The Info List - Melodifestivalen

--- Advertisement ---

Melodifestivalen[a] (Swedish pronunciation: [mɛlʊ²dːfɛstiːˌvɑːlɛn]; literally "The Melody Festival")[b] is an annual music competition organised by Swedish public broadcasters Sveriges Television
Sveriges Television
(SVT) and Sveriges Radio (SR). It determines the country's representative for the Eurovision
Song Contest, and has been staged almost every year since 1959. Since 2000, the competition has been the most popular television programme in Sweden;[1] it is also broadcast on radio and the Internet. In 2012, the semifinals averaged 3.3 million viewers, and over an estimated four million people in Sweden
watched the final, almost half of the Swedish population.[2][3] The festival has produced six Eurovision
winners and eighteen top-five placings for Sweden
at the contest. The winner of the Melodifestival has been chosen by panels of jurors since its inception. Since 1999, the juries have been joined by a public telephone vote which has an equal influence over the final outcome. The competition makes a considerable impact on music charts in Sweden. The introduction of semifinals in 2002 raised the potential number of contestants from around twelve to thirty-two. A children's version of the competition, Lilla Melodifestivalen, also began that year. Light orchestrated pop songs, known locally as schlager music, are so prevalent that the festival is sometimes referred to as Schlagerfestivalen ("The schlager festival") by the Swedish media.[4][5] However, other styles of music such as rap, reggae, and glam rock have made an appearance since the event's expansion. The introduction of a grand final in Stockholm
has attracted substantial tourism to the city.[6]


1 Origins 2 Participation 3 Selection of contestants

3.1 Songs 3.2 Artists and wildcards

4 Hosting 5 Televised rounds

5.1 Semifinals and Second Chance 5.2 Final

6 Voting 7 Winners 8 Presenters

8.1 Presenters who have competed at Eurovision 8.2 Presenters who have presented the Eurovision
in Sweden

9 Rules 10 Media coverage 11 Musical styles and presentation 12 See also 13 Notes 14 Bibliography 15 References 16 External links

Origins[edit] Main article: History of Melodifestivalen

The first generic logo for Melodifestivalen, in use 2002–2010

The second generic logo for Melodifestivalen, in use 2011–2015

The third generic logo for Melodifestivalen, in use 2016-present

With seven nations competing, the first Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
took place in Lugano, Switzerland
in May 1956. Sweden's first contest was the third, in 1958. Without broadcasting a selection, Sveriges Radio (SR)[c] chose to send Alice Babs
Alice Babs
to the contest in Hilversum. The song selected was "Samma stjärna lyser för oss två", later renamed "Lilla stjärna".[7] It finished fourth at Eurovision
on 12 March 1958. The first Melodifestival, incorporated into the Säg det med musik radio series, took place on 29 January 1959 at Cirkus in Stockholm; eight songs participated. Four "expert" juries in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö, and Luleå
decided the winner.[8] The competition was won by Siw Malmkvist
Siw Malmkvist
performing "Augustin", but SR decided that the winning song—regardless of its original performer—would be performed by Brita Borg
Brita Borg
at Eurovision. This policy, of selecting the artist for Eurovision
internally and having other artists perform potential Swedish entries at Melodifestivalen, was stopped in 1961. The competition became a stand-alone television programme in 1960, known as the Eurovisionschlagern, svensk final. In the event's early years, it was broadcast to Norway
and Denmark
through the Nordvision network.[9] The competition adopted its current name, Melodifestivalen, in 1967. The Melodifestival has failed to be staged on three occasions. In 1964, the competition was cancelled due to an artist's strike; Sweden did not send a song to Eurovision
that year.[10] Sweden
was absent at Eurovision
for a second time in 1970 because of a Nordic boycott of the voting system, which had led to a four-way tie for first place at the 1969 contest.[11] After SR staged the 1975 contest in Stockholm, left-wing groups argued that Sweden
should not spend money to win and host Eurovision
again. This led to mass demonstrations against commercial music and the organisation of an anti-commercial Alternativfestivalen.[12] Therefore, Sweden
decided not to send a song to Eurovision
1976, but returned in 1977. Participation[edit] Further information: List of Melodifestivalen

Charlotte Perrelli, the 2008 winner of Melodifestivalen, performing on Eurovision song contest
Eurovision song contest
in Belgrade

Hundreds of songs and performers have entered Melodifestivalen
since its debut. Although songwriters living outside Sweden
were once not allowed to enter Melodifestivalen, the 2012 contest marked the first time foreign songwriters could submit entries, provided that they collaborated with a Swedish songwriter. To be eligible, songwriters and performers must be at least sixteen years of age on the day of the first Eurovision
semifinal.[13] Until 2001, participation in the festival was limited to a single night. The number of contestants ranged from five to twelve. A two-round system was used intermittently between 1981 and 1998, in which all but five of the contestants were eliminated in a first round of voting. Failure to reach the second round under this system was seen as a major failure for a prominent artist; when Elisabeth Andreassen failed to qualify in 1984, it almost ended her career.[14] The introduction of weekly semifinals in 2002 increased the number of contestants to thirty-two. At least ten of the contestants must perform in Swedish.[13] A CD of each year's competing songs has been released since 2001, and a DVD
of the semifinals and final since 2003. Melodifestivalen
has been the launch-pad for the success of popular local acts, such as ABBA, Tommy Körberg, and Lisa Nilsson. The competition has played host to performers from outside Sweden, including Baccara, Alannah Myles, Katrina Leskanich, and Cornelis Vreeswijk. Melodifestivalen
participants have also represented—and unsuccessfully tried to represent—other countries at Eurovision.[15] While local success for Melodifestivalen winners is common, most contestants return to obscurity and few have major international success. The impact that the competition makes on the Swedish charts means an artist need not win the competition to earn significant domestic record sales. For example, the song which finished last at Melodifestivalen
1990, "Symfonin" by Loa Falkman, topped the Swedish singles chart.[16] The most recent occurrence was 2016 with Samir & Viktor's song "Bada Nakna". In 2007, twenty-one participants reached Sverigetopplistan.[17] The week after the 2008 final, songs from the festival made up the entire top fifteen on the domestic singles chart.[18] Selection of contestants[edit] The process of narrowing thousands of potential entries down to twenty-eight lasts over seven months. SVT directly selects fourteen entries from amongst the submissions from the public at large. Thirteen additional entries come from special invitations made by SVT or other entries that SVT has selected from amongst the submissions. Finally, the twenty-eighth entry is selected via the "Svensktoppen Nästa" competition. The entire process can begin as early as May of the previous year and is finished by January. Songs[edit]

