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Menes
Menes
(/ˈmiːniːz/; Ancient Egyptian: mnj, probably pronounced */maˈnij/;[5] Ancient Greek: Μήνης)[4] was a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt
Upper and Lower Egypt
and as the founder of the First Dynasty.[6] The identity of Menes
Menes
is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological consensus identifies Menes
Menes
with the Naqada III ruler Narmer[1][2][3][7] (most likely) or First Dynasty pharaoh Hor-Aha.[8] Both pharaohs are credited with the unification of Egypt to different degrees by various authorities.

Contents

1 Name and identity

1.1 Narmer
Narmer
and Menes

2 Dates 3 History

3.1 Capital 3.2 Cultural influence 3.3 Crocodile
Crocodile
episode 3.4 Death

4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Name and identity[edit]

Menes in hieroglyphs

The Egyptian form, mnj, is taken from the Turin and Abydos King Lists, which are dated to the Nineteenth Dynasty, whose pronunciation has been reconstructed as */maˈnij/. By the early New Kingdom, changes in the Egyptian language meant his name was already pronounced */maˈneʔ/.[9] The name mnj means "He who endures", which, I.E.S. Edwards (1971) suggests, may have been coined as "a mere descriptive epithet denoting a semi-legendary hero [...] whose name had been lost".[4] Rather than a particular person, the name may conceal collectively the Naqada III
Naqada III
rulers: Ka, Scorpion II
Scorpion II
and Narmer.[4] The commonly-used name Menes
Menes
derives from Manetho, an Egyptian historian and priest who lived during the pre-Coptic period of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Manetho noted the name in Greek as Μήνης (transliterated: Mênês).[4][10] An alternative Greek form, Μιν (transliterated: Min), was cited by the fifth-century-BC historian Herodotus,[11] is a variant no longer accepted; it appears to have been the result of contamination from the name of the god Min.[12] Narmer
Narmer
and Menes[edit] Main article: Narmer

The ivory label mentioning Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
along with the mn sign.

The almost complete absence of any mention of Menes
Menes
in the archaeological record[4] and the comparative wealth of evidence of Narmer, a protodynastic figure credited by posterity and in the archaeological record with a firm claim[2] to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, has given rise to a theory identifying Menes
Menes
with Narmer. The chief archaeological reference to Menes
Menes
is an ivory label from Nagada
Nagada
which shows the royal Horus-name Aha (the pharaoh Hor-Aha) next to a building, within which is the royal nebty-name mn,[13] generally taken to be Menes.[4][a] From this, various theories on the nature of the building (a funerary booth or a shrine), the meaning of the word mn (a name or the verb endures) and the relationship between Hor-Aha and Menes
Menes
(as one person or as successive pharaohs) have arisen.[1] The Turin and Abydos king lists, generally accepted to be correct,[1] list the nesu-bit-names of the pharaohs, not their Horus-names,[2] and are vital to the potential reconciliation of the various records: the nesu-bit-names of the king lists, the Horus-names of the archaeological record and the number of pharaohs in Dynasty I according to Manetho and other historical sources.[2] Flinders Petrie
Flinders Petrie
first attempted this task,[2] associating Iti with Djer
Djer
as the third pharaoh of Dynasty I, Teti
Teti
(Turin) (or another Iti (Abydos)) with Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
as second pharaoh, and Menes
Menes
(a nebty-name) with Narmer
Narmer
(a Horus-name) as first pharaoh of Dynasty I.[1][2] Lloyd (1994) finds this succession "extremely probable",[2] and Cervelló-Autuori (2003) categorically states that " Menes
Menes
is Narmer and the First Dynasty begins with him".[3] However, Seidlmayer (2004) states that it is "a fairly safe inference" that Menes
Menes
was Hor-Aha.[8] Dates[edit] Egyptologists, archaeologists, and scholars from the 19th century have proposed different dates for the era of Menes, or the date of the first dynasty:[14][b]

