 787 and 799 the diocese was an archbishopric , although it was officially dissolved in 803. The current bishop, Michael Ipgrave , is the 99th since the diocese was established.

At the end of the 9th century, following the invasions of the Vikings and their Great Heathen Army
Great Heathen Army
, much of the former Mercian territory was absorbed into the Danelaw
Danelaw
. At its height, the Danelaw
Danelaw
included London, all of East Anglia and most of the North of England.

The final Mercian king, Ceolwulf II , died in 879; the kingdom appears to have thereby lost its political independence. Initially, it was ruled by a lord or ealdorman under the overlordship of Alfred the Great , who styled himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons". The kingdom had a brief period of independence in the mid-10th century, and again very briefly in 1016; however, by this time, it was viewed as a province within the Kingdom of England, not an independent kingdom.

Mercia
Mercia
is still used as a geographic designation, and the name is used by wide range of organisations, including military units, public, commercial and voluntary bodies.

CONTENTS

* 1 Mercia
Mercia
in the early Middle Ages

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Penda
Penda
and the Mercian Supremacy
Mercian Supremacy
* 1.3 Reign of Offa
Offa
and rise of Wessex
Wessex
* 1.4 Arrival of the Danes * 1.5 Loss of independence

* 2 Mercian dialect * 3 Mercian religion * 4 Subdivisions of Mercia
Mercia

* 5 Legacy

* 5.1 Modern uses of the term "Mercia" * 5.2 Regional government * 5.3 Attributed heraldry

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

MERCIA IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES

EARLY HISTORY

The Staffordshire Hoard
Staffordshire Hoard
, discovered in a field in Hammerwich , near Lichfield
Lichfield
in July 2009, is perhaps the most important collection of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
objects found in England
England

Mercia's exact evolution at the start of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
era remains more obscure than that of Northumbria
Northumbria
, Kent , or even Wessex
Wessex
. Mercia developed an effective political structure and adopted Christianity later than the other kingdoms. Archaeological surveys show that Angles
Angles
settled the lands north of the River Thames
River Thames
by the 6th century. The name "Mercia" is Old English
Old English
for "boundary folk" (see Welsh Marches ), and the traditional interpretation is that the kingdom originated along the frontier between the native Welsh and the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
invaders. However, P. Hunter Blair argued an alternative interpretation: that they emerged along the frontier between Northumbria
Northumbria
and the inhabitants of the Trent river valley .

While its earliest boundaries will never be known, there is general agreement that the territory that was called "the first of the Mercians" in the Tribal Hidage
Tribal Hidage
covered much of south Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, Leicestershire
Leicestershire
, Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
, Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
, Staffordshire and northern Warwickshire
Warwickshire
.

The earliest person named in any records as a king of Mercia
Mercia
is Creoda , said to have been the great-grandson of Icel . Coming to power around 584, he built a fortress at Tamworth which became the seat of Mercia's kings. His son Pybba
Pybba
succeeded him in 593. Cearl , a kinsman of Creoda, followed Pybba
Pybba
in 606; in 615, Cearl gave his daughter Cwenburga in marriage to Edwin , king of Deira
Deira
, whom he had sheltered while he was an exiled prince.

PENDA AND THE MERCIAN SUPREMACY

Main articles: Penda
Penda
, Wulfhere
Wulfhere
, Æthelbald of Mercia
Æthelbald of Mercia
, and Mercian Supremacy Mercia
Mercia
and the main Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms at about 600

The next Mercian king, Penda
Penda
, ruled from about 626 or 633 until 655. Some of what is known about Penda
Penda
comes from the hostile account of Bede
Bede
, who disliked him – both as an enemy to Bede's own Northumbria and as a pagan . However, Bede
Bede
admits that Penda
Penda
freely allowed Christian missionaries from Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
into Mercia, and did not restrain them from preaching. In 633 Penda
Penda
and his ally Cadwallon of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
defeated and killed Edwin, who had become not only ruler of the newly unified Northumbria, but bretwalda , or high king, over the southern kingdoms. When another Northumbrian king, Oswald , arose and again claimed overlordship of the south, he also suffered defeat and death at the hands of Penda
Penda
and his allies – in 642 at the Battle of Maserfield . In 655, after a period of confusion in Northumbria, Penda brought 30 sub-kings to fight the new Northumbrian king Oswiu at the Battle of Winwaed , in which Penda
Penda
in turn lost the battle and his life.