Pernilla Wahlgren
Pernilla Wahlgren
"Alla flickor" (2005)

The demo of "Alla flickor", a contestant in the 2005 festival. Pernilla Wahlgren
Pernilla Wahlgren
performs here; however, the song was performed by Linda Bengtzing
Linda Bengtzing
in the televised rounds, after a remix. "Alla flickor" finished tenth in the final.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

SVT begins looking for songs nine months before the start of the televised Melodifestival (within days of the previous year's Eurovision
final).[19] The deadline for submission is in September and songs can be in any language. In the pre-selection, song length is limited to three minutes and twenty seconds; songs must be shortened to three minutes if they reach the final twenty-eight and qualifying songs may also be remixed.[13] The submission process is overseen by members of the Swedish Music Publishers Association (SMFF), whose task is to reduce the number of songs, which have numbered over 3,000 a year since 2002, to around 1,200.[20] The 3,440 entries received in the preselection for Melodifestivalen 2009
Melodifestivalen 2009
is the most in the competition's history.[21] The SMFF's choices are then given to a sixteen-person jury of music professionals, SVT staff and other members of the public.[22] The jury ranges from teenagers to people in their fifties.[23] The songs that qualify, along with their composers and lyricists, are announced at the end of September. This is often followed by fervent speculation over who will perform the songs. Songwriters that qualify must provide interviews to SVT, attend a press conference before the competition, and remain open to promotional appearances if their song reaches the final.[13] Artists and wildcards[edit] SVT selects performers for the entries. Artists who perform the demo of a song automatically enter the competition; they must perform their songs if suitable alternate performers cannot be found. The artists' songs risk disqualification if they refuse.[13] In the past, this rule led to the disqualification of, among others, Carola's "När löven faller" in 2003 and Stephen Simmonds's "So Good" in 2006.[24][25] SVT may also give songs to other performers without considering the interests of the demo artist. This prevented the Brandsta City Släckers (in 2004) and Pernilla Wahlgren
Pernilla Wahlgren
(in 2005) from performing the songs they had submitted.[26][27] Replacements for disqualified songs fare unpredictably at the competition. In 2006, "Naughty Boy" by Hannah Graaf (the replacement for Simmonds' song) finished second to last in its semifinal. In 2002 and 2007, by contrast, the replacements performed by Jan Johansen and Måns Zelmerlöw
Måns Zelmerlöw
reached the final ten. The contestants that will perform the twenty-eight qualifiers from the preselection are announced in late November. Singer-songwriters are common. As such, artists often confirm that they will participate before the official announcement. The wildcard (joker) system was introduced in 2004 to diversify the music featured.[28] Four artists, one in each semifinal, were invited by SVT to enter a song of their choice into the competition, provided it does not breach the rules. The wildcard songs and artists were announced in January. Since the wildcards' introduction, three have won the competition. In 2011 there were 15 wildcards. The wildcard system was discontinued in 2013. Hosting[edit]

The Ericsson Globe
Ericsson Globe
hosted the first of its twelve finals in 1989.

