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MEMMINGEN is a town in Swabia
Swabia
, Bavaria
Bavaria
, Germany. It is the economic, educational and administrative centre of the Danube-Iller region. To the west the town is flanked by the Iller , the river that marks the Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
border. To the north, east and south the town is surrounded by the district of Unterallgäu
Unterallgäu
(Lower Allgäu).

With about 42,000 inhabitants, Memmingen
Memmingen
is the 5th biggest town in the administrative region of Swabia. The origins of the town go back to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The old town, with its many courtyards, castles and patricians' houses, palaces and fortifications is one of the best preserved in southern Germany. With good transport links by road, rail and air, it is the transport hub for Upper and Central Swabia
Swabia
, and the Allgäu
Allgäu
.

Due to its proximity to the Allgäu
Allgäu
region, Memmingen
Memmingen
is often called the Gateway to the Allgäu
Allgäu
(Tor zum Allgäu). The town motto is Memmingen
Memmingen
– Stadt mit Perspektiven (" Memmingen
Memmingen
- a town with perspectives"). In recent times it has been frequently referred to as Memmingen
Memmingen
– Stadt der Menschenrechte ( Memmingen
Memmingen
- the town of human rights). This alludes to the Twelve Articles , considered to be the first written set of human rights in Europe , which were penned in Memmingen
Memmingen
in 1525. Every four years there is the Wallensteinfestspiel, with about 4,500 participants, the biggest historical reenactment in Europe. It commemorates the invasion of Wallenstein
Wallenstein
and his troops in 1630.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Culture and main attractions

* 2.1 Theatre * 2.2 Museums * 2.3 Music * 2.4 Buildings * 2.5 Parks * 2.6 Cemeteries

* 3 Geography

* 4 Politics

* 4.1 City Council * 4.2 Lord
Lord
Mayors * 4.3 City Finances * 4.4 Coat of Arms and Flag

* 5 International relations * 6 Trade and Economy * 7 Famous people * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

Territory of the Free Imperial City of Memmingen
Memmingen
Monumental building: der Grosszunft The picturesque Stadtbach ( Town
Town
Brook)

It is believed that on the site of present-day Memmingen
Memmingen
in Roman times there was a small military town, probably called Cassiliacum. In the 5th century an Alemanic settlement was established and in the 7th century there was here a palace belonging to the king of the Franks
Franks
.

Memmingen
Memmingen
was linked to Bohemia
Bohemia
, Austria
Austria
and Munich
Munich
by the salt road to Lindau
Lindau
. Another important route through Memmingen
Memmingen
was the Italian road from Northern Germany
Germany
to Switzerland and Italy. Both roads helped Memmingen
Memmingen
gain importance as a trading centre. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the place was known as Mammingin; in 1158 the Welfian Duke Welf VI founded the town of Memmingen. In 1286 it became an Imperial City , responsible only to the Kaiser
Kaiser
.

Christoph Schappeler , the preacher at St. Martin's in Memmingen during the early 16th century, was an important figure during the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
and the German Peasants\' War . His support for peasant rights helped to draw peasants to Memmingen. The city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession , and then the Augsburg Confession .

The Twelve Articles: The Just and Fundamental Articles of All the Peasantry and Tenants of Spiritual and Temporal Powers by Whom They Think Themselves Oppressed was written (probably by Schappeler and Sebastian Lotzer ) in early 1525. This was a religious petition borrowing from Luther\'s ideas to appeal for peasant rights. Within two months of its publication in Memmingen, 25,000 copies of the tract were in circulation around Europe. These are the first known set of human rights documents in the world.

In the 1630s Memmingen
Memmingen
was at centre stage during the Thirty Years\' War , and the Imperial generalissimo Wallenstein
Wallenstein
was quartered in the town when he was dramatically dismissed from service. From 1632 Memmingen
Memmingen
was briefly garrisoned by the Swedish army, and became a base of operations for Swedish troops in Swabia
Swabia
. In September 1647 the Imperialists besieged the Swedish garrison, under Colonel Sigismund Przyemski. Two months later the town surrendered.

Following the reorganization of Germany
Germany
in 1802, Memmingen
Memmingen
became part of Bavaria. The 19th century saw the slow economic deterioration of the town, which was halted only with the building of a railway following the course of the River Iller.

