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A man is an adult male human. Prior to adulthood, a male human is referred to as a boy (a male child or adolescent). Like most other male mammals, a man's genome usually inherits an X chromosome, X chromosome from the mother and a Y chromosome, Y chromosome from the father. Sex differentiation of the male fetus is governed by the SRY gene on the Y chromosome. During puberty, hormones which stimulate androgen production result in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, thus exhibiting greater differences between the sexes. These include greater muscle mass, the growth of facial hair and a lower body fat composition. Male anatomy is distinguished from female anatomy by the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, Testicle, testicles, sperm duct, Prostate, prostate gland and the epididymis, as well as secondary sex characteristics.


Etymology and terminology

The English term "man" is derived from the Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European root ''*man-'' (see Sanskrit/Avestan ''manu-'', Slavic languages, Slavic ''mǫž'' "man, male"). More directly, the word derives from Old English ''wikt:mann#Old_English, mann''. The Old English form primarily meant "person" or "human being" and referred to men, women, and children alike. The Old English word for "man" as distinct from "woman" or "child" was ''wikt:wer#Old_English, wer''. ''Mann'' only came to mean "man" in Middle English, replacing ''wer'', which survives today only in the compound "werewolf" (from Old English ''wikt:werwulf#Old_English, werwulf'', literally "man-wolf").


Biology

In humans, sperm cells normally carry either an X chromosome, X or a Y chromosome, Y sex chromosome. If a sperm cell carrying a Y chromosome fertilizes the female ova, the offspring will be male (XY). The SRY gene is normally found on the Y chromosome and is the testis determining factor that governs sex differentiation, male sex differentiation . Sex differentiation in males proceeds in a testes dependent way while female differentiation is not gonad dependent. Humans exhibit sexual dimorphism in many characteristics, many of which have no direct link to reproductive ability, although most of these characteristics do have a role in sexual attraction. Most expressions of sexual dimorphism in humans are found in height, weight, and body structure, though there are always examples that do not follow the overall pattern. For example, men tend to be taller than women, but there are many people of both sexes who are in the mid-height range for the species. Primary sex characteristics (or sex organs) are characteristics that are present at birth and are integral to the reproductive process. For men, primary sex characteristics include the penis and Testicle, testicles. Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans. Such features are especially evident in the sexual dimorphism, sexually dimorphic phenotypic traits that distinguish between the sexes, but—unlike the primary sex characteristics—are not directly part of the reproductive system. Secondary sexual characteristics that are specific to men include: * Facial hair; * Chest hair; * Broadened shoulders; * An enlarged larynx (also known as an Adam's apple); and * A voice that is significantly deeper than the voice of a child or a woman.


Reproductive system

The male reproductive system includes external and internal genitalia. The male external genitalia consist of the human penis, penis, the male urethra, and the scrotum, while the male internal genitalia consist of the testes, the prostate, the epididymis, the seminal vesicle, the vas deferens, the ejaculatory duct, and the bulbourethral gland. The male reproductive system's function is to produce semen, which carries spermatozoon, sperm and thus DNA, genetic information that can unite with an egg within a woman. Since sperm that enters a woman's uterus and then fallopian tubes goes on to Fertilisation, fertilize an egg which develops into a fetus or child, the male reproductive system plays no necessary role during the gestation. The study of male reproduction and associated organs is called andrology.


Sex hormones

Testosterone stimulates the development of the Wolffian ducts, the penis, and closure of the labioscrotal folds into the scrotum. Another significant hormone in sexual differentiation is the anti-Müllerian hormone, which inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts. For males during puberty, testosterone, along with gonadotropins released by the pituitary gland, stimulates spermatogenesis.


Health

Men have lower life expectancy and higher suicide rates compared to women.


Sexuality and gender

Male sexuality and attraction vary from person to person, and a man's sexual behavior can be affected by many factors, including evolutionary psychology, evolved predispositions, personality, parenting, upbringing, and culture. While the majority of men are heterosexual, significant minorities are homosexual or bisexual. A small proportion of people of female sex assignment Gender identity, identify as male (typically referred to as Trans man, transgender men). In contrast, some people of male sex assignment identify as female (typically referred to as transgender woman, transgender women).


Masculinity

Masculinity (also sometimes called ''manhood'' or ''manliness'') is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men. Although masculinity is socially constructed, some research indicates that some behaviors considered masculine are biologically influenced.Social vs biological citations: * * * * To what extent masculinity is biologically or socially influenced is subject to debate. It is Sex and gender distinction, distinct from the definition of the Male, biological male sex, as both males and females can exhibit masculine traits. Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across different cultures and historical periods. While the outward signs of masculinity look different in different cultures, there are some common aspects to its definition across cultures. In all cultures in the past, and still among traditional and non-Western cultures, getting married is the most common and definitive distinction between boyhood and manhood. In the late 20th century, some qualities traditionally associated with marriage (such as the "triple Ps" of ''protecting, providing, and procreating'') were still considered signs of having achieved manhood. Anthropology has shown that masculinity itself has social status, just like wealth, Race (classification of human beings), race and social class. In Western culture, for example, greater masculinity usually brings greater social status. Many English words such as ''virtue'' and ''virile'' (from the Indo-European root ''vir'' meaning ''man'') reflect this.


Sex symbol

The Mars Symbol (♂ ) is a common symbol that represents the male sex. The symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751. The symbol is sometimes seen as a stylized representation of the shield and spear of the Roman mythology, Roman god Mars (mythology), Mars. According to Stearn, however, this derivation is "fanciful" and all the historical evidence favours "the conclusion of the French classical scholar Claude de Saumaise (Salmasius, 1588–1683)" that it is derived from ''θρ'', the contraction of a Greek name for the planet Mars, which is ''Thouros''.


See also

* Lists of men * Woman


Dynamics

* Misandry * Patriarchy * Sexism


Medical

* Gender differences * Men's health * Sex assignment


Political

* Masculism * Men's Rights * Men's studies


References


Further reading

* Andrew Perchuk, Simon Watney, bell hooks, ''The Masculine Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation'', MIT Press 1995 * Pierre Bourdieu, ''Masculine Domination'', Paperback Edition, Stanford University Press 2001 * Robert W. Connell, ''Masculinities'', Cambridge : Polity Press, 1995 * Warren Farrell, ''The Myth of Male Power'' Berkley Trade, 1993 * Michael Kimmel (ed.), Robert W. Connell (ed.), Jeff Hearn (ed.), ''Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities'', Sage Publications 2004


External links

* * * {{Authority control Male, Men,