Old English : Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the
Heptarchy . The name is a Latinisation of the Old English
Mierce or Myrce, meaning "border people" (see March ).
The kingdom was centred on the valley of the
River Trent and its
tributaries, in the region now known as the
English Midlands . The
kingdom's "capital" was the town of Tamworth , which was the seat of
the Mercian Kings from at least around AD 584, when King Creoda built
a fortress at the town.
For 300 years (between AD 600 and 900), having annexed or gained
submissions from five of the other six kingdoms of the
Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex),
Mercia dominated England
south of the
River Humber : this period is known as the Mercian
Supremacy . The reign of King
Offa , who is best remembered for his
Dyke that designated the boundary between
Mercia and the Welsh
kingdoms, is sometimes known as the "Golden Age of Mercia". Nicholas
Brooks noted that "the Mercians stand out as by far the most
successful of the various early
Anglo-Saxon peoples until the later
ninth century", and some historians, such as
Sir Frank Stenton ,
believe the unification of
England south of the
Humber estuary was
achieved during the reign of Offa.
Mercia was originally a pagan kingdom, but King
Peada converted to
Christianity around 656, and
Christianity was firmly established in
the kingdom by the late 7th century. The
Diocese of Mercia was founded
in 656, with the first bishop,
Diuma , based at
Repton . After only 13
years at Repton, in 669 the fifth bishop, Saint Chad , moved the
Lichfield , where it has been based ever since. In 691,
Diocese of Mercia became the Diocese of
Lichfield . For a brief
period between 787 and 799 the diocese was an archbishopric , although
it was officially dissolved in 803. The current bishop, Michael
Ipgrave , is the 99th since the diocese was established.
At the end of the 9th century, following the invasions of the Vikings
Great Heathen Army
Great Heathen Army , much of the former Mercian territory
was absorbed into the
Danelaw . At its height, the
London, all of East Anglia and most of the North of England.
The final Mercian king, Ceolwulf II , died in 879; the kingdom
appears to have thereby lost its political independence. Initially, it
was ruled by a lord or ealdorman under the overlordship of Alfred the
Great , who styled himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons". The kingdom had
a brief period of independence in the mid-10th century, and again very
briefly in 1016; however, by this time, it was viewed as a province
within the Kingdom of England, not an independent kingdom.
Mercia is still used as a geographic designation, and the name is
used by wide range of organisations, including military units, public,
commercial and voluntary bodies.
Mercia in the early Middle Ages
* 1.1 Early history
Penda and the
* 1.3 Reign of
Offa and rise of
* 1.4 Arrival of the Danes
* 1.5 Loss of independence
* 2 Mercian dialect
* 3 Mercian religion
* 4 Subdivisions of
* 5 Legacy
* 5.1 Modern uses of the term "Mercia"
* 5.2 Regional government
* 5.3 Attributed heraldry
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
MERCIA IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES
Staffordshire Hoard , discovered in a field in
Lichfield in July 2009, is perhaps the most important collection
Anglo-Saxon objects found in
Mercia's exact evolution at the start of the
Anglo-Saxon era remains
more obscure than that of
Northumbria , Kent , or even
Wessex . Mercia
developed an effective political structure and adopted Christianity
later than the other kingdoms. Archaeological surveys show that
Angles settled the lands north of the
River Thames by the 6th century.
The name "Mercia" is
Old English for "boundary folk" (see Welsh
Marches ), and the traditional interpretation is that the kingdom
originated along the frontier between the native Welsh and the
Anglo-Saxon invaders. However, P. Hunter Blair argued an alternative
interpretation: that they emerged along the frontier between
Northumbria and the inhabitants of the Trent river valley .
While its earliest boundaries will never be known, there is general
agreement that the territory that was called "the first of the
Mercians" in the
Tribal Hidage covered much of south
Northamptonshire , Staffordshire
The earliest person named in any records as a king of
Creoda , said to have been the great-grandson of Icel . Coming to
power around 584, he built a fortress at Tamworth which became the
seat of Mercia's kings. His son
Pybba succeeded him in 593. Cearl , a
kinsman of Creoda, followed
Pybba in 606; in 615, Cearl gave his
daughter Cwenburga in marriage to Edwin , king of
Deira , whom he had
sheltered while he was an exiled prince.