The battle led to a temporary collapse of Mercian power. Penda's son Peada
Peada
, who had converted to Christianity
Christianity
at Repton
Repton
in 653, succeeded his father as king of Mercia; Oswiu set up Peada
Peada
as an under-king; but in the spring of 656 he was murdered and Oswiu assumed direct control of the whole of Mercia. A Mercian revolt in 658 threw off Northumbrian domination and resulted in the appearance of another son of Penda, Wulfhere
Wulfhere
, who ruled Mercia
Mercia
as an independent kingdom (though he apparently continued to render tribute to Northumbria
Northumbria
for a while) until his death in 675. Wulfhere
Wulfhere
initially succeeded in restoring the power of Mercia, but the end of his reign saw a serious defeat by Northumbria. The next king, Æthelred , defeated Northumbria
Northumbria
in the Battle of the Trent in 679, settling once and for all the long-disputed control of the former kingdom of Lindsey . Æthelred was succeeded by Cœnred , son of Wulfhere; both these kings became better known for their religious activities than anything else, but the king who succeeded them in 709, Ceolred , is said in a letter of Saint Boniface to have been a dissolute youth who died insane. So ended the rule of the direct descendants of Penda.

At some point before the accession of Æthelbald in 716 the Mercians conquered the region around Wroxeter
Wroxeter
, known to the Welsh as Pengwern or as "The Paradise of Powys". Elegies written in the persona of its dispossessed rulers record the sorrow at this loss. A series of maps that illustrate the increasing hegemony of Mercia
Mercia
during the 8th century

The next important king of Mercia, Æthelbald, reigned from 716 to 757. For the first few years of his reign he had to face two strong rival kings, Wihtred of Kent
Wihtred of Kent
and Ine of Wessex
Wessex
. But when Wihtred died in 725, and Ine abdicated in 726 to become a monk in Rome, Æthelbald was free to establish Mercia's hegemony over the rest of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
south of the Humber
Humber
. Æthelbald suffered a setback in 752, when the West Saxons under Cuthred defeated him, but he seems to have restored his supremacy over Wessex
Wessex
by 757.

In July 2009, the Staffordshire Hoard
Staffordshire Hoard
of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
gold was discovered by Terry Herbert in a field near Lichfield
Lichfield
in Staffordshire. Lichfield
Lichfield
functioned as the religious centre of Mercia. The artefacts have tentatively been dated by Svante Fischer and Jean Soulat to around AD 600–800. Whether the hoard was deposited by Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
pagans or Christians remains unclear, as does the purpose of the deposit.

REIGN OF OFFA AND RISE OF WESSEX

After the murder of Æthelbald by one of his bodyguards in 757, a civil war broke out which was concluded with the victory of Offa
Offa
. Offa
Offa
was forced to build anew the hegemony over the southern English of his predecessor, and he did this so successfully that he became the greatest king Mercia
Mercia
had ever known. Not only did he win battles and dominate Southern England
England
, but also he took an active hand in administering the affairs of his kingdom by founding market towns and overseeing the first major issues of gold coins in Britain; he assumed a role in the administration of the Catholic Church in England (sponsoring the short-lived archbishopric of Lichfield), and even negotiated with Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as an equal. Offa
Offa
is credited with the construction of Offa\'s Dyke , marking the border between Wales
Wales
and Mercia.