John Gardner Wilkinson
John Gardner Wilkinson
(1835) – 2320 BC Jean-François Champollion
Jean-François Champollion
(1840)[contradictory] – 5867 BC August Böckh
August Böckh
(1845) – 5702 BC Christian Charles Josias Bunsen
Christian Charles Josias Bunsen
(1848) – 3623 BC Reginald Stuart Poole (1851) – 2717 BC Karl Richard Lepsius
Karl Richard Lepsius
(1856) – 3892 BC Heinrich Karl Brugsch
Heinrich Karl Brugsch
(1859) – 4455 BC Franz Joseph Lauth (1869) – 4157 BC Auguste Mariette
Auguste Mariette
(1871) – 5004 BC James Strong (1878) – 2515 BC Flinders Petrie
Flinders Petrie
(1887) – 4777 BC

Modern consensus dates the era of Menes
Menes
or the start of the first dynasty between c. 3200–3030 BC; some academic literature uses c. 3000 BC.[15] History[edit] By 500 BC, mythical and exaggerated claims had made Menes
Menes
a culture hero, and most of what is known of him comes from a much later time.[16] Ancient tradition ascribed to Menes
Menes
the honour of having united Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
into a single kingdom[17] and becoming the first pharaoh of the First Dynasty.[18] However, his name does not appear on extant pieces of the Royal Annals (Cairo Stone and Palermo Stone), which is a now-fragmentary king's list that was carved onto a stela during the Fifth Dynasty. He typically appears in later sources as the first human ruler of Egypt, directly inheriting the throne from the god Horus.[19] He also appears in other, much later, king's lists, always as the first human pharaoh of Egypt. Menes
Menes
also appears in demotic novels of the Hellenistic period, demonstrating that, even that late, he was regarded as an important figure.[20] Menes
Menes
was seen as a founding figure for much of the history of ancient Egypt, similar to Romulus in ancient Rome.[21] Manetho records that Menes
Menes
"led the army across the frontier and won great glory".[10][18] Capital[edit] Manetho associates the city of Thinis
Thinis
with the Early Dynastic Period and, in particular, Menes, a "Thinite" or native of Thinis.[10][18] Herodotus
Herodotus
contradicts Manetho in stating that Menes
Menes
founded the city of Memphis as his capital[22] after diverting the course of the Nile through the construction of a levee.[23] Manetho ascribes the building of Memphis to Menes' son, Athothis,[18] and calls no pharaohs earlier than Third Dynasty "Memphite".[24] Herodotus
Herodotus
and Manetho's stories of the foundation of Memphis are probably later inventions: in 2012 a relief mentioning the visit of Memphis by Iry-Hor—a predynastic ruler of Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
reigning before Namer—was discovered in the Sinai Peninsula, indicating that the city was already in existence in the early 32nd century BC.[25] Cultural influence[edit] Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
stated that Menes
Menes
had introduced the worship of the gods and the practice of sacrifice[26] as well as a more elegant and luxurious style of living.[26] For this latter invention, Menes' memory was dishonoured by the Twenty-fourth Dynasty pharaoh Tefnakht and Plutarch
Plutarch
mentions a pillar at Thebes on which was inscribed an imprecation against Menes
Menes
as the introducer of luxury.[26] In Pliny's[clarification needed] account, Menes
Menes
was credited with being the inventor of writing in Egypt. Crocodile
Crocodile
episode[edit] Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
recorded a story of Menes
Menes
related by the priests of the crocodile god Sobek
Sobek
at Crocodilopolis, in which the pharaoh Menes, attacked by his own dogs while out hunting,[27] fled across Lake Moeris on the back of a crocodile and, in thanks, founded the city of Crocodilopolis.[27][28][29] George Stanley Faber (1816), taking the word campsa to mean either crocodile or ark and preferring the latter, identifies Menes
Menes
with Noah and the entire story as a flood myth.[30] Edwards (1974) states that "the legend, which is obviously filled with anachronisms, is patently devoid of historical value",[28] but Gaston Maspero (1910), while acknowledging the possibility that traditions relating to other kings may have become mixed up with this story, dismisses the suggestions of some commentators[31] that the story should be transferred to the Twelfth Dynasty pharaoh Amenemhat III
Amenemhat III
and sees no reason to doubt that Diodorus did not correctly record a tradition of Menes.[27] Death[edit] According to Manetho, Menes
Menes
reigned for 62 years and was killed by a hippopotamus.[10][18] In popular culture[edit] Alexander Dow
Alexander Dow
(1735/6–79), a Scottish orientalist and playwright, wrote the tragedy Sethona, set in ancient Egypt. The lead part of Menes
Menes
is described in the dramatis personæ as "next male-heir to the crown" now worn by Seraphis, and was played by Samuel Reddish in a 1774 production by David Garrick
David Garrick
at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.[32] See also[edit]

