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Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm , Hebrew Mēm מ, Aramaic Mem , Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic
Arabic
Mīm م. Its value is [m]. The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Mu (Μ), Etruscan , Latin M, and Cyrillic М.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Arabic
Arabic
mīm 3 Hebrew Mem

3.1 Hebrew pronunciation 3.2 Variations on written form/pronunciation 3.3 Significance 3.4 Mem and Tarot

4 Character encodings 5 See also 6 External links

Origins[edit] Mem is believed to derive from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water,

which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for “water”, mem (), ultimately coming from Proto-Semitic *maʾ-/*may-. Arabic
Arabic
mīm[edit] The letter is named mīm, and is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial

Glyph form: م‬ ـم‬ ـمـ‬ مـ‬

Some examples on its uses in Modern Standard Arabic: Mīm is used in the creation of ism words (i.e. nouns and adjectives; they are treated fundamentally the same in Arabic
Arabic
grammar). Specifically, mīm is used in the creation of the masdar (verbal noun) of Stem III verbs (the masdar of verbs on the pattern fāʿala is mufāʿala), of subject and object nouns for verbs of Stems II-X (using the example of Stem II, subject nouns — called fāʿil words because of their form in Stem I — are mufaʿʿil, and object nouns — called mafʿūl also because of their Stem I form — take the form mufaʿʿal). Place-nouns are also created with mīm; the pattern mafʿal is used to create maktab "office" from the triliteral k-t-b (to write) and maṣnaʿ "factory" from ṣ-n-ʿ (to make). Hebrew Mem[edit]

Orthographic variants of non-final form

Various print fonts Cursive Hebrew Rashi script

Serif Sans-serif Monospaced

מ מ מ

Hebrew spelling: מֵם Hebrew pronunciation[edit] Mem represents a bilabial nasal [m]. Variations on written form/pronunciation[edit]

Orthographic variants of final form

Various Print Fonts Cursive Hebrew Rashi Script

Serif Sans-serif Monospaced

ם ם ם

In Hebrew, Mem, like Kaph, Nun, Pe, and Tzadi, has a final form, used at the end of words: its shape changes from מ‬ to ם‬. Significance[edit] In gematria, Mem represents the number 40 in both the Standard and Mispar Gadol Methods of Gematria; However, (mem sofit) final mem's value is 40 in the Standard Method and 600 in the Mispar Gadol method. The Standard Method adds the values of Tav and Resh (400+200) to denote the value of mem sofit. In the Sefer Yetzirah, the letter Mem is King over Water, Formed Earth in the Universe, Cold in the Year, and the Belly in the Soul. As an abbreviation, it stands for metre. In the Israeli army it can also stand for mefaked, commander. In Hebrew religious texts, it can stand for the name of God Makom, the Place. Mem and Tarot[edit] Mem is associated with The Hanged Man (Atu XII), the element of water and the path between Geburah and Hod on the Tree of Life. Character encodings[edit]

Character מ ם م ܡ ࠌ ﬦ מּ

Unicode
Unicode
name HEBREW LETTER MEM HEBREW LETTER FINAL MEM ARABIC LETTER MEEM SYRIAC LETTER MIM SAMARITAN LETTER MIM HEBREW LETTER WIDE FINAL MEM HEBREW LETTER MEM WITH DAGESH

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 1502 U+05DE 1501 U+05DD 1605 U+0645 1825 U+0721 2060 U+080C 64294 U+FB26 64318 U+FB3E

UTF-8 215 158 D7 9E 215 157 D7 9D 217 133 D9 85 220 161 DC A1 224 160 140 E0 A0 8C 239 172 166 EF AC A6 239 172 190 EF AC BE

Numeric character reference מ מ ם ם م م ܡ ܡ ࠌ ࠌ ﬦ ﬦ מּ מּ

Character 𐎎 𐡌 𐤌

Unicode
Unicode
name UGARITIC LETTER MEM IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER MEM PHOENICIAN LETTER MEM

Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex

Unicode 66446 U+1038E 67660 U+1084C 67852 U+1090C

UTF-8 240 144 142 142 F0 90 8E 8E 240 144 161 140 F0 90 A1 8C 240 144 164 140 F0 90 A4 8C

UTF-16 55296 57230 D800 DF8E 55298 56396 D802 DC4C 55298 56588 D802 DD0C

Numeric character reference 𐎎 𐎎 𐡌 𐡌 𐤌 𐤌

See also[edit]

Nun (letter)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to מ.

v t e

Hebrew language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Transliteration to English / from English Numerology

Eras

Biblical (northern dialect) Mishnaic Medieval Modern

Reading traditions

Ashkenazi Sephardi Italian Mizrahi (Syrian) Yemenite Samaritan Tiberian (extinct) Palestinian (extinct) Babylonian (extinct)

Orthography

Eras

Biblical

Scripts

Rashi Braille Ashuri Cursive Crowning Paleo-Hebrew

Alphabet

Alef Bet Gimel Dalet Hei Vav Zayin Het Tet Yud Kaf Lamed Mem Nun Samech Ayin Pei Tsadi Kuf Reish Shin Taw

Niqqud

Tiberian Babylonian Palestinian Samaritan

Shva Hiriq Tzere Segol Patach Kamatz Holam Kubutz and Shuruk Dagesh Mappiq Maqaf Rafe Sin/Shin Dot

Spelling

with Niqqud
Niqqud
/ missing / full Mater lectionis Abbreviations

Punctuation

Diacritics Meteg Cantillation Geresh Gershayim Inverted nun Shekel sign Numerals

Phonology

Biblical Hebrew Modern Hebrew Philippi's law

Law of attenuation

Grammar

Biblical Modern

Verbal morphology Semitic roots Prefixes Suffixes Segolate Waw-consecutive

Academic

Revival Academy Study Ulpan Keyboard Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature Names Surnames Unicode
Unicode
and HTML

Reference works

Brown–Driver–Briggs Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

The Northwest Semitic abjad

ʾ

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

ʿ

p

q

r

š

t

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400

History Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Heb

.