The venues for each year's Melodifestival are announced in September of the preceding year. The semifinals are held in towns and cities throughout Sweden. The 16,300-capacity Ericsson Globe
Ericsson Globe
in Stockholm
has hosted the final since the semifinals were introduced in 2002, through to 2012.[29] In 2013, the final moved to the newly built Friends Arena in Solna Municipality, Stockholm
County.[30] The Scandinavium
in Gothenburg
was offered the 2005 final, but turned it down as it clashed with a Frölunda ice hockey match.[31] The event spent its early years at one venue: Cirkus in Stockholm, which hosted the first ten competitions. It has hosted the final of Melodifestivalen
seventeen times in total. The Stockholm
Globe Arena has hosted seven finals, and SVT's headquarters in Stockholm
has staged five. The competition first took place outside Stockholm
in 1975 as part of a decentralisation policy at SR.[32] Stockholm
has hosted thirty-seven finals in total, including the first fourteen. Gothenburg
has hosted eight, and Malmö
seven. The competition's final has never been held outside these cities. Before the expansion, the host of the previous year's Melodifestival would host the Eurovision Song Contest in the event of a Swedish victory. Hence, the 1985 Eurovision
was held in Gothenburg, and the 1992 contest in Malmö.[33] Since 2002, the only venue that has hosted more than three semifinals is Gothenburg's Scandinavium, which has hosted one every year since 2003. In 2008, Andra Chansen was held in Kiruna, north of the Arctic Circle. The finals have since 2013 been hosted in Friends Arena.[34] Televised rounds[edit] The televised Melodifestival lasts five weeks and consists of six live shows: four semifinals, in which eight songs compete; a Second Chance round featuring songs which narrowly missed out on qualification from the semifinals; and a grand final. Ten songs comprise the final: two automatic qualifiers from each of the semifinals, and the two most popular songs in the Second Chance round. In 2015, there are seven songs for each semifinal, and twelve (eight winners and four from Andra Chansen) in the final. Semifinals and Second Chance[edit] Prior to the introduction of the current format of semifinals (deltävlingar) in 2002, the competition was usually a single live show. Under the current system, four semifinals are broadcast at 20:00 CET on consecutive Saturday nights. The semifinals begin in early February, and seven songs compete in each show. Unlike in the final, no juries are used; televoting decides the results. The songs are performed live with telephone lines open for the first round of voting; two songs with least votes do not qualify to the second round. The top 5 battle for a place in the final and Andra chansen round - the 1st and 2nd placed songs qualifying to the final, and the 3rd and 4th placed songs progressing to Andra chansen. Both finalists reprise their entries at the end of the broadcast. The organisation of a semifinal system for Melodifestivalen
popularised televised heats at national Eurovision
selections.[35] A similar system was adopted by the Eurovision
itself in 2004. The Second Chance round (Andra chansen) is the fifth heat in which the remaining four entries to the final are chosen. The third- and fourth-placed songs from each semifinal (eight songs in total) compete in the event. The first Second Chance round in 2002 had a panel of former winners decide the two finalists.[36] Between 2003 and 2006, the semifinal performances were re-broadcast, and a round of voting narrowed the songs to three or four. Another round then determined the two finalists. The programme was broadcast on the Sunday afternoon after the fourth semifinal. It was held in a smaller venue than those that would have hosted the semifinals—such as Berns Salonger
Berns Salonger
in Stockholm, which hosted the Second Chance round in 2005. In 2007, the Second Chance round became a full semifinal, taking place in a venue comparable in size to those hosting the others. The expanded Second Chance takes place on a Saturday night, adding an extra week to the event's timetable.[37] The format of voting also changed with the introduction of a knock-out system. The system pairs the eight songs off against each other, then narrows them down to four before pairing them off again. The winners of the two second round pairings go through to the final. The two finalists do not reprise their songs at the end of the programme. In 2015, the system was changed again. The eight songs are divided into four duels, with one song from each duel qualifying into the final, bringing the number of finalists to 12. Final[edit] The final takes place at 20:00 CET on a Saturday in mid-March. Twelve songs (11 songs in 2009, 10 before 2015) participate: two from each semifinal, four from the Second Chance round, and, only in 2009, the international jury's choice. A running order is decided by the competition's supervisors the week before to ensure that similar songs and artists are kept apart in the final.[38] Dress rehearsals for the final are held on the prior Friday, and tickets sell out almost as quickly as those for the final itself.[39] The final attracts much tourism to its host city; a survey in 2006 showed that 54% of spectators had travelled from outside the host city, Stockholm. Of these, 6% had come from outside Sweden.[6] As at Eurovision, a broadcast of the EBU logo introduces and closes the television coverage, accompanied by the prelude to Marc-Antoine Charpentier's setting of "Te Deum". Video "postcards" introduce the entries. The final includes interval performances, which are performed while the juries deliberate and before the televote closes. Former Melodifestivalen
contestants have performed as interval acts in the past, including Lena Philipsson
Lena Philipsson
in 2005 and the multi-artist medley of former entries in 2000.[40][41] The winner receives a trophy, Den stora Sångfågeln (The Great Songbird), from the previous year's winner. The trophy, designed by Ernst Billgren, was unveiled in 2005 and awarded to all previous Melodifestivalen winners at the Alla tiders Melodifestival gala in March of that year.[42] The winner of the competition reprises their song at the end of the event. Voting[edit] Main article: Voting at Melodifestivalen

Ulf Elfving
Ulf Elfving
announcing the votes of the Stockholm
jury at the 2005 final. The points scored by each entry are shown on a graphic scoreboard.

Before the introduction of the current voting system in 1999, a group of regional or age-based juries decided the winner of Melodifestivalen. In 1993, televoting was used experimentally, but proved unsuccessful. The Swedish telephone network collapsed due to the number of calls, and claims by the Swedish tabloid press suggested the use of televoting had drastically altered the results. Evening newspapers released what they claimed to be the back-up juries' votes, which showed that the winner, Arvingarna's "Eloise", would have finished fourth had the juries' votes counted. SVT never confirmed the accuracy of these claims.[43]

SVT has eleven regional news districts, which have been represented by a jury in the final of Melodifestivalen
in past editions.

The current voting format introduced in 1999 is a positional voting system, similar to that used at the Eurovision
Song Contest. The voting is made up of two segments, in the first of which juries announce their votes; in the second segment the televoting result is announced. The total value of votes has usually been 2 x 473 points, which means that televotes and juries have an equal 50/50 weighing in the final result. The juries, usually 11, have represented either Swedish regions or, since 2010, countries participating in the year's Eurovision
Song Contest. Each jury award 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 points to their top seven songs. After the jury voting, the televoting result is revealed by the hosts in ascending order. Between 1999 and 2011, the televoting points were fixed; the top seven songs would receive 11, 22, 44, 66, 88, 110 and 132 points. Starting in 2011, televoting points are given to each entry based on its percentage of total vote. If an entry receives 10% of the televotes it will be equivalent to 10% of 473 points, i.e. 48 points. The song with the highest number of points at the end of the voting is the winner. Telephone lines open immediately after the radio preview for the final and do not close until the juries have voted.[44] Two telephone numbers are used for each song, giving voters the option of whether to donate money to SVT's Radiohjälpen charity appeal or not as they vote. Viewers can also vote by text message, and only residents of Sweden
can vote.[45][46] The votes of the juries are announced by spokespeople who are not members of the juries. The votes are read in ascending order, beginning with one point and finishing with twelve. When read, they are repeated by the host, for example:

Spokesperson: "Ett poäng till melodi nummer två." (One point to song number two.) Presenter: Ett poäng till (name song)." (One point to (name song).)