PENDA AND THE MERCIAN SUPREMACY
Æthelbald of Mercia
Æthelbald of Mercia , and Mercian
Mercia and the main
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms at about 600
The next Mercian king,
Penda , ruled from about 626 or 633 until 655.
Some of what is known about
Penda comes from the hostile account of
Bede , who disliked him – both as an enemy to Bede's own Northumbria
and as a pagan . However,
Bede admits that
Penda freely allowed
Christian missionaries from
Lindisfarne into Mercia, and did not
restrain them from preaching. In 633
Penda and his ally Cadwallon of
Gwynedd defeated and killed Edwin, who had become not only ruler of
the newly unified Northumbria, but bretwalda , or high king, over the
southern kingdoms. When another Northumbrian king, Oswald , arose and
again claimed overlordship of the south, he also suffered defeat and
death at the hands of
Penda and his allies – in 642 at the Battle of
Maserfield . In 655, after a period of confusion in Northumbria, Penda
brought 30 sub-kings to fight the new Northumbrian king Oswiu at the
Battle of Winwaed , in which
Penda in turn lost the battle and his
The battle led to a temporary collapse of Mercian power. Penda's son
Peada , who had converted to
Repton in 653, succeeded
his father as king of Mercia; Oswiu set up
Peada as an under-king; but
in the spring of 656 he was murdered and Oswiu assumed direct control
of the whole of Mercia. A Mercian revolt in 658 threw off Northumbrian
domination and resulted in the appearance of another son of Penda,
Wulfhere , who ruled
Mercia as an independent kingdom (though he
apparently continued to render tribute to
Northumbria for a while)
until his death in 675.
Wulfhere initially succeeded in restoring the
power of Mercia, but the end of his reign saw a serious defeat by
Northumbria. The next king, Æthelred , defeated
Northumbria in the
Battle of the Trent in 679, settling once and for all the
long-disputed control of the former kingdom of Lindsey . Æthelred was
succeeded by Cœnred , son of Wulfhere; both these kings became better
known for their religious activities than anything else, but the king
who succeeded them in 709, Ceolred , is said in a letter of Saint
Boniface to have been a dissolute youth who died insane. So ended the
rule of the direct descendants of Penda.
At some point before the accession of Æthelbald in 716 the Mercians
conquered the region around
Wroxeter , known to the Welsh as Pengwern
or as "The Paradise of Powys". Elegies written in the persona of its
dispossessed rulers record the sorrow at this loss. A series of
maps that illustrate the increasing hegemony of
Mercia during the 8th
The next important king of Mercia, Æthelbald, reigned from 716 to
757. For the first few years of his reign he had to face two strong
Wihtred of Kent
Wihtred of Kent and Ine of
Wessex . But when Wihtred died
in 725, and Ine abdicated in 726 to become a monk in Rome, Æthelbald
was free to establish Mercia's hegemony over the rest of the
Anglo-Saxons south of the
Humber . Æthelbald suffered a setback in
752, when the West Saxons under Cuthred defeated him, but he seems to
have restored his supremacy over
Wessex by 757.
In July 2009, the
Staffordshire Hoard of
Anglo-Saxon gold was
discovered by Terry Herbert in a field near
Lichfield functioned as the religious centre of
Mercia. The artefacts have tentatively been dated by Svante Fischer
and Jean Soulat to around AD 600–800. Whether the hoard was
Anglo-Saxon pagans or Christians remains unclear, as does
the purpose of the deposit.
REIGN OF OFFA AND RISE OF WESSEX
After the murder of Æthelbald by one of his bodyguards in 757, a
civil war broke out which was concluded with the victory of
Offa was forced to build anew the hegemony over the southern English
of his predecessor, and he did this so successfully that he became the
Mercia had ever known. Not only did he win battles and
England , but also he took an active hand in
administering the affairs of his kingdom by founding market towns and
overseeing the first major issues of gold coins in Britain; he assumed
a role in the administration of the Catholic Church in England
(sponsoring the short-lived archbishopric of Lichfield), and even
Charlemagne as an equal.