Since World War II
World War II
Memmingen
Memmingen
has been a developing town, with a rate of economic growth above the average for Bavaria.

CULTURE AND MAIN ATTRACTIONS

Every year Memmingen
Memmingen
celebrates the Fischertag (Fisherman's day), recreating medieval traditions. Men who were born in Memmingen
Memmingen
or live there for at least ten years, jump into the river that flows through the town and try to catch trout. Every four years Memmingen
Memmingen
re-enacts the events around the visit of Wallenstein
Wallenstein
in 1630. The next Wallenstein
Wallenstein
Festival will occur during the summer of 2016.

THEATRE

The Landestheater Schwaben in Memmingen
Memmingen

The theatre has a long tradition in Memmingen. By the Middle Ages some chroniclers were already recording different theatre performances. In 1937 the Landestheater Schwaben (State Theatre of Swabia) or LTS was founded in the city. In 1945, after World War II
World War II
, the LTS was one of the first theatres in West Germany
Germany
to begin putting on performances again. The performances take place in the Rooms of the City Theatre, the theatre at the Schweizerberg (cabaret stage), in the Kaminwerk cultural centre or in rooms at the boroughs of Memmingen. The Schweizerberg Theatre will be closed at the end of 2010. It will move to new premises in the Elsbethen area, behind the City Theatre, where a new cabaret stage, rehearsing rooms, workshops, depots, management rooms, the foyer and some guest rooms will be built. Another theatre was founded by Helmut Wolfseher and members of the Alternative Kleinkunst e.V. (Alternative Cabaret Society), Parterretheater im Künerhaus (PIK). This theatre is specifically for amateur actors and young talented musicians. The Kaminwerk also puts on major plays by amateur actors. The municipal hall is for Volksschauspieler or other artists.

The following works featuring Memmingen
Memmingen
have been produced:

* Stage play Memmingen
Memmingen
from Bettina Fless (1989) * Book Mohr of Memmingen
Memmingen
from Utz Benkel * Song Memmingen
Memmingen
by Blackmore’s Night , see also Shadow of the Moon

Stage plays and operas that have had world premières in Memmingen are:

* 1995: The Jewbank

* Metal-Operas by David DeFeis
David DeFeis
:

* 1999: Klytaimnestra * 2001: Hel * 2005: Lilith

* 2005: Mohr of Memmingen
Memmingen
* 2007: Green Organes * 2008: Katharina and Till (10 January 2009)

MUSEUMS

MeWo-Kunsthalle (art hall)

The biggest museum in Memmingen
Memmingen
is the Town
Town
Museum at the Hermannsbau. The town's history is described in its historical rooms. There is also a section covering the history of the Jewish community in Memmingen, whose members were killed or forced into exile in 1939. Part of the Torah
Torah
from the destroyed synagogue is on display there. The Freudenthal /Altvater Homeland Museum for refugees who have settled in Memmingen
Memmingen
is also part of the town museum. It is one of 43 homeland museums recognised by the Ministry of the Interior. A foundation, founded and administered by the town, takes responsibility for the museum. The Strigel- and Antoniter-Museum at the Antonierkloster present wood carvings and paintings by the Strigel family of artists as well as a permanent exhibition on the work of the Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony
Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony
. The museum was established in 1996. With donations from the Memminger Wohnungsbaugenossenschaft (MeWo) the MEWO-Kunsthalle was opened in 2005 in the old post office next to the station. The museum holds the estates of the Memmingen artists Max Unold and Josef Madlener and presents a wide selection of contemporary art exhibitions. The size and scope of this art gallery is unique in region. The former Kreuzherren monastery is used for changing exhibitions.

MUSIC

The organ concerts in the churches of St. Martins and St. Josef are famous in the region. Chamber music would be performed in the former Kreuzherren monastery and also in some other buildings in Memmingen.

There are several Pubs, Restaurants, Wine taverns and Cafés and also some discothèques in an around the City. The cultural centre Kaminwerk (Chimney factory) is for concerts, theater, program cinema, readings and special parties.