Offa
Offa
exerted himself to ensure that his son Ecgfrith of Mercia
Ecgfrith of Mercia
would succeed him, but after his death in July 796, Ecgfrith survived for only five more months, and the kingdom passed to a distant relative named Coenwulf in December 796. In 821, Coenwulf was succeeded by his brother Ceolwulf , who demonstrated his military prowess by his attack on and destruction of the fortress of Deganwy
Deganwy
in Gwynedd
Gwynedd
. The power of the West Saxons under Egbert was rising during this period, however, and in 825 Egbert defeated the Mercian king Beornwulf (who had overthrown Ceolwulf in 823) at Ellendun .

The Battle of Ellendun proved decisive. Beornwulf was slain suppressing a revolt amongst the East Angles, and his successor, a former ealdorman named Ludeca , met the same fate. Another ealdorman, Wiglaf , subsequently ruled for less than two years before being driven out of Mercia
Mercia
by Egbert. In 830, Wiglaf regained independence for Mercia, but by this time Wessex
Wessex
was clearly the dominant power in England. Wiglaf was succeeded by Beorhtwulf .

ARRIVAL OF THE DANES

The Five Boroughs and English Mercia
Mercia
in the early 10th century

In 852, Burgred
Burgred
came to the throne and with Ethelwulf of Wessex subjugated North Wales
Wales
. In 868, Viking
Viking
invaders (from Denmark
Denmark
) occupied Nottingham
Nottingham
. The Vikings
Vikings
drove Burgred
Burgred
from his kingdom in 874 and Ceolwulf II took his place. In 877 the Vikings
Vikings
seized the eastern part of Mercia, which became part of the Danelaw
Danelaw
. Ceolwulf, the last king of Mercia, was left with the western half, and he reigned until 879. From about 883 until 911 Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians ruled Mercia
Mercia
under the overlordship of Wessex. All coins struck in Mercia
Mercia
after the disappearance of Ceolwulf in c.879 were in the name of the West Saxon king. Æthelred had married Æthelflæd
Æthelflæd
, daughter of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
of Wessex, and she assumed power when her husband became ill at some time in the last ten years of his life.

After Æthelred's death in 911, Æthelflæd
Æthelflæd
ruled as ‘Lady of the Mercians’ but Edward took control of London and Oxford, which Alfred had placed under Æthelred's control. She and her brother continued Alfred's policy of building fortified burhs, and in 917-18 they were able to conquer the southern Danelaw
Danelaw
in East Anglia and Danish Mercia.

LOSS OF INDEPENDENCE

When Æthelflæd
Æthelflæd
died in 918, Ælfwynn, her daughter by Æthelred, succeeded as 'Second Lady of the Mercians', but within six months Edward had deprived her of all authority in Mercia
Mercia
and taken her into Wessex.

References to Mercia
Mercia
and the Mercians continue through the annals recording the reigns of Æthelstan
Æthelstan
and his successors. Æthelstan himself was raised in Mercia
Mercia
and became its king before he was king of Wessex. In Winchester, there was even an attempt to blind Æthelstan as he was seen as an outsider. In 975, King Edgar is described as “friend of the West Saxons and protector of the Mercians”.

A separate political existence from Wessex
Wessex
was briefly restored in 955–959, when Edgar became king of Mercia, and again in 1016, when the kingdom was divided between Cnut
Cnut
and Edmund Ironside
Edmund Ironside
, Cnut
Cnut
taking Mercia.

The last reference to Mercia
Mercia
by name is in the annal for 1017, when Eadric Streona
Eadric Streona
was awarded the government of Mercia
Mercia
by Cnut. The later earls, Leofric , Ælfgar and Edwin , ruled over a territory broadly corresponding to historic Mercia, but the Chronicle does not identify it by name. The Mercians as a people are last mentioned in the annal for 1049.

MERCIAN DIALECT

Main articles: Mercian (Anglo-Saxon)
Mercian (Anglo-Saxon)
and AB language

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (September 2012)

The dialect thrived between the 8th and 13th centuries and was referred to by John Trevisa , writing in 1387:

For men of the est with men of the west, as it were undir the same partie of hevene, acordeth more in sownynge of speche than men of the north with men of the south, therfore it is that Mercii, that beeth men of myddel Engelond, as it were parteners of the endes, understondeth better the side langages, northerne and southerne, than northerne and southerne understondeth either other...