Mannus, ancestral figure in Germanic mythology Minos, king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa Manu (Hinduism), Progenitor of humanity Nu'u, Hawaiian mythological character who built an ark and escaped a Great Flood Nüwa, goddess in Chinese mythology best known for creating mankind Noah Min (god) Narmer Hor-Aha Thinis

Notes[edit]

^ Originally, the full royal title of a pharaoh was Horus
Horus
name x nebty name y Golden- Horus
Horus
name z nesu-bit name a Son-of-Ra name b. For brevity's sake, only one element might be used, but the choice varied between circumstances and period. Starting with Dynasty V, the nesu-bit name was the one regularly used in all official documents. In Dynasty I, the Horus-name was used for a living pharaoh, the nebty-name for the dead.[2] ^ Other dates typical of the era are found cited in Capart, Jean, Primitive Art in Egypt, pp. 17–18 .

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Edwards 1971, p. 13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lloyd 1994, p. 7. ^ a b c Cervelló-Autuori 2003, p. 174. ^ a b c d e f g Edwards 1971, p. 11. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995). Ancient Egyptian: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge University press. ISBN 0-521-44384-9.  ^ Beck et al. 1999. ^ Heagy 2014. ^ a b Seidlmayer 2010. ^ Loprieno 1995, p. 38. ^ a b c d Manetho, Fr. 6, 7a, 7b. Text and translation in Manetho, translated by W.G. Waddell (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1940), pp.26-35 ^ Herodotus: 2.4.1, 2.99.1ff. ^ Lloyd 1994, p. 6. ^ Gardiner 1961, p. 405. ^ Budge, EA Wallis (1885), The Dwellers on the Nile: Chapters on the Life, Literature, History and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, p. 54, Many dates have been fixed by scholars for the reign of this king: Champollion-Figeac thought about BC 5867, Bunsen 3623, Lepsius 3892, Brugsch 4455, and Wilkinson 2320.  ^ Kitchen, KA (1991). "The Chronology of Ancient Egypt". World Archaeology. 23 (2): 201–8. doi:10.1080/00438243.1991.9980172.  ^ Frank Northen Magill; Alison Aves (1998). Dictionary of World Biography. Taylor & Francis. pp. 726–. ISBN 978-1-57958-040-7.  ^ Maspero 1903, p. 331. ^ a b c d e Verbrugghe & Wickersham 2001, p. 131. ^ Shaw & Nicholson 1995, p. 218. ^ Ryholt 2009. ^ Manley 1997, p. 22. ^ Herodotus: 2.99.4. ^ Herodotus: 2.109 ^ Verbrugghe & Wickersham 2001, p. 133. ^ P. Tallet, D. Laisnay: Iry-Hor
Iry-Hor
et Narmer
Narmer
au Sud-Sinaï (Ouadi 'Ameyra), un complément à la chronologie des expéditios minière égyptiene, in: BIFAO 112 (2012), 381-395, available online ^ a b c Elder 1849, p. 1040. ^ a b c Maspero 1910, p. 235. ^ a b Edwards 1974, p. 22. ^ Diodorus: 45 ^ Faber 1816, p. 195. ^ Elder 1849, p. 1040, ‘in defiance of chronology’. ^ Dow 1774.