BUILDINGS

The Ulmer gate

Memmingen
Memmingen
has considerable tourist interest, mainly because large areas of the medieval old town survived World War II. There are ten city gates and towers and about two kilometres of the city wall. The old town contains many interesting houses of patricians, some in the baroque style. They are picturesque Streets with the Stadtbach (town river) beside. The medieval market place, surrounded by the town hall, which is built in renaissance style, the Großzunft(Guildhouse) and the painted Steuerhaus (tax house). Also famous is St. Martin's church, built in gothic style with its more-than-500-year-old Choir and the 1996 restored Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony
Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony
monastery (Antonierkloster), the oldest, best conserved and biggest of these kind. The probably oldest church in town Unser Frauen (Church of Our Lady) or also called Frauenkirche with significant frescos of the 15th and 16th centuries. Also the Seven Roof House, the baroque Kreuzherren monastery, the renovated whorehouse of the city, the Salzstadel (salt barn), the Kramerzunft (shopkeepers guild, also called the Twelve-Article-House are sights in Memmingen). Not so well known is the Bismarck tower in the west of Memmingen. Beside the tower is the 2007 build new soccer stadium.

PARKS

Green areas were created all along the city wall. The old ditches where filled up and replaced with green areas or parks with partially over 150-year-old trees. The name of the parks are (starting clockwise at the Ulmer Gate): Hubergarten, Zollergarten, Ratzengraben/Zollergraben, Kohlschanze, Reichshain, Kaisergraben, Hohe Wacht, Westertorplatz, Grimmelschanze. Nearby every residential area has its own smaller parks. There is also the city park in the New World, the old Landesgartenschau place. Also the old and the forest cemetery, which are both used as parks.

CEMETERIES

Old cemetery

There were four cemeteries in Memmingen
Memmingen
in the Middle Ages. They were around the St. Martin's Church and the Church of Our Lady, also at the Kreuzherren monastery and the Scottish monastery . They were abandoned in 1530. The replacement was the Old cemetery at the former Scottish monastery. This cemetery was abandoned in 1930. The closing of the Old Cemetery has involved a new Cemetery. It was founded in the east of Memmingen
Memmingen
as a Forest Cemetery. More cemeteries are in the districts Amendingen, Steinheim, Buxach, Volkratshofen, Ferthofen and Dickenreishausen. In the east of the city is also a Jewish cemetery.

GEOGRAPHY

Memmingen
Memmingen
is located at the western border of Bavaria
Bavaria
at the river Iller, 50 km south of Ulm
Ulm
, and 100 km west of Munich. The landscape or region beginning with Memmingen
Memmingen
is called Unterallgäu
Unterallgäu
and forms a part of the region Mittelschwaben who is next to Oberschwaben and Allgäu
Allgäu
. Memmingen
Memmingen
is also sometimes called the Gate to the Allgäu. It is reached by the A7 and the A96 motorways and Memmingen station
Memmingen station
is on railways connecting Munich
Munich
and Lindau
Lindau
and the Ulm–Oberstdorf railway .

POLITICS

Although the Lord
Lord
Mayor has been from the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
since 1966, the biggest party in the city council is traditionally the Christian Social Union .

The city politics is mostly dominated by a coalition of bigger parties ("coalition of the reasoned") from CSU, SPD, Christlicher Rathausblock Memmingen
Memmingen
(Christian Town
Town
Hall Party Memmingen) and the Free Voters . The smaller parties of Ecological Democratic Party
Ecological Democratic Party
, Alliance \'90/The Greens and the Free Democratic Party make up the opposition.

There was a hefty dispute between the parties in 2005, concerning financial participation in the Memmingen Airport . The Ecological Democratic Party and the Greens initiated a referendum to inhibit financial support for the airport, but this vote met with no success.

At the top of the city government is the Lord
Lord
Mayor, who is elected directly by the people. He is the representative of the town and the leader of municipality. As second representatives, the majors are elected from the members of the city council. Historically the CSU, as biggest party, appoints the second major. The third major is appointed by the third biggest party. The second biggest party, the SPD, traditionally declines to appoint the third major, because they already appoint the Lord
Lord
Mayor.