J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien
is one of many scholars who have studied and promoted the Mercian dialect of Old English
Old English
, and introduced various Mercian terms into his legendarium – especially in relation to the Kingdom of Rohan , otherwise known as the Mark (a name cognate with Mercia). Not only is the language of Rohan actually represented as the Mercian dialect of Old English, but a number of its kings are given the same names as monarchs who appear in the Mercian royal genealogy, e.g. Fréawine , Fréaláf and Éomer (see List of kings of the Angles
Angles
).

MERCIAN RELIGION

Main articles: Mercian Religion
Mercian Religion
, Chad of Mercia
Chad of Mercia
, Cedd
Cedd
, Wulfhere
Wulfhere
, and Merewalh The Lichfield
Lichfield
Angel carving

The first kings of Mercia
Mercia
were pagans, and they resisted the encroachment of Christianity
Christianity
longer than other kingdoms in the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Heptarchy.

Mercian rulers remained resolutely pagan until the reign of Peada
Peada
in 656, although this did not prevent them joining coalitions with Christian Welsh rulers to resist Northumbria. The first appearance of Christianity
Christianity
in Mercia, however, had come at least thirty years earlier, following the Battle of Cirencester of 628, when Penda incorporated the formerly West Saxon territories of Hwicce
Hwicce
into his kingdom.

The conversion of Mercia
Mercia
to Christianity
Christianity
occurred in the latter part of the 7th century, and by the time of Penda's defeat and death, Mercia
Mercia
was largely surrounded by Christian states. Diuma , an Irish monk and one of Oswiu's missionaries was subsequently ordained a bishop – the first to operate in Mercia. Christianity
Christianity
finally gained a foothold in Mercia
Mercia
when Oswiu supported Peada
Peada
as sub-king of the Middle Angles, requiring him to marry Oswiu's daughter, Alchflaed, and to accept her religion.

Decisive steps to Christianise Mercia
Mercia
were taken by Chad (Latinised by Bede
Bede
as Ceadda), the fifth bishop to operate in Mercia. This controversial figure was given land by King Wulfhere
Wulfhere
to build a monastery at Lichfield
Lichfield
. Evidence suggests that the Lichfield
Lichfield
Gospels were made in Lichfield
Lichfield
around 730. As in other Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms, the many small monasteries established by the Mercian kings allowed the political/military and ecclesiastical leadership to consolidate their unity through bonds of kinship.

SUBDIVISIONS OF MERCIA

For knowledge of the internal composition of the Kingdom of Mercia, we must rely on a document of uncertain age (possibly late 7th century), known as the Tribal Hidage
Tribal Hidage
– an assessment of the extent (but not the location) of land owned (reckoned in hides ), and therefore the military obligations and perhaps taxes due, by each of the Mercian tribes and subject kingdoms by name. This hidage exists in several manuscript versions, some as late as the 14th century. It lists a number of peoples, such as the Hwicce
Hwicce
, who have now vanished, except for reminders in various placenames. The major subdivisions of Mercia
Mercia
were as follows:

* SOUTH MERCIANS

The Mercians dwelling south of the River Trent. Folk groups within included the Tomsæte around Tamworth and the Pencersæte around Penkridge
Penkridge
(approx. S. Staffs. & N. Warks. ).

* NORTH MERCIANS

The Mercians dwelling north of the River Trent
River Trent
(approx. E. Staffs. , Derbys. & Notts. ).

* OUTER MERCIA

An early phase of Mercian expansion, possibly 6th century (approx. S. Lincs. , Leics. , Rutland
Rutland
, Northants . & N. Oxon. ).

* LINDSEY

Once a kingdom in its own right, disputed with Northumbria
Northumbria
in the 7th century before finally coming under Mercian control (approx. N. Lincs. ).