Offa is credited with the
construction of Offa\'s Dyke , marking the border between
Offa exerted himself to ensure that his son
Ecgfrith of Mercia
Ecgfrith of Mercia would
succeed him, but after his death in July 796, Ecgfrith survived for
only five more months, and the kingdom passed to a distant relative
named Coenwulf in December 796. In 821, Coenwulf was succeeded by his
brother Ceolwulf , who demonstrated his military prowess by his attack
on and destruction of the fortress of
Gwynedd . The power
of the West Saxons under Egbert was rising during this period,
however, and in 825 Egbert defeated the Mercian king Beornwulf (who
had overthrown Ceolwulf in 823) at
The Battle of
Ellendun proved decisive. Beornwulf was slain
suppressing a revolt amongst the East Angles, and his successor, a
former ealdorman named Ludeca , met the same fate. Another ealdorman,
Wiglaf , subsequently ruled for less than two years before being
driven out of
Mercia by Egbert. In 830, Wiglaf regained independence
for Mercia, but by this time
Wessex was clearly the dominant power in
England. Wiglaf was succeeded by Beorhtwulf .
ARRIVAL OF THE DANES
The Five Boroughs and English
Mercia in the early 10th century
Burgred came to the throne and with Ethelwulf of Wessex
Wales . In 868,
Viking invaders (from
Nottingham . The
Burgred from his kingdom in
874 and Ceolwulf II took his place. In 877 the
Vikings seized the
eastern part of Mercia, which became part of the
Danelaw . Ceolwulf,
the last king of Mercia, was left with the western half, and he
reigned until 879. From about 883 until 911 Æthelred, Lord of the
Mercia under the overlordship of Wessex. All coins
Mercia after the disappearance of Ceolwulf in c.879 were in
the name of the West Saxon king. Æthelred had married
Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great of Wessex, and she assumed power when her
husband became ill at some time in the last ten years of his life.
After Æthelred's death in 911,
Æthelflæd ruled as ‘Lady of the
Mercians’ but Edward took control of London and Oxford, which Alfred
had placed under Æthelred's control. She and her brother continued
Alfred's policy of building fortified burhs, and in 917-18 they were
able to conquer the southern
Danelaw in East Anglia and Danish Mercia.
LOSS OF INDEPENDENCE
Æthelflæd died in 918, Ælfwynn, her daughter by Æthelred,
succeeded as 'Second Lady of the Mercians', but within six months
Edward had deprived her of all authority in
Mercia and taken her into
Mercia and the Mercians continue through the annals
recording the reigns of
Æthelstan and his successors. Æthelstan
himself was raised in
Mercia and became its king before he was king of
Wessex. In Winchester, there was even an attempt to blind Æthelstan
as he was seen as an outsider. In 975, King Edgar is described as
“friend of the West Saxons and protector of the Mercians”.
A separate political existence from
Wessex was briefly restored in
955–959, when Edgar became king of Mercia, and again in 1016, when
the kingdom was divided between
Edmund Ironside ,
The last reference to
Mercia by name is in the annal for 1017, when
Eadric Streona was awarded the government of
Mercia by Cnut. The later
earls, Leofric , Ælfgar and Edwin , ruled over a territory broadly
corresponding to historic Mercia, but the Chronicle does not identify
it by name. The Mercians as a people are last mentioned in the annal
Mercian (Anglo-Saxon) and
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
The dialect thrived between the 8th and 13th centuries and was
referred to by
John Trevisa , writing in 1387:
For men of the est with men of the west, as it were undir the same
partie of hevene, acordeth more in sownynge of speche than men of the
north with men of the south, therfore it is that Mercii, that beeth
men of myddel Engelond, as it were parteners of the endes,
understondeth better the side langages, northerne and southerne, than
northerne and southerne understondeth either other...
J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien is one of many scholars who have studied and
promoted the Mercian dialect of
Old English , and introduced various
Mercian terms into his legendarium – especially in relation to the
Kingdom of Rohan , otherwise known as the Mark (a name cognate with
Mercia). Not only is the language of Rohan actually represented as
the Mercian dialect of Old English, but a number of its kings are
given the same names as monarchs who appear in the Mercian royal
Fréawine , Fréaláf and
Éomer (see List of kings of
Mercian Religion ,
Chad of Mercia
Chad of Mercia ,
Lichfield Angel carving
The first kings of
Mercia were pagans, and they resisted the
Christianity longer than other kingdoms in the
Mercian rulers remained resolutely pagan until the reign of
656, although this did not prevent them joining coalitions with
Christian Welsh rulers to resist Northumbria. The first appearance of
Christianity in Mercia, however, had come at least thirty years
earlier, following the
Battle of Cirencester of 628, when Penda
incorporated the formerly West Saxon territories of
Hwicce into his
The conversion of
Christianity occurred in the latter part
of the 7th century, and by the time of Penda's defeat and death,
Mercia was largely surrounded by Christian states.
Diuma , an Irish
monk and one of Oswiu's missionaries was subsequently ordained a
bishop – the first to operate in Mercia.
Christianity finally gained
a foothold in
Mercia when Oswiu supported
Peada as sub-king of the
Middle Angles, requiring him to marry Oswiu's daughter, Alchflaed, and
to accept her religion.
Decisive steps to Christianise
Mercia were taken by Chad (Latinised
Bede as Ceadda), the fifth bishop to operate in Mercia. This
controversial figure was given land by King
Wulfhere to build a
Lichfield . Evidence suggests that the
were made in
Lichfield around 730. As in other
the many small monasteries established by the Mercian kings allowed
the political/military and ecclesiastical leadership to consolidate
their unity through bonds of kinship.
SUBDIVISIONS OF MERCIA
For knowledge of the internal composition of the Kingdom of Mercia,
we must rely on a document of uncertain age (possibly late 7th
century), known as the
Tribal Hidage – an assessment of the extent
(but not the location) of land owned (reckoned in hides ), and
therefore the military obligations and perhaps taxes due, by each of
the Mercian tribes and subject kingdoms by name. This hidage exists in
several manuscript versions, some as late as the 14th century. It
lists a number of peoples, such as the
Hwicce , who have now vanished,
except for reminders in various placenames. The major subdivisions of
Mercia were as follows:
* SOUTH MERCIANS
The Mercians dwelling south of the River Trent. Folk groups within
Tomsæte around Tamworth and the
Penkridge (approx. S. Staffs. & N. Warks. ).
* NORTH MERCIANS
The Mercians dwelling north of the
River Trent (approx. E. Staffs. ,
Derbys. & Notts. ).
* OUTER MERCIA
An early phase of Mercian expansion, possibly 6th century (approx.
S. Lincs. , Leics. ,
Rutland , Northants . & N. Oxon. ).
Once a kingdom in its own right, disputed with
Northumbria in the
7th century before finally coming under Mercian control (approx. N.
* MIDDLE ANGLES
A collection of many smaller folk groups under Mercian control from
the 7th century, including the
Spaldingas around Spalding , the
Bilmingas and Wideringas near Stamford , the North Gyrwe and South
Peterborough , the West Wixna, East Wixna, West Wille and
East Wille near Ely , the Sweordora, Hurstingas and Gifle near Bedford
, the Hicce around
Hitchin , the
Cilternsæte in the
Chilterns and the
Thame (approx. Cambs. , Hunts. , Beds. , Herts. ,
Bucks. & S. Oxon. ).
Once a kingdom in its own right, disputed with
Wessex in the 7th
century before finally coming under Mercian control. Smaller folk
groups within included the
Warwick and the Arosæte
Droitwich (approx. Gloucs. , Worcs. & S. Warks. ).
A people of the Welsh border, also known as the Westerna, under
Mercian control from the 7th century. Smaller folk groups within
included the Temersæte near
Hereford and the Hahlsæte near Ludlow
(approx. Herefs. & S. Shrops. ).
A people of the Welsh border under Mercian control from the 7th
century. Smaller folk groups within included the Rhiwsæte near
Wroxeter and the Meresæte near
Chester (approx. N. Shrops. , Flints.
An isolated folk group of the
Peak District , under Mercian control
from the 7th century (approx. N. Derbys. ).
* LAND BETWEEN RIBBLE "> Former Government Office Regions: West
"> Cross of St Alban Arms of
St Albans City Council
The Kingdom of
Mercia predated the emergence of heraldry, so there is
no authentic Mercian heraldic device. However, later generations have
ascribed a variety of devices to the rulers of
Mercia or to the land
The saltire as a symbol of
Mercia may have been in use since the time
Offa . By the 13th century, the saltire had become the
attributed arms of the Kingdom of Mercia. The arms are blazoned
Azure, a saltire Or, meaning a gold (or yellow) saltire on a blue
field. The arms were subsequently used by the Abbey of
St Albans ,
founded by King
Offa of Mercia. With the dissolution of the Abbey and
the incorporation of the borough of
St Albans the device was used on
the town's corporate seal and was officially recorded as the arms of
the town at an heraldic visitation in 1634.
