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MENNONITES IN BELIZE form different religious bodies and come from different ethnic backgrounds. There are groups of Mennonites living in Belize
Belize
, who are quite traditional and conservative (e. g. in Shipyard and Upper Barton Creek ), while others have modernized to various degrees (e. g. in Spanish Lookout
Spanish Lookout
and Blue Creek ).

There were 4961 members as of 2014, but the total number including children and young unbaptized adults was around 12,000. Of these some 10,000 were ethnic Mennonites , most of them "Russian" Mennonites , who speak Plautdietsch
Plautdietsch
, a Low German
Low German
dialect. In addition to this, there were another 2,000 mostly Kriol and Mestizo
Mestizo
Belizeans who had converted to Mennonitism
Mennonitism
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History of Belizean Mennonites * 2 Customs and Traditions * 3 Languages * 4 Colonies * 5 Mennonite
Mennonite
Groups and membership * 6 Economic contributions to Belize
Belize
* 7 Controversy * 8 See also

* 9 References

* 9.1 Inline citations * 9.2 Sources referenced

HISTORY OF BELIZEAN MENNONITES

The ancestors of the vast majority of Belizean Mennonites settled in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the 18th and 19th centuries, coming from the Vistula delta in West Prussia
West Prussia
. In the years after 1873 some 7,000 left the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and settled in Manitoba
Manitoba
, Canada
Canada
. The more conservative ones left Canada
Canada
between 1922 and 1925 and settled in Mexico . In the years after 1958 some 1,700 Mennonites from the Mexican settlements moved to what was then British Honduras. Mennonites from El Salvador moved to Belize
Belize
during civil war . The so-called "Russian Mennonites" speak Plautdietsch
Plautdietsch
in everyday life among themselves. There are also some hundred Pennsylvania German speaking Old Order Mennonites
Old Order Mennonites
who came from the USA and Canada
Canada
in the late 1960s and settle now in Upper Barton Creek and daughter settlements.

CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

Mennonites on New River, Belize
Belize

Mennonites are easily identified by their clothing, except from the ones who have modernized to a large degree or have never been traditional, because they have converted in recent times. The women wear bonnets and long dresses while the men wear denim overalls and hats. The men may wear traditional suspenders and dark trousers. The women wear brightly colored dresses. In many of the Mennonite communities there is a softening of the old tradition. In Upper Barton Creek and daughter settlements, men and women dress similar to the Old Order Amish
Amish
. Both Old Colony Mennonites and Noah Hoover Mennonites use horse drawn buggies for transportation, but only the Noah Hoovers also till fields with horse drawn implements.

When it comes to burial, traditional Mennonites conduct their service mainly in German but some parts in English so that visitors can take part. They use bibles like other Christians do. The caskets are made of plain lumber which is lined with white cloth inside and black cloth outside. There is no buying of expensive caskets when it comes to luxury. A portion of the shoulder remains open during the service. After the rites the whole congregation files orderly to the front of the church to pay their last respect. In Spanish Lookout, members and friends of the deceased addresses the congregation after the obituary has been read. Tombs are not a part of burying. A cross is used for marking the name and spot. Before returning the body to the earth, a few hymns are sung. Members of the community take turns shoveling the earth until the burial is completed. After that the community comes together and feasts on bread, sausages and coffee with the bereaved family.

Weddings usually start with courtship and last for six months to a year. The boy's parents ask the girl's father for permission. After that the parents get together and set wedding dates. The penultimate Saturday evening before the wedding is called "Falafnes" (Standard German : "Verlöbnis"). On this event, the friend of the bride and the groom shares the bible reading. Weddings are performed on Sundays. It usually consists of two ministers, one to explain the meaning of matrimony and the other to do the blessings. Gifts given are usually tools and household items.

Mennonites from the Noah Hoover group in Upper Barton Creek and daughter settlements are extremely restrictive concerning the use of motors and electricity, that is, both motors and electricity are forbidden for the use in the settlement by the members of the group. Their clothing is very similar to the Old Order Amish and men wear beards like the Amish. Therefore, they are often perceived as Amish and called Amish, even though this is not the case. This has caused some confusion.