Bibliography[edit]

Beck, Roger B; Black, Linda; Krieger, Larry S; Naylor, Phillip C; Shabaka, Dahia Ibo (1999), World history: Patterns of interaction, Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, ISBN 0-395-87274-X  Cervelló-Autuori, Josep (2003), "Narmer, Menes
Menes
and the seals from Abydos", Egyptology at the dawn of the twenty-first century: proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, 2, Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, ISBN 978-977-424-714-9 . Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica, 1  Dow, Alexander (1774), Sethona: a tragedy, as it is performed at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, London: T. Becket  Edwards, IES (1971), "The early dynastic period in Egypt", The Cambridge Ancient History, 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . Elder, Edward (1849), "Menes", in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 2, Boston: Charles C. Little & James Brown . Faber, George Stanley (1816), "The origin of pagan idolatry: ascertained from historical testimony and circumstantial evidence", 3, London: F&C Rivingtons, 2 . Gardiner, Alan (1961), Egypt of the Pharaohs, Oxford: Oxford University Press . of Halicarnassus, Herodotus, The Histories . Heagy, Thomas C. (2014), "Who was Menes?", Archeo-Nil, 24: 59–92 . Available online "[1]". . Lloyd, Alan B. (1994) [1975], Herodotus: Book II, Leiden: EJ Brill, ISBN 90-04-04179-6 . Maspero, Gaston (1903), Sayce, Archibald Henry, ed., History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, 9, Kessinger Publishing . ——— (1910) [1894], Sayce, Archibald Henry, ed., The dawn of civilization: Egypt and Chaldæa, translated by McClure, M L, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, ISBN 978-0-7661-7774-1 . Manley, Bill (1997), The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt, London: Penguin, ISBN 0-14-051331-0 . Rachewiltz, Boris de (1969), "Pagan and magic elements in Ezra Pound's works", in Hesse, Eva, New approaches to Ezra Pound, Berkeley, CA: University of California
California
Press . Ryholt, Kim (2009), "Egyptian historical literature from the Greco-Roman period", in Fitzenreiter, Martin, Das Ereignis, Geschichtsschreibung zwischen Vorfall und Befund, London: Golden House . Schulz, Regine; Seidel, Matthias (2004), Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs, HF Ullmann, ISBN 978-3-8331-6000-4 . Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul (1995), The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, Harry N Abrams, ISBN 0-8109-9096-2 . Seidlmayer, Stephan (2010) [2004], "The Rise of the State to the Second Dynasty", Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs, ISBN 978-3-8331-6000-4 . Verbrugghe, Gerald Paul; Wickersham, John Moore (2001) [1996], Berossos and Manetho, introduced and translated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08687-0 . Waddell, Laurence A (1930), Egyptian civilization: Its Sumerian origin, London, ISBN 978-0-7661-4273-2 .

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Menes.

Menes, Ancient Egypt . "The Contendings of Horus
Horus
and Seth", Egypt, IL: Reshafim . "Menes", Ancient Egyptian Civilization (image), Aldokkan .  "Menes". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus
Horus
Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus
Horus
Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

v t e

First Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Pharaohs

Menes/Narmer Hor-Aha Djer Djet Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a

Regents

Neithhotep Merneith

Queen consorts

Benerib Herneith Penebui Nakhtneith (Khenthap) Semat Serethor Seshemetka Betrest

Officials

Amka Hemaka Sabef Meriiti

Other people

Ahaneith

Artefacts and monuments

Narmer
Narmer
macehead Narmer
Narmer
palette Tomb of Anedjib Den seal impressions Abydos boats MacGregor plaque Mastabas S3503 and S3504

Capital

Thinis

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 410350

.