Memmingen
Memmingen
is building, alongside the double centre Ulm
Ulm
/Neu- Ulm
Ulm
, the second economical centre in Upper Swabia. It thus leads the central supply function for the adjoining cities and districts.

CITY COUNCIL

The last local elections were on March 2, 2008, with following results:

CSU SPD CRB ¹ FV Greens ödp FDP Sum

Seats 13 9 4 5 3 4 2 40

Percent 32,2% 22,0% 10,8% 11,8% 6,7% 10,5% 5,9%

¹ Christlicher Rathausblock Memmingen
Memmingen
("Christian Townhall-Party")

LORD MAYORS

* 1884–1909: Karl Scherer * 1910–1931: Fritz Braun * 1932–1945: Heinrich Berndl, NSDAP * 1945–1948: Georg Fey, CSU * 1948–1952: Lorenz Riedmiller, SPD * 1952–1966: Heinrich Berndl, without party * 1966–1968: Rudolf Machnig, SPD * 1968–1980: Johannes Bauer, SPD * 1980–today: Ivo Holzinger, SPD

CITY FINANCES

With €512 per capita, Memmingen
Memmingen
is one of the cities in Germany with the lowest level of debt (The German average is more than €1,300). The city had 2007 a management budget (Verwaltungshaushalt) of €94,925,160 and an asset budget (Vermögenshaushalt) of €19,490,860. The income from trade taxes amounted to about €40 million, the income tax assignment to about €20 million. The local rates were last changed in 2003. The city has many charitable foundations, with roots partly going back to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(such as the Unterhospitalstiftung).

COAT OF ARMS AND FLAG

Blazon
Blazon
: Split from gold and silver, in front a half, reinforced in red, black eagle. Backward a red pawcross

The city's colours, handed down since 1488, are Black, Red, White. The flag is a banner flag with cross bar.

Amendingen and Eisenburg have their own historical coats of arms.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

Memmingen
Memmingen
is twinned with:

* Glendale, Arizona
Glendale, Arizona
, United States, since 1976 * Province of Teramo
Province of Teramo
, Italy, since 1981 * Teramo
Teramo
, Italy, since 1981 * Auch , France, since 1990 * Eisleben
Eisleben
, Germany, since 1990 * Kiryat Shmona
Kiryat Shmona
, Israel, since 2009 * Karataş
Karataş
, Turkey
Turkey
, since 2009 * Litzelsdorf , Austria, since 2009 * Chernihiv
Chernihiv
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, since 2009

Memmingen
Memmingen
has a partnership with:

* Colmar
Colmar
, France

TRADE AND ECONOMY

Most of its enterprises are SMEs . Of importance are:

* Alpine Hydraulik GmbH * Berger Holding (de) * Dachser Logistics * Gebrüder Weiss * Gefro Reformversand Frommlet * Hans Kolb Wellpappe (de) * Goldhofer (de) * Magnet-Schultz (de) * Memminger Brauerei (de) * Metzeler Schaum GmbH * Pfeifer Holding (de) * Rohde ">

* ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). June 2016.

* ^ Helfferich, Tryntje, The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History (Cambridge, 2009), pp. 300-1. * ^ "New Buildings at the Elsbethen area". * ^ Haugg, Michael. "Stadt Memmingen: Stadtmuseum". * ^ official museums website * ^ "MEWO Kunsthalle Memmingen". * ^ Haugg, Michael. "Stadt Memmingen: Kreuzherrnsaal". * ^ Haugg, Michael. "Stadt Memmingen: Stadion / Arena". * ^ Author:Joachim Jahn and others, Title:Die Geschichte der Stadt Memmingen
Memmingen
– Von den Anfängen bis zum Ende der Reichsstadtzeit (Band 1), Publisher:Theiss Verlag, Location:Memmingen, Year:1997, ISBN 3-8062-1315-1 , Page:98 * ^ Election Result * ^ Memminger Zeitung, 2008-03-12, Page 27 * ^ wolf-werbegrafik. "Willkommen bei Alpine-Hydraulik". * ^ "Suppen, Soßen und Würzen". * ^ http://www.metzeler-schaum.de/metzeler_flash.php

EXTERNAL LINKS

Media related to Memmingen
Memmingen
at Wikimedia Commons