The Mennonites have made it a point to have their own school, church, and financial institution in their community.

LANGUAGES

The vast majority, more than 95%, of ethnic Mennonites in Belize speak Plautdietsch
Plautdietsch
in everyday life. A small minority of very conservative Mennonites that came from North America mostly in the second half of the 1960s speak Pennsylvania German
Pennsylvania German
instead. Both groups use Standard German
Standard German
for reading the Bible, in school and in Church. English and Belizean Spanish are used mainly by men for communication outside their communities, Belizean Spanish is also spoken by descendants of Mexican Mennonites and Salvadoran Mennonites. Almost all Mennonites from churches who do outreach in Belize, e. g. Beachy Amish
Amish
Mennonites, speak mainly English. Mennonites from other ethnic backgrounds use their ethno-languages.

COLONIES

The total population of Mennonites, including unbaptized children, stood at 4,959 in 1987. The major colonies with their population in 1987 were Shipyard (1,946), Spanish Lookout
Spanish Lookout
(1,125) and Little Belize (1,004). Richmond Hill existed only from 1960 to 1965. Presently in Belize
Belize
there are different communities of Mennonites, namely Shipyard , Blue Creek , Little Belize
Belize
, Spanish Lookout
Spanish Lookout
, Indian Creek , Upper and Lower Barton Creek , Springfield and Pine Hill . In 1999 , the Mennonites (excluding converts from other groups) had a birth rate of 42.53 per 1000, which was well above the national average of 30.71 per 1000.

COLONY DISTRICT ESTABLISHED Original affiliation ORIENTATION Population (2010) Average Household Size

Shipyard Orange Walk 1958 Old Colony Traditional 3,345 5.4

Spanish Lookout
Spanish Lookout
Cayo 1958 Kleine Gemeinde Moderate modern 2,253 4.7

Blue Creek Orange Walk 1958 Old Colony Very modern 407 3.7

Upper Barton Creek Cayo 1969 (Noah Hoover ) Very conservative 380 7.0

Lower Barton Creek Cayo 1973 Old Colony Very conservative 193 6.4

Little Belize
Belize
Corozal 1978 Old Colony Traditional 2,650 6.2

Indian Creek Orange Walk ~1988 Old Colony Traditional 904 6.0

Springfield Cayo 1996 Noah Hoover Very conservative 270 6.8

Pine Hill Toledo 1997 Noah Hoover Very conservative 205 5.3

BELIZE

10,607

There are four newer colonies: Bird Walk (founded 2012) and Roseville, which are daughter colonies from Upper Barton Creek and Springfield and Green Hills which is affiliated with the Mennonites of Pine Hill and New Land.

Smaller outreaches of Conservative Mennonites can be found in numerous communities throughout Belize.

MENNONITE GROUPS AND MEMBERSHIP

As Mennonites accept only adults as members, the total population of the Mennonite
Mennonite
congregations in Belize
Belize
is underestimated by membership counts. The largest denomination was Altkolonier Mennoniten Gemeinde with 2,052 members. Other denominations were Kleine Gemeinde zu Spanish Lookout
Spanish Lookout
with 710 members and Kleine Gemeinde zu Blue Creek with 60 members, Iglesia Evangélica Menonita de Belice with 400 members (mostly Mestizos
Mestizos
), Evangelical Mennonite
Mennonite
Mission Conference with 388 members, Beachy Amish
Amish
Mennonite
Mennonite
Fellowship with 140 members, Caribbean Light and Truth with 137 members (mostly Kriol) and Church of God in Christ, Mennonite
Mennonite
with 42 members (mostly Kriol ) (All figures as of 2006).