* MIDDLE ANGLES

A collection of many smaller folk groups under Mercian control from the 7th century, including the Spaldingas around Spalding , the Bilmingas and Wideringas near Stamford , the North Gyrwe and South Gyrwe near Peterborough
Peterborough
, the West Wixna, East Wixna, West Wille and East Wille near Ely , the Sweordora, Hurstingas and Gifle near Bedford , the Hicce around Hitchin
Hitchin
, the Cilternsæte in the Chilterns
Chilterns
and the Feppingas near Thame
Thame
(approx. Cambs. , Hunts. , Beds. , Herts. , Bucks. & S. Oxon. ).

* HWICCE

Once a kingdom in its own right, disputed with Wessex
Wessex
in the 7th century before finally coming under Mercian control. Smaller folk groups within included the Stoppingas around Warwick
Warwick
and the Arosæte near Droitwich
Droitwich
(approx. Gloucs. , Worcs. & S. Warks. ).

* MAGONSæTE

A people of the Welsh border, also known as the Westerna, under Mercian control from the 7th century. Smaller folk groups within included the Temersæte near Hereford
Hereford
and the Hahlsæte near Ludlow (approx. Herefs. & S. Shrops. ).

* WREOCANSæTE

A people of the Welsh border under Mercian control from the 7th century. Smaller folk groups within included the Rhiwsæte near Wroxeter
Wroxeter
and the Meresæte near Chester
Chester
(approx. N. Shrops. , Flints. & Cheshire
Cheshire
).

* PECSæTE

An isolated folk group of the Peak District
Peak District
, under Mercian control from the 7th century (approx. N. Derbys. ).

* LAND BETWEEN RIBBLE "> Former Government Office Regions: West "> Cross of St Alban Arms of St Albans
St Albans
City Council

The Kingdom of Mercia
Mercia
predated the emergence of heraldry, so there is no authentic Mercian heraldic device. However, later generations have ascribed a variety of devices to the rulers of Mercia
Mercia
or to the land itself.

The saltire as a symbol of Mercia
Mercia
may have been in use since the time of King Offa
Offa
. By the 13th century, the saltire had become the attributed arms of the Kingdom of Mercia. The arms are blazoned Azure, a saltire Or, meaning a gold (or yellow) saltire on a blue field. The arms were subsequently used by the Abbey of St Albans
St Albans
, founded by King Offa
Offa
of Mercia. With the dissolution of the Abbey and the incorporation of the borough of St Albans
St Albans
the device was used on the town's corporate seal and was officially recorded as the arms of the town at an heraldic visitation in 1634.

The saltire is used as both a flag and a coat of arms. As a flag, it is flown from Tamworth Castle , the ancient seat of the Mercian Kings, to this day. The flag also appears on street signs welcoming people to Tamworth , the "ancient capital of Mercia". It was also flown outside Birmingham
Birmingham
Council House during 2009 while the Staffordshire Hoard was on display in the city before being taken to the British Museum in London. The cross has been incorporated into a number of coats of arms of Mercian towns, including Tamworth , Leek and Blaby .

The silver double-headed eagle surmounted by a golden three-pronged Saxon crown has been used by several units of the British Army
British Army
as a heraldic device for Mercia
Mercia
since 1958. It is derived from the attributed arms of Leofric, Earl of Mercia
Leofric, Earl of Mercia
in the 11th century. It is worth noting, however, that Leofric is sometimes attributed a black, single-headed eagle instead. The example on the left is the official device of the Mercian Regiment . A wyvern

The wyvern , a dragon with two legs, has a dubious association with Mercia. Midland Railway
Midland Railway
, who used a silver (white) wyvern as their crest, having inherited the symbol from the Leicester
Leicester
and Swannington Railway , asserted that the "wyvern was the standard of the Kingdom of Mercia", and that it was "a quartering in the town arms of Leicester". However, in 1897 the Railway Magazine noted that there appeared "to be no foundation that the wyvern was associated with the Kingdom of Mercia".