The saltire is used as both a flag and a coat of arms. As a flag, it
is flown from
Tamworth Castle , the ancient seat of the Mercian Kings,
to this day. The flag also appears on street signs welcoming people
to Tamworth , the "ancient capital of Mercia". It was also flown
Birmingham Council House during 2009 while the Staffordshire
Hoard was on display in the city before being taken to the British
Museum in London. The cross has been incorporated into a number of
coats of arms of Mercian towns, including Tamworth , Leek and
The silver double-headed eagle surmounted by a golden three-pronged
Saxon crown has been used by several units of the
British Army as a
heraldic device for
Mercia since 1958. It is derived from the
attributed arms of
Leofric, Earl of Mercia
Leofric, Earl of Mercia in the 11th century. It is
worth noting, however, that Leofric is sometimes attributed a black,
single-headed eagle instead. The example on the left is the official
device of the
Mercian Regiment . A wyvern
The wyvern , a dragon with two legs, has a dubious association with
Midland Railway , who used a silver (white) wyvern as their
crest, having inherited the symbol from the
Leicester and Swannington
Railway , asserted that the "wyvern was the standard of the Kingdom of
Mercia", and that it was "a quartering in the town arms of Leicester".
However, in 1897 the Railway Magazine noted that there
appeared "to be no foundation that the wyvern was associated with the
Kingdom of Mercia".
A similar theme was later taken up by
Bram Stoker in his 1911 novel
The Lair of the White Worm , which was explicitly set in
above). The word "worm", derived from
Old English wyrm, originally
referred to a dragon or serpent. "Wyvern" is derived from Old Saxon
wivere, also meaning serpent (and etymologically related to viper ).
The ultimate source for the symbolism of white dragons in England
would appear to be
Geoffrey of Monmouth ’s fictional History of the
Kings of Britain (c. 1136), where an incident occurs in the life of
Merlin in which a red dragon is seen fighting a white dragon which it
overcomes. The red dragon was taken to represent the Welsh and their
eventual victory over the
Anglo-Saxon invaders, symbolised by the
white dragon. However, there is no archaeological or artefactual
evidence that the early
Anglo-Saxons used a white dragon to represent
The cap badge of the 2nd Mercian Battalion of the Territorial Army in
the 1980s was a wyvern.
It has been suggested that the Middle Kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's
Farmer Giles of Ham
Farmer Giles of Ham is based on Mercia, and indeed the story is
dominated by a dragon. However this dragon becomes the symbol of the
Little Kingdom (an autonomous part of the Middle Kingdom) rather than
the Middle Kingdom as a whole.
List of monarchs of Mercia
List of monarchs of Mercia
* List of
* Mercian –
* ^ Roach see also J.C. Wells, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary and
Upton et al., Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English.
* ^ *Brooks, N. (1989). "The formation of the Mercian kingdom". In
Steven Bassett. The Origins of
Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. Leicester. p.159
* ^ Stenton, F. M. (1970). "The Supremacy of the Mercian kings". In
D. M. Stenton. Preparatory to
Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford. pp.
* ^ A B Fouracre, Paul ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History v.I,
Cambridge (2005) pg. 466
* ^ Brooks, Nicholas
Anglo-Saxon myths: state and church,
* ^ Hill, D. Atlas of
Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford (1981), map 136
* ^ Hooke, Della
Anglo-Saxon Territorial Organisation: The Western
Margins of Mercia, University of Birmingham, Dept. of Geography,
Occasional Paper 22 (1986) pp.1–45
* ^ Fouracre, Paul ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History v.I,
Cambridge (2005) p. 465
* ^ Leahy, Kevin; Bland, Roger (2009). The
British Museum Press, pp. 4, 6
* ^ Svante Fischer and Jean Soulat, The Typochronology of Sword
Pommels from the
Staffordshire Hoard, The
Symposium (March 2010).
* ^ "Huge
Anglo-Saxon gold hoard found".
News.bbc.co.uk . 24
September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
* ^ Falkus & Gillingham and Hill
* ^ Frank Stenton,
Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford University Press,
1971, p. 254
* ^ Miller, Sean (2004). "Ceolwulf II (fl. 874–879), king of the
Mercians". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University
Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/39145 . Retrieved 7 August 2012.
(subscription or UK public library membership required)
* ^ Stewart Lyon, The coinage of Edward the Elder, in N. J. Higham
& D.H. Hill, Edward the Elder 899–924, London 2001, p. 67.
* ^ A B C Costambeys, Marios (2004). "
Æthelflæd (Ethelfleda) (d.
918), ruler of the Mercians". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
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* ^ Elmes (2005)
* ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (2005).
The Lord of the Rings .
Houghton-Mifflin. pp. 1133–1138. ISBN 978-0-618-64561-9 . For more
on Tolkien’s "translation" of the language of Rohan into Old English
, see especially page 1136.
* ^ Shippey, Prof. Tom (2005). The Road to Middle Earth.
HarperCollins. pp. 139–140. ISBN 0-261-10275-3 . Shippey notes that
Tolkien uses 'Mercian' forms of Anglo-Saxon, e.g. "
Herugrim for 'standard' Searuman, Heasufel and Heorugrim" Footnote
* ^ Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book 3,
* ^ Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book 3,
* ^ Fletcher, Richard (1997). The Conversion of Europe, p. 172-174,
181–182. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255203-5 .
* ^ Sarah Zaluckyj & Marge Feryok. Mercia: The
England (2001) ISBN 1-873827-62-8
* ^ McWhirter (1976)
* ^ Bateman (1971)
* ^ Cottle & Sherborne (1951)
* ^ "The Sportsjam Regional Football League". The Football
Association. n.d. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015.
Retrieved 26 November 2015.
* ^ Smith, David M.; Wistrich, Enid (2015). Devolution and Localism
in England. Ashgate. p. 33.
* ^ Childs, Simon; Francey, Matthew (23 February 2013). "We asked
the lunatic fringe of UK politics about their ideal Britain". Vice.
Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
* ^ "
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics – Dataset finder – MYEDE
Population Estimates for High Level Areas". ONS . 30 June 2015.
East Midlands 4,637,413 West Midlands 5,713,284
* ^ A B "Photo-gallery: Saxon trail across Mercian Staffordshire".
BBC News. 7 April 2011.
* ^ College of Arms Ms. L.14, dating from the reign of Henry III
* ^ Civic Heraldry of
Wales – Hertfordshire, accessed
15 January 2008
* ^ A.L. Kipling and H.L. King, Head-dress Badges of the British
Army, Vol. 2, reprinted, Uckfield, 2006
* ^ Arms of the City of Coventry
* ^ Geoffrey Briggs, Civic & Corporate Heraldry, London 1971
* ^ C. W. Scot-Giles, Civic Heraldry of
England and Wales, 2nd
edition, London, 1953
* ^ A. C. Fox-Davies, The Book of Public Arms, London 1915
* ^ Cuthbert Hamilton Ellis, The Midland Railway, 1953
* ^ Frederick Smeeton Williams, The Midland Railway: Its rise and
progress: A narrative of modern enterprise, 1876
* ^ A B The Railway Magazine, Vol. 102, 1897
* ^ Dow (1973)
* ^ Clement Edwin Stretton, History of The Midland Railway, 1901
* ^ Shippey, Prof. Tom,
The Road to Middle-earth
The Road to Middle-earth , revised edition
(2003), Houghton Mifflin, p.98, ISBN 0-618-25760-8
* Ian W. Walker.
Mercia and the Making of
England (2000) ISBN
0-7509-2131-5 (also published as
Mercia and the Origins of England
(2000) ISBN 0-7509-2131-5 )
* Sarah Zaluckyj & Marge Feryok. Mercia: The
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of
England (2001) ISBN 1-873827-62-8
* Michelle Brown In: The Origins of the
Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms. S.
Bassett. 1989) (Western
Mercia and the upper Trent being the probable
cradle of early Mercia).
* Simon Schama. A History of Britain: At the Edge of the World? –
3000 BC–AD 1603 Vol 1 BBC Books 2003
* Elmes, Simon (2005). Talking for Britain: A Journey Through the
Nation’s Dialects. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-051562-3 .
* Baxter, Stephen (2007). The earls of Mercia: lordship and power in
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* McWhirter, Norris (1976). The Guinness Book of Answers. Enfield:
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* Bateman, John (1971). The Great Landowners of Great Britain and
Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-391-00157-4 .
* Cottle, Basil; Sherborne, J.W. (1951). The Life of a University.
University of Bristol.
* Dow, George (1973). Railway Heraldry.
* Mercian History: History Project
* Recensions of manuscripts of the