MENNONITE GROUP Member- ship in 2009 Congre- gations in 2009 Member- ship in 2012 Congre- gations in 2012

Altkolonier Mennonitengemeinde 2,052 3 2,532 3

Beachy Amish
Amish
Church 164 6 176 6

Church of God in Christ, Mennonite
Mennonite
51 2 61 2

Evangelical Mennonite
Mennonite
Mission Conference 482 3 535 5

Iglesia Evangélica Menonita de Belice 420 10 544 8

Kleine Gemeinde

770 5

Kleine Gemeinde zu Blue Creek 60 1

Kleinegemeinde zu Spanish Lookout
Spanish Lookout
710 4

Independent ">

CONTROVERSY

While the Mennonites in Belize
Belize
have been very prosperous in agriculture, Michael Trapasso wrote, in a 1992 article published in GeoJournal , that there have been complaints that they often do so with no regard for the environment or environmental laws. Trapasso wrote that the environmental impact of their farming methods leads to large scale deforestation.

In a paper of the FAO
FAO
the following is stated about Mennonites in Belize. (Even though the report speaks of "Amish", meant are Old Order Mennonites of the Noah Hoover group who live in settlements like Upper Barton Creek, Springfield and Pine Hill):

Amish
Amish
agriculture is characterized by the use of animal power and natural forms of energy, and is almost completely independent from fossil fuels as a form of energy. Success is measured in a number of ways foremost amongst these are the capacity to feed themselves, contribute to national food security, create sustainable livelihoods based on farming for all community members, be independent from government financial support, social, and educational services, though they use health services. Last but not least, their capacity to purchase their own production resources. Amish
Amish
agriculture is well planned, sustainable, and expanding. ”

SEE ALSO

* Belize
Belize
portal * Christianity portal

* Belize
Belize
Evangelical Mennonite
Mennonite
Church * Mennonites in Mexico
Mennonites in Mexico
* Mennonites in Bolivia
Mennonites in Bolivia
* Mennonites in Paraguay
Mennonites in Paraguay
* Mennonites in Uruguay
Mennonites in Uruguay
* Demographics of Belize
Belize

REFERENCES

INLINE CITATIONS

* ^ A B Belize
Belize
2000 Housing and Population Census * ^ "Main Results of 2010 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). 3 May 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2012. * ^ Gingerich, Melvin; Loewen, John B. (23 May 2014). "Belize". Global Anabaptist Mennonite
Mennonite
Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 29 June 2015. * ^ Schroeder, William; Huebert, Helmut T. (1996). Mennonite Historical Atlas. Kindred Productions. * ^ Carel Roessingh and Kees Boersma: ‘We are growing Belize’: modernisation and organisational change in the Mennonite
Mennonite
settlement of Spanish Lookout, Belize. 2011 * ^ Belize
Belize
Population and Housing Census - Country Report 2010 * ^ Belize
Belize
Facts and Figures - Section: Part II: The People of Belize
Belize
and Their History / The Mennonites * ^ "Caribbean, Central ">(PDF). Mennonite
Mennonite
World Conference A Community of Anabaptist-Related Churches. Mennonite
Mennonite
World Conference. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. * ^ " Belize
Belize
- GAMEO". * ^ Trapasso LM (1994). "Indigenous attitudes, ecotourism, and Mennonites: Recent examples in rainforest destruction/preservation". GeoJournal. 33 (4): 449–452. doi :10.1007/BF00806428 . * ^ G. D. Holder: Good DRM practices for Belizean small farmers and an approach at inclusion and acceptance, on a pilot basis, to promote Disaster Risk management in the agriculture sector. Retrieved 16. Oct 2014.

SOURCES REFERENCED

* Carel Roessingh and Tanja Plasil (Editors): Between Horse ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Mennonites in the Americas
Americas

* North America * South America

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Bahamas * Barbados * Belize * Bolivia * Brazil * Canada
Canada
* Chile * Colombia * Costa Rica * Cuba * Dominica * Dominican Republic * Ecuador * El Salvador * Grenada * Guatemala * Guyana * Haiti * Honduras * Jamaica * Mexico * Nicaragua * Panama * Paraguay * Peru * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Suriname * Trinidad and Tobago * United States * Uruguay * Venezuela

Dependencies and other territories

* Anguilla * Aruba * Bermuda * Bonaire * British Virgin Islands * Cayman Islands * Curaçao * Falkland Islands * French Guiana * Greenland * Guadeloupe * Martinique * Montserrat * Puerto Rico * Saint Barthélemy * Saint Martin * Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Saba * Sint Eustatius * Sint Maarten * South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands * Turks and Caicos Islands * US Virgin Islands

* v * t * e

Anabaptism
Anabaptism

BACKGROUND

* Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
* Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation
* Waldensians
Waldensians
* Petr Chelčický
Petr Chelčický
* Moravian Church
Moravian Church
* German mysticism
German mysticism
* Zwickau prophets * Congregationalism

MOVEMENTS

* Swiss Brethren
Swiss Brethren
* Hutterites * Batenburgers * Mennonites * Old Order Mennonites
Old Order Mennonites
* Conservative Mennonites * "Russian" Mennonites * Old Order Amish * Beachy Amish
Amish
* Amish
Amish
Mennonites * Abecedarian * Schwenkfelders * Schwarzenau (German Baptist) Brethren * Brethren in Christ Church * Bruderhof * Apostolic Christian Church
Apostolic Christian Church
* Peace churches

HISTORY

* Ausbund
Ausbund
* German Peasants\' War * Münster Rebellion
Münster Rebellion
* Martyrs Mirror
Martyrs Mirror
* Schleitheim Confession
Schleitheim Confession
* Dordrecht Confession of Faith

THEOLOGY

* Theology of Anabaptism
Anabaptism
* Apostolic succession
Apostolic succession
/ Great Apostasy
Great Apostasy
* Church discipline * Communalism /Communism * Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
* Memorialism * Nonconformity to the world * Nonresistance * Pacifism
Pacifism
* Priesthood of all believers
Priesthood of all believers
* Separation of church and state
Separation of church and state
/free church * Sola scriptura
Sola scriptura

PRACTICES

* Agape feast
Agape feast
/ Lovefeast * Believer\'s baptism * Foot washing
Foot washing
* Ordnung * Plain dress
Plain dress
* Shunning * Simple living
Simple living

Notable Anabaptists

* Felix Manz
Felix Manz
* Conrad Grebel * Pilgram Marpeck * Michael Sattler * Hans Denck
Hans Denck
* Jacob Hutter
Jacob Hutter
* Balthasar Hubmaier
Balthasar Hubmaier
* Bernhard Rothmann * Dirk Philips
Dirk Philips
* Menno Simons
Menno Simons
* Jakob Ammann
Jakob Ammann
* Alexander Mack

Portal: Anabaptism
Anabaptism

* v * t * e

Ancestry and ethnicity in Belize
Belize

INDIGENOUS

* Maya

* Manche Ch\'ol

* Mopan

* Chinamita

* Q\'eqchi\'

NON-INDIGENOUS

* Africans * Americans * British * Chinese * Garífuna * Germans * Hispanics * Asian Indians

PORTAL

* v * t * e

Belize
Belize
articles

HISTORY

* Pre-Columbian * 1506–1862 * Battle of St. George\'s Caye * British Honduras
British Honduras
(1862–1981) * Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute
Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute
* Belize
Belize
Act 1981 * Belize
Belize
since 1981

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Climate * Conservation * Fauna * Flora * Geology * Islands * Mountains * Protected areas * Rivers

POLITICS

* Attorney General * Belmopan
Belmopan
* Chief Justice * Constituencies * Constitution * Districts * Elections * Foreign relations * Governor-General

* Human rights

* LGBT

* Law enforcement * Local government * Military * Monarchy * National Assembly * Political parties * Prime Minister * Senate

ECONOMY

* Bananas * Central bank * Dollar (currency) * Energy * Ports * Telecommunications * Tourism * Transport

SOCIETY

* Demographics * Education * Health * Prostitution * Languages * People * Religion * Social structure

CULTURE

* Anthem * Coat of arms * Cuisine * Flag * Music * Newspapers * Public holidays * Sport * Symbols * Television

* Outline * Index

* Category * Portal
Portal

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