A similar theme was later taken up by Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker
in his 1911 novel The Lair of the White Worm , which was explicitly set in Mercia
Mercia
(see above). The word "worm", derived from Old English
Old English
wyrm, originally referred to a dragon or serpent. "Wyvern" is derived from Old Saxon wivere, also meaning serpent (and etymologically related to viper ).

The ultimate source for the symbolism of white dragons in England would appear to be Geoffrey of Monmouth ’s fictional History of the Kings of Britain (c. 1136), where an incident occurs in the life of Merlin in which a red dragon is seen fighting a white dragon which it overcomes. The red dragon was taken to represent the Welsh and their eventual victory over the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
invaders, symbolised by the white dragon. However, there is no archaeological or artefactual evidence that the early Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
used a white dragon to represent themselves.

The cap badge of the 2nd Mercian Battalion of the Territorial Army in the 1980s was a wyvern.

It has been suggested that the Middle Kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's Farmer Giles of Ham
Farmer Giles of Ham
is based on Mercia, and indeed the story is dominated by a dragon. However this dragon becomes the symbol of the Little Kingdom (an autonomous part of the Middle Kingdom) rather than the Middle Kingdom as a whole.

SEE ALSO

* Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England
England
portal

* Lichfield
Lichfield
* List of monarchs of Mercia
List of monarchs of Mercia
* List of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Mercians * Mercian – Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
dialect * Mercian Trail * Old English
Old English
* Repton
Repton
Abbey * Staffordshire Hoard
Staffordshire Hoard
* Tamworth * Wessex
Wessex

REFERENCES

* ^ Roach see also J.C. Wells, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary and Upton et al., Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English. * ^ *Brooks, N. (1989). "The formation of the Mercian kingdom". In Steven Bassett. The Origins of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Kingdoms. Leicester. p.159 * ^ Stenton, F. M. (1970). "The Supremacy of the Mercian kings". In D. M. Stenton. Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. Oxford. pp. 48–66. * ^ A B Fouracre, Paul ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History v.I, Cambridge (2005) pg. 466 * ^ Brooks, Nicholas Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
myths: state and church, 400–1066 * ^ Hill, D. Atlas of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England, Oxford (1981), map 136 * ^ Hooke, Della Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Territorial Organisation: The Western Margins of Mercia, University of Birmingham, Dept. of Geography, Occasional Paper 22 (1986) pp.1–45 * ^ Fouracre, Paul ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History v.I, Cambridge (2005) p. 465 * ^ Leahy, Kevin; Bland, Roger (2009). The Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Hoard, British Museum
British Museum
Press, pp. 4, 6 * ^ Svante Fischer and Jean Soulat, The Typochronology of Sword Pommels from the Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Hoard, The Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Hoard Symposium (March 2010). * ^ "Huge Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
gold hoard found". News.bbc.co.uk . 24 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009. * ^ Falkus & Gillingham and Hill * ^ Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England, Oxford University Press, 1971, p. 254 * ^ Miller, Sean (2004). "Ceolwulf II (fl. 874–879), king of the Mercians". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/39145 . Retrieved 7 August 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required) * ^ Stewart Lyon, The coinage of Edward the Elder, in N. J. Higham & D.H. Hill, Edward the Elder 899–924, London 2001, p. 67. * ^ A B C Costambeys, Marios (2004). " Æthelflæd
Æthelflæd
(Ethelfleda) (d. 918), ruler of the Mercians". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/8907 . Retrieved 7 August 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required) * ^ Elmes (2005) * ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (2005). The Lord of the Rings . Houghton-Mifflin. pp. 1133–1138. ISBN 978-0-618-64561-9 . For more on Tolkien’s "translation" of the language of Rohan into Old English , see especially page 1136. * ^ Shippey, Prof. Tom (2005). The Road to Middle Earth. HarperCollins. pp. 139–140. ISBN 0-261-10275-3 . Shippey notes that Tolkien uses 'Mercian' forms of Anglo-Saxon, e.g. " Saruman
Saruman
, Hasufel , Herugrim for 'standard' Searuman, Heasufel and Heorugrim" Footnote page 140 * ^ Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book 3, chapter 21. * ^ Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book 3, chapter 24. * ^ Fletcher, Richard (1997). The Conversion of Europe, p. 172-174, 181–182. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255203-5 . * ^ Sarah Zaluckyj & Marge Feryok. Mercia: The Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Kingdom of Central England
England
(2001) ISBN 1-873827-62-8 * ^ McWhirter (1976) * ^ Bateman (1971) * ^ Cottle & Sherborne (1951) * ^ "The Sportsjam Regional Football League". The Football Association. n.d. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015. * ^ Smith, David M.; Wistrich, Enid (2015). Devolution and Localism in England. Ashgate. p. 33. * ^ Childs, Simon; Francey, Matthew (23 February 2013). "We asked the lunatic fringe of UK politics about their ideal Britain". Vice. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2016. * ^ " Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
– Dataset finder – MYEDE Population Estimates for High Level Areas". ONS . 30 June 2015. Retrieved 2016-04-18. East Midlands
East Midlands
4,637,413 West Midlands 5,713,284 * ^ A B "Photo-gallery: Saxon trail across Mercian Staffordshire". BBC News. 7 April 2011. * ^ College of Arms Ms. L.14, dating from the reign of Henry III * ^ Civic Heraldry of England
England
and Wales
Wales
– Hertfordshire, accessed 15 January 2008 * ^ A.L. Kipling and H.L. King, Head-dress Badges of the British Army, Vol. 2, reprinted, Uckfield, 2006 * ^ Arms of the City of Coventry * ^ Geoffrey Briggs, Civic & Corporate Heraldry, London 1971 * ^ C. W. Scot-Giles, Civic Heraldry of England
England
and Wales, 2nd edition, London, 1953 * ^ A. C. Fox-Davies, The Book of Public Arms, London 1915 * ^ Cuthbert Hamilton Ellis, The Midland Railway, 1953 * ^ Frederick Smeeton Williams, The Midland Railway: Its rise and progress: A narrative of modern enterprise, 1876 * ^ A B The Railway Magazine, Vol. 102, 1897 * ^ Dow (1973) * ^ Clement Edwin Stretton, History of The Midland Railway, 1901 * ^ Shippey, Prof. Tom, The Road to Middle-earth
The Road to Middle-earth
, revised edition (2003), Houghton Mifflin, p.98, ISBN 0-618-25760-8

FURTHER READING

* Ian W. Walker. Mercia
Mercia
and the Making of England
England
(2000) ISBN 0-7509-2131-5 (also published as Mercia
Mercia
and the Origins of England (2000) ISBN 0-7509-2131-5 ) * Sarah Zaluckyj & Marge Feryok. Mercia: The Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Kingdom of Central England
England
(2001) ISBN 1-873827-62-8 * Michelle Brown In: The Origins of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Kingdoms. S. Bassett. 1989) (Western Mercia
Mercia
and the upper Trent being the probable cradle of early Mercia). * Simon Schama. A History of Britain: At the Edge of the World? – 3000 BC–AD 1603 Vol 1 BBC Books 2003 * Elmes, Simon (2005). Talking for Britain: A Journey Through the Nation’s Dialects. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-051562-3 . * Baxter, Stephen (2007). The earls of Mercia: lordship and power in late Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-923098-6 . * McWhirter, Norris (1976). The Guinness Book of Answers. Enfield: Guinness Superlatives Ltd. ISBN 0-900424-35-4 . * Bateman, John (1971). The Great Landowners of Great Britain and Ireland. Leicester
Leicester
University Press. ISBN 0-391-00157-4 . * Cottle, Basil; Sherborne, J.W. (1951). The Life of a University. University of Bristol. * Dow, George (1973). Railway Heraldry.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Mercian History: History Project * Recensions of manuscripts of the

.