Mating Rhizotrogon marginipes (Melolonthini /Rhizotrogini ), male on top – note sexually dimorphic antennae
MELOLONTHINAE is a subfamily of the scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae). It is a very diverse group; distributed over most of the world, it contains many familiar species . Some authors include the scarab subfamilies Euchirinae and Pachypodinae as tribes in the Melolonthinae.
Unlike some of their relatives, their habitus is usually not bizarre. They resemble the Rutelinae in being fairly plesiomorphic in outward appearance. Like in many Scarabaeidae, males have large fingered antennae , while those of the females are smaller and somewhat knobby. In the Melolonthinae, this sexual dimorphism is particularly pronounced. Many species have striking – though rarely brilliant or iridescent – hues and bold patterns of hairs.
Being often quite sizeable and swarming in numbers at certain times,
for example the
Amphimallon , Phyllophaga and
Phyllotocus sp. (Sericini ) Stethaspis sp. (Stethaspini /Xylonychini )
According to various authors, the living
* Ablaberini Burmeister, 1855 – including Camentini * Automoliini Britton, 1978 * Chasmatopterini Lacordaire, 1856 * Colymbomorphini – sometimes in Xylonychini * Comophorinini Britton, 1957 – including Comophini * Diphucephalini Britton, 1957 * Diphycerini – sometimes in Macrodactylini * Diplotaxini – sometimes in Melolonthini
* Heteronychini Britton, 1957
* Hopliini * Lichniini * Liparetrini Burmeister, 1855 – including Allarini, Colpochilini * Macrodactylini Kirby, 1837 – including Dichelonyciini * Maechidiini Burmeister, 1855
* Melolonthini Samouelle, 1819
* Oncerini * Pachydemini Reitter, 1902 * Pachytrichini Burmeister, 1855 * Phyllotocidiini Britton, 1957 * Podolasiini – sometimes in Hopliini
* Rhizotrogini – sometimes in Melolonthini
* Scitalini Britton, 1957
* Sericini Dalla Torre, 1912
* Sericoidini Burmeister, 1855 * Stethaspini – sometimes in Xylonychini * Systellopini Sharp, 1877 * Tanyproctini – sometimes in Pachydemini * Xylonychini Britton, 1957
In addition, a prehistoric tribe, the Cretomelolonthini , is only known from fossils .
Several genera are of unclear relations; they are not yet firmly placed in a tribe:
* Acoma * Conebius Fuavel, 1903 * Costelytra – Liparetrini? * Hemictenius – Pachydemini? * Metascelis Westwood, 1842 * Mycernus – Colymbomorphini, Stethaspini, Xylonychini?
* Odontria – Liparetrini? * Prodontria – Liparetrini? * Psilodontria – Colymbomorphini, Stethaspini, Xylonychini? * Scythrodes – Liparetrini? * Sericospilus – Liparetrini?
"Anonetus " and "Tryssus ", both used by Erichson in 1847, are nomina nuda . Holophylla and Hoplorida are of uncertain validity.
Whether the scarab beetle Xenaclopus belongs in the present subfamily
is doubtful. Alosimus , generally held to be a blister beetle of the
Lyttini and not at all close to the scarabs, was placed in the