Since 2012, most spokespeople have announced the points in English, with the hosts repeating them in Swedish. As the votes are announced, they are collated on a graphic scoreboard. SVT varies the way the jury votes are announced from year to year. For example, the finalists of Expedition: Robinson acted as spokespeople in 2004, and in 2006 Fredrik Lindström announced jury tallies using the dialects of each region.[47][48] The final of Melodifestivalen
has broken Nordic voting records on several occasions; in 2007, voting figures exceeded two million for the first time.[49] If there is a tie, the song that has received more votes from the public receives the higher position.[50] There have been two ties for first place in the history of the contest. In 1969, Tommy Körberg tied for first place with Jan Malmsjö. The juries them voted for their favourite out the two, leading to Tommy Körberg
Tommy Körberg
winning. In 1978, Björn Skifs
Björn Skifs
tied for first place with Lasse Holm
Lasse Holm
and Wizex (performing together); a similar tie-break process resulting in Skifs winning. Winners[edit] Main article: Melodifestivalen
winners Fifty-five of Sweden's fifty-six Eurovision
representatives have come from Melodifestivalen. Sweden
has won the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
six times: in 1974, 1984, 1991, 1999, 2012 and 2015. Sweden
has the second highest number of wins for a country at Eurovision; only Ireland has won the contest more often. The 1974 Eurovision
winner, ABBA's "Waterloo", was voted the most popular Melodifestivalen
song of all time at the Alla tiders Melodifestival gala in March 2005.[42] Later that year, it was voted most popular Eurovision
song of the contest's first fifty years at a gala in Copenhagen.[51] The following table lists those entries which finished fifth or higher at Eurovision:

Year Song Artist Position in Eurovision
Song Contest

1958 "Lilla stjärna" Alice Babs 4th

1966 "Nygammal vals" Lill Lindfors
Lill Lindfors
& Svante Thuresson 2nd

1968 "Det börjar verka kärlek, banne mej" Claes-Göran Hederström 5th

1973 "Sommaren som aldrig säger nej" Malta[e] 5th (as "You're Summer")

1974 "Waterloo" ABBA 1st

1983 "Främling" Carola Häggkvist 3rd

1984 "Diggi-Loo Diggi-Ley" Herreys 1st

1985 "Bra vibrationer" Kikki Danielsson 3rd

1986 "E' de' det här du kallar kärlek?" Lasse Holm
Lasse Holm
& Monica Törnell 5th

1989 "En dag" Tommy Nilsson 4th

1991 "Fångad av en stormvind" Carola Häggkvist 1st

1995 "Se på mej" Jan Johansen 3rd

1996 "Den vilda" One More Time 3rd

1999 "Tusen och en natt" Charlotte Nilsson 1st (as "Take Me to Your Heaven")

2001 "Lyssna till ditt hjärta" Friends 5th (as "Listen To Your Heartbeat")

2003 "Give Me Your Love" Fame 5th

2004 "Det gör ont" Lena Philipsson 5th (as "It Hurts")

2006 "Evighet" Carola Häggkvist 5th (as "Invincible")

2011 "Popular" Eric Saade 3rd

2012 "Euphoria" Loreen 1st

2014 "Undo" Sanna Nielsen 3rd

2015 "Heroes" Måns Zelmerlöw 1st

2016 "If I Were Sorry" Frans 5th

2017 "I Can't Go On" Robin Bengtsson 5th

2018 "Dance You Off" Benjamin Ingrosso TBD

Presenters[edit] This list includes those who have acted as presenters of Melodifestivalen. In 1986, there were two presenters for the first time, while in 2000, 2004, 2005 and 2006, various people were presented the shows. No Melodifestivalen
was held in 1964, 1970 or 1976 due to Sweden
not participating in the Eurovision
Song Contest.

Hosts Christine Meltzer
Christine Meltzer
and Måns Zelmerlöw
Måns Zelmerlöw
during the second semi-final of Melodifestivalen 2010
Melodifestivalen 2010
in Sandviken.

Petra Mede, during the third semi-final of Melodifestivalen 2009
Melodifestivalen 2009
in Tegera Arena, Leksand.

Presenters of Melodifestivalen
2017: David Lindgren, Clara Henry
Clara Henry
and Hasse Andersson.

Year Presenter(s)

1959 Thore Ehrling

1960 Jeannette von Heidenstam

1961 Jeannette von Heidenstam

1962 Bengt Feldreich

1963 Sven Lindahl

1965 Birgitta Sandstedt

1966 Sven Lindahl

1967 Maud Husberg

1968 Magnus Banck

1969 Pekka Langer

1971 Lennart Hyland

1972 Gunilla Marcus

1973 Alicia Lundberg

1974 Johan Sandström

1975 Karin Falck

1977 Ulf Elfving

1978 Ulf Elfving

1979 Ulf Elfving

1980 Bengt Bedrup

1981 Janne Loffe Carlsson

1982 Fredrik Belfrage

1983 Bibi Johns

1984 Fredrik Belfrage

1985 Eva Andersson

1986 Lennart Swahn
Lennart Swahn
and Tommy Engstrand

1987 Fredrik Belfrage

1988 Bengt Grafström

1989 Yvonne Ryding
Yvonne Ryding
Bergqvist and John Chrispinsson

1990 Carin Hjulström

1991 Harald Treutiger

1992 Adde Malmberg and Claes Malmberg

1993 Triple & Touch

1994 Kattis Ahlström
Kattis Ahlström
and Sven Melander

1995 Pernilla Månsson Colt

1996 Pontus Gårdinger and Siw Malmkvist

1997 Jan Jingryd

1998 Pernilla Månsson Colt
Pernilla Månsson Colt
and Magnus Karlsson

1999 Anders Lundin
Anders Lundin
and Vendela Kirsebom Thommesen

2000 Carola Häggkvist, Lotta Engberg, Lena Philipsson Loa Falkman, Tommy Körberg, Elisabeth Andreassen Arja Saijonmaa, Lasse Berghagen, Lasse Holm, Björn Skifs

2001 Josefine Sundström
Josefine Sundström
and Henrik Olsson

2002 Kristin Kaspersen
Kristin Kaspersen
and Claes Åkesson

2003 Mark Levengood
Mark Levengood
and Jonas Gardell

2004 Charlotte Perrelli, Ola Lindholm
Ola Lindholm
and Peter Settman
Peter Settman
(Semi Finals & Final) Liza Marklund, Elin "Grynet" Ek and Henrik Johnsson (Second Chance)

2005 Alexandra Pascalidou
Alexandra Pascalidou
and Shan Atçi (Semi Final 1) Henrik Schyffert
Henrik Schyffert
and Erik Haag
Erik Haag
(Semi Final 2) Johanna Westman
Johanna Westman
and Markoolio
(Semi Final 3) Kayo and Micke Leijnegard (Semi Final 4) Annika Jankell
Annika Jankell
(Second Chance) Jill Johnson
Jill Johnson
and Mark Levengood
Mark Levengood

2006 Lena Philipsson
Lena Philipsson
(Semi Finals & Final) Carin Hjulström-Livh and Henrik Johnson

2007 Kristian Luuk

2008 Kristian Luuk

2009 Petra Mede

2010 Måns Zelmerlöw, Christine Meltzer
Christine Meltzer
and Dolph Lundgren

2011 Rickard Olsson
Rickard Olsson
and Marie Serneholt

2012 Gina Dirawi, Sarah Dawn Finer
Sarah Dawn Finer
and Helena Bergström

2013 Gina Dirawi
Gina Dirawi
and Danny Saucedo

2014[52] Nour El-Refai
Nour El-Refai
and Anders Jansson

2015[53] Sanna Nielsen
Sanna Nielsen
and Robin Paulsson

2016 Gina Dirawi
Gina Dirawi
(all shows) Petra Mede
Petra Mede
(semi-final 1) Charlotte Perrelli
Charlotte Perrelli
(semi-final 2)[dubious – discuss] Henrik Schyffert
Henrik Schyffert
(semi-final 3) Sarah Dawn Finer
Sarah Dawn Finer
(semi-final 4) Ola Salo, Peter Jöback
Peter Jöback
(second chance) William Spetz
William Spetz

2017 Clara Henry, David Lindgren
David Lindgren
and Hasse Andersson

2018 David Lindgren
David Lindgren
and Fab Freddie

Presenters who have competed at Eurovision[edit]

Presenter Participation year Place Points

Tommy Körberg 1969 9th 8

1988 12th 52

Lasse Berghagen 1975 8th 72

Björn Skifs 1978 14th 26

1981 10th 50

Elisabeth Andreassen
Elisabeth Andreassen
(part of Chips) 1982 8th 67

Carola Häggkvist 1983 3rd 126

1991 1st 146

2006 5th 170

Lasse Holm
Lasse Holm
(with Monica Törnell) 1986 5th 78

Lotta Engberg 1987 12th 50

Jill Johnson 1998 10th 53

Charlotte Perrelli 1999 1st 163

2008 18th 47

Lena Philipsson 2004 5th 170

Ola Salo
Ola Salo
(as member of The Ark) 2007 18th 51

Sanna Nielsen 2014 3rd 218

Måns Zelmerlöw 2015 1st 365

Presenters who have presented the Eurovision
in Sweden[edit]

Presenter Year Host city

Karin Falck 1975 Stockholm

Harald Treutiger 1992 Malmö

Kattis Ahlström 2000 Stockholm

Anders Lundin

Petra Mede 2013 Malmö

2016 Stockholm

Måns Zelmerlöw 2016 Stockholm

Rules[edit] Most of Melodifestivalen's rules are dictated by those of the Eurovision
Song Contest. However, regulations have been introduced by the Swedish broadcasters. The competition's official rules are released by SVT early in preparation for each year's Melodifestival, to ensure any changes are noted by songwriters and performers. There was a limit of six people on stage for each performance. This included the Melodifestivalen
choir (huskören, literally "the house choir"), a five-person group of flexible backing singers used by most participants. Artists could use some or all of the back-up singers, or use their own group. All vocals had to be completely live; human voices were not allowed on backing tracks.[13] However, from 2009, the number of performers allowed on stage was eight, and voices were allowed on backing tracks.[54] A live orchestra was used every year from the event's debut to 2000, except 1985 and 1986. Two orchestras were used between 1960 and 1963, a large orchestra and Göte Wilhelmsons kvartett, a jazz quartet.[55] Since 2001, participants have performed to backing tracks. Entries cannot be publicly broadcast until the semifinals are previewed on radio.[56] Entries eliminated in the semifinals may be broadcast as soon as the semifinal has finished. An embargo is placed on songs that qualify for the later rounds until the previews for the Second Chance are broadcast. After this, restrictions on the broadcast of contestant songs are lifted.[13] Broadcasters sometimes make sweeping changes to winning songs before they go to Eurovision. For example, at Melodifestivalen
1961, Siw Malmkvist won with "April, April". Performing after her victory, she stumbled on the lyrics of the song and laughed out loud. The press criticised this as childish. SR replaced her with Lill-Babs
for the Eurovision
Song Contest.[57] The 1987 winner "Fyra bugg och en Coca Cola", performed by Lotta Engberg, is another example; the song's title was changed to "Boogaloo" for Eurovision, as use of a brand name was against the Contest's rules. This name was chosen as Sweden's two previous Eurovision
winners had also included the suffix "-loo".[58] Until 1999, competing songs were only permitted in Swedish, apart from 1965, 1973, 1974, 1975. This did not stop most winning entries recording English (and other language) versions of their songs. Since the abolition of Eurovision's language restrictions in 1999, regardless of the performance language at Melodifestivalen, every Swedish entry has been in English. Spanish, French, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Bosnian and Persian are among the other languages to have featured. Cameron Cartio's entry in Melodifestivalen 2005 was performed in a constructed language.[59] Media coverage[edit] Melodifestivalen
is broadcast on television, radio and the internet. It is broadcast on SVT1
with international coverage on SVT World. Until 1987, the competition was broadcast on Sveriges Radio TV, later known as TV1. Between 1988 and 2000, the event was broadcast on different channels depending on where it was held. Finals in Stockholm
were broadcast on Kanal 1 (formerly TV1) while finals in Gothenburg
or Malmö
were broadcast on TV2.[60] Sveriges Radio
Sveriges Radio
has broadcast the event on P1, P3 and P4, where is currently broadcast. Although the final is traditionally held on a Saturday, in 1990 it was held on a Friday. TV2 suggested this would attract more viewers. In 1991, it was held on Easter
Sunday for the same reason.[61] The 2002 final was delayed by a week for coverage of the 2002 Winter Olympics.[62] The competition has had an official website since 1999.[63] Webcasts have been provided since 2005.[64] Since 2006, between February and the Eurovision
final in May, SR has webcast a radio station dedicated to the competition called P4 Melodifest. On P4, the public previews semifinalists every Friday.[56] Broadcast the night after the final, a dagen efter ("the day after") television programme acts as an epilogue to the event. It gauges the reactions of the finalists after the competition's climax. No commentary is given for the event on television. Carolina Norén
Carolina Norén
is commentator on the event for Sveriges Radio.[23] The festival has been broadcast in widescreen since 2002 and Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
since 2004. The competition's viewing figures have been rising since 2002. In 2007, approximately 4.1 million Swedes—almost 44% of the country's population—watched the final, and between 2.9 million and 3.2 million viewers watched each of the semifinals. The viewing figures for the 2007 festival are nearly two million short of the highest recorded viewing figures from 1990.[65] Melodifestivalen is given heavy coverage in the Swedish press. A study by the Economic Science and Communication Department at Karlstad University
Karlstad University
concluded that coverage from the press may have influenced the results of the 2007 festival.[66] Musical styles and presentation[edit]

Lill Lindfors
Lill Lindfors
& Svante Thuresson
Svante Thuresson
" Nygammal vals (hip man svinaherde)" (1966)

The winner of Melodifestivalen
1966, typical of the jazz style popular at the competition in the 1960s. Lindfors and Thuresson sing of a meeting between a "hip pig breeder" and "a princess, a proud maiden".

Kikki Danielsson
Kikki Danielsson
"Bra vibrationer" (1985)

Winner of the 1985 competition. This up-tempo schlager song is typical of Melodifestivalen
entries in the 1980s. The song is about the "good vibrations" brought to the singer by her lover.

Problems playing these files? See media help.

Melodifestivalen's image has evolved throughout its existence, but one word has defined the competition's music: schlager. In Sweden, schlager (a German word literally meaning a "hit") represents any song associated with the competition, from the jazz music featured heavily in the 1960s to entries such as Linda Bengtzing's in 2006.[67] Christine Demsteader of The Local described Swedish schlager as "typically characterized by an annoyingly repetitive melody and trivial lyrics of little or no meaning".[68] Jazz artists such as Monica Zetterlund
Monica Zetterlund
and Östen Warnerbring
Östen Warnerbring
won the event in the 1960s.[69][70] ABBA, who won Eurovision
in 1974, went on to be Sweden's most successful music export. The group influenced not only Melodifestivalen, but the entire Swedish mainstream music scene.[71] In the 1980s, Bert Karlsson's Mariann Grammofon record label was responsible for the prevalence of "easy, memorable tunes".[72] The early twenty-first century has seen more variety in the competition, such as Afro-dite's 2002 disco winner[73] and The Ark's 2007 "retro glam rock" effort.[74] On-stage gimmicks have long been a part of performances at the competition. Lena Philipsson's use of a microphone stand in her performance of "Det gör ont" at the 2004 competition is an example. When Philipsson hosted Melodifestivalen
in 2006, four tongue-in-cheek short films were broadcast during the semifinals to show what had happened to the microphone stand in the years since her win.[75] Pyrotechnics
are another common gimmick in Melodifestivalen performances. After the 2007 event, Karolina Lassbo of Dagens Media criticised the festival's musical content and production, arguing that the 1988 competition was "the time when Melodifestivalen
was still a schlager competition" and the event had become "a cross between [reality series] Fame Factory and [inter-city game show] Stadskampen".[76] See also[edit]


Lilla Melodifestivalen List of historic rock festivals Melodi Grand Prix Dansk Melodi Grand Prix Eesti Laul Sanremo Music Festival Golden Stag Turkvision Song Contest Sweden
in the Eurovision
Song Contest Marcel Bezençon Awards - Melodifestivalen
Winners section


^ Also referred to as the Melodifestival, and incorrectly as the Melodifestivalen. The plural is Melodifestivaler. ^ Translated by SVT as The Swedish Eurovision
Song Contest.[28] ^ Sveriges Radio
Sveriges Radio
controlled Swedish public service television and radio until 1 July 1979, when SVT was created. ^ In 2002 and 2003 only the top four songs went through to the second voting round. ^ The band changed its name to Nova for Eurovision.


Leif Thorsson. Melodifestivalen
genom tiderna (1999, second edition 2006). Stockholm: Premium Publishing AB. ISBN 91-89136-29-2.


^ Television in Sweden. Sweden.se (30 September 2005). Retrieved on 20 October 2006. ^ "Månadsrapport Februari 2012" (PDF). MMS - Mediamätning i Skandinavien. Retrieved 12 March 2012.  ^ Lindström, Therese (12 March 2012). "Över fyra miljoner såg finalen". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 12 March 2012.  ^ "Jag koncentrerar mig på schlagerfestivalen" Archived 2006-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["I am concentrating on schlagerfestivalen"]. Aftonbladet.se (27 February 2002). Retrieved on October 20, 2006. ^ Anders Foghagen (13 October 2006) Agnes diskad från Schlagerfestivalen Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Agnes disqualified from schlagerfestivalen"]. TV4.se. Retrieved on October 20, 2006. ^ a b The Swedish Research Institute of Tourism (17–18 March 2006). Melodifestivalen 2006 Archived 2008-02-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 23 January 2008. ^ Leif Thorsson. Melodifestivalen
genom tiderna ["Melodifestivalen through time"] (2006), p. 12. Stockholm: Premium Publishing AB. ISBN 91-89136-29-2 ^ Thorsson, p. 19 ^ Thorsson, p. 17. ^ Thorsson, pp. 48–49. ^ Thorsson, pp. 82–83. ^ Thorsson, pp. 118–119. ^ a b c d e f g Melodifestivalen
2007—Tävlingsregler (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen
2007—Competition rules"]. Sveriges Television
Sveriges Television
AB (May 2006). Retrieved on 21 October 2006. ^ Thorsson, p. 171. ^ Swedes abroad. ESC.info.se. Retrieved on 29 April 2007. Archived May 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Thorsson, p. 213. ^ Barry Viniker (16 March 2007) Melodifestivalen
invades charts Archived 2007-03-30 at the Wayback Machine.. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on 20 April 2007. ^ Total schlagerdominans på topplistan (in Swedish) ["Total schlager dominance on Topplistan"]. Expressen.se (20 March 2008). Retrieved on 21 March 2008. ^ Sietse Bakker (26 May 2006). SVT announces Melodifestivalen
2007 Archived 2006-11-21 at the Wayback Machine.. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on 21 October 2006. ^ Fisher, Luke (2008-08-25). "One month left for Melodifestivalen Entries". Oikotimes. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2008-08-25.  ^ Viniker, Barry (2008-09-26). "Recordbreaker for Melodifestivalen entries". ESCToday. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2008-09-26.  ^ Melodifestivalen
2006—selection Archived 2007-02-19 at the Wayback Machine.. ESC.info.se. Retrieved on 21 October 2006. ^ a b Melodifestivalen
2007. ESC.info.se. Retrieved on 20 April 2007. Archived May 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sietse Bakker (17 December 2002). Carola's Autumn Leaf exits. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on 22 October 2006. ^ Alexander Borodin (25 November 2005). Stephen Simmonds
Stephen Simmonds
disqualified from Melodifestivalen
Archived 2006-11-25 at the Wayback Machine.. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on 22 October 2006. ^ Daniel Ringby (25 October 2003). Brandsta City Släckers
Brandsta City Släckers
kicked out from Swedish preselection Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 22 October 2006. ^ Alexander Borodin (14 January 2005). Swedish artists criticise Melodifestivalen
official Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 22 October 2006. ^ a b Melodifestivalen
2007—FAQ in English Archived 2009-02-26 at the Wayback Machine.. SVT.se. Retrieved on 1 May 2007. ^ The Globe Arena in Stockholm. HockeyArenas.com. Retrieved on 16 November 2007. ^ Sweden: MF 2013 final at Swedbank Arena Archived 2012-03-29 at the Wayback Machine.. ESCToday.com (26 March 2012). ^ Melodifestivalen
2005: public silenced Archived 2007-10-22 at the Wayback Machine.. The Local (8 September 2004). Retrieved on 30 December 2007. ^ Thorsson, p. 113. ^ Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
1985 Archived 2008-07-24 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish). ESCSweden.com. Retrieved on 27 May 2007. ^ Här hålls Melodifestivalen 2008
Melodifestivalen 2008
Archived 2007-12-08 at the Wayback Machine.. (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen 2008
Melodifestivalen 2008
is to be held here"]. SVT.se (11 September 2007). Retrieved on 11 September 2007. ^ Svante Stockselius. Melodifestivalen
genom tiderna (2006), foreword p. 5. ^ Thorsson, p. 299. ^ Melodifestivalens cup Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Melodifestivalen's cup"]. SVT.se (11 August 2006). Retrieved on 28 April 2007. ^ Alex Keech (4 March 2007). Melodifestivalen
final running order Archived 2007-03-06 at the Wayback Machine.. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on 26 April 2007. ^ Barry Viniker (March 17, 2006). Sell-out public dress rehearsal at the Globen Archived 2006-05-15 at the Wayback Machine.. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on October 28, 2006. ^ Carola Häggkvist Biography Archived 2007-11-06 at the Wayback Machine.. CarolaInternational.com. Retrieved on 28 April 2007. ^ Thorsson, pp. 280–281. ^ a b Alla tiders Melodifestival Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish). SVT.se (3 March 2005). Retrieved on 24 May 2007. ^ The tabloid's "winner" was Nick Borgen's "We are All the Winners". Thorsson, p. 233. ^ Melodifestivalen
2006—ikväll avgörs det! Archived 2007-10-01 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen
2006—this evening it is decided!"]. SR.se (March 2006) Retrieved on 16 May 2007. ^ Melodifestivalen
2007—Bidragen i Örnsköldsvik Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Melodifestivalen 2007—Entries in Örnsköldsvik"]. Blupp.nu (February 2007). Retrieved on 4 May 2007. ^ Rösta så här i Finalen Archived 2009-03-16 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish). SVT.se. Retrieved on 14 March 2009. ^ Melodifestivalen
2004: Juryn vs Folket Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen
2004: The jury vs. the people"]. SVT.se (March 2004). Retrieved on 28 April 2007. ^ Johanna Melén (18 March 2006). "Tack hela svenska folket" Archived 2006-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Thank you to all Swedes"]. Aftonbladet.se. Retrieved on 28 April 2007. ^ Melodifestivalen
engagerar som aldrig förr Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen
engages like never before"]. SVT.se (13 March 2007). Retrieved on 4 May 2007. ^ Nordman undvek sistaplatsen Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Nordman avoids last place"]. SR.se (13 March 2005). Retrieved on 28 April 2007. ^ ABBA
win ' Eurovision
50th' vote. BBC News (23 October 2005). Retrieved on 25 April 2007. ^ Michalis Vranis (13 Nov 2013). "Sweden: Melodifestivalen
hosts revealed". esctoday.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2016.  ^ Victor M. Escudero (29 Sep 2014). "Sweden's Melodifestivalen
dates, changes and presenters announced". Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2016.  ^ Melodifestivalen
förändras Archived 2009-02-26 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen
changes"]. Sveriges Television. Retrieved on 27 August 2008. ^ Later a quintet. Thorsson, pp. 19, 28. ^ a b Hör låtarna först i Sveriges Radio
Sveriges Radio
P4 Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Hear the songs first on Sveriges Radio P4"]. SR.se (30 January 2007). Retrieved on 4 May 2007. ^ The press literally described it as having "played the monkey". Melodifestivalen 1961
Melodifestivalen 1961
(in Swedish). Gylleneskor.se. Retrieved on 11 January 2008. ^ Christer Björkman (2005). Melodifestivalen
50 år: vinnarna [DVD]. Pan Vision/SVT. ^ Pourya E. Cameron Cartio—Borderless: review. Bia2.com. Retrieved on 28 April 2007. ^ Thorsson, p. 196. ^ Thorsson, pp. 210, 216. ^ Thorsson, p. 300. ^ Melodifestivalen 1999 (in Swedish). SVT.se. Retrieved on 25 May 2007. ^ Melodifestivalen
2005—Om Melodifestivalen
Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen
2005—About Melodifestivalen"]. SVT.se (2005). Retrieved on 20 May 2007. ^ Melodifestivalen—Viewing figures. ESC.info.se. Retrieved on 21 October 2006. Archived March 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Malin Sahl (8 June 2007). Favorites and losers: a study on the reporting of Melodifestivalen 2007 by Aftonbladet.se. Karlstad University. Retrieved on 14 September 2007. ^ Schlaget om Leksand
(in Swedish) ["The battle (word pun on "schlager") of Leksand"]. Kinda-Posten (18 February 2006). Retrieved on 16 December 2007. ^ Christine Demsteader (16 March 2006). Love Sweden, love Eurovision Archived 2007-12-08 at the Wayback Machine.. The Local. Retrieved on 15 September 2007. ^ Monica Zetterlund, 67, singer and actress, dies. The New York Times (14 May 2005). Retrieved on 16 December 2007. ^ "Östen med rösten har tystnat" ["Östen, the voters' favourite, has fallen silent"]. SR.se (in Swedish). 19 January 2006. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2007.  ^ Thorsson, p. 111. ^ 80-talet: Berts decennium Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["The 1980s: Bert's decade"]. SVT.se. Retrieved on 16 December 2007. ^ Eurovision
Form Guide Archived 2008-02-29 at the Wayback Machine.. The Sydney Morning Herald (February 2002). Retrieved on 16 December 2007 ^ Eurovision.tv meets The Ark. Eurovision.tv (9 May 2007). Retrieved on 16 December 2007. ^ Linda och Andreas direkt till final Archived 2006-04-10 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) ["Linda and Andreas go directly to the final"]. Aftonbladet.se (18 February 2006). Retrieved on 16 May 2007. ^ Karolina Lassbo (16 March 2007). Melodifestivalen
tappade fattningen Archived 2007-11-03 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish) [" Melodifestivalen
has dropped its composure"]. Dagens Media. Retrieved on 15 September 2007.

External links[edit] Media related to Melodifestivalen
at Wikimedia Commons

SVT official site (in English) SVT official site (in Swedish) SR official site[permanent dead link] MSN Melodifestivalen
News (in Swedish) Reports and pics of Melodifestivalen
(in French)

v t e


History Contestants Presenters Winners Voting

in the Eurovision
Song Contest

1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1980

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Lilla Melodifestivalen Alla tiders Melodifestival

v t e

Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography


1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018



Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom


Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey


Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia


Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections


Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom


Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show


The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

Video Contest OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

v t e

Historic rock and pop festivals

italics = festival ongoing

List of festivals

1950s– 1960s


Sanremo Music Festival Festival di Napoli Newport Jazz Festival Beaulieu Jazz Festival Nationaal Songfestival Eurovision
Song Contest Melodifestivalen Benidorm International Song Festival Thessaloniki Song Festival Viña del Mar International Song Festival Melodi Grand Prix Sopot International Song Festival Reading and Leeds Festivals National Jazz and Blues Festival Festival Omladina National Festival of Polish Song in Opole Festivali i Këngës Festival da Canção Un disco per l'estate Parada ritma / Vatromet ritma Jazz Bilzen Gitarijada
(Belgrade) Golden Orpheus Gitarijada


Mantra-Rock Dance Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival Barbeque 67 Monterey Pop Festival Schaefer Music Festival Miami Pop Festival I Northern California Folk Rock Festival I Summerfest Quebec City Summer Festival Newport Pop Festival Festival de Ancón (Perú) Isle of Wight Festival Sky River Rock Festival Internationale Essener Songtage San Francisco Pop Festival Los Angeles Pop Festival Miami Pop Festival II


Big Rock Pow-Wow Northern California Folk-Rock Festival II Newport 69 Pop Festival Denver Pop Festival Bath Festival of Blues Mississippi River Festival Atlanta International Pop Festival I The Stones in the Park Harlem Cultural Festival Laurel Pop Festival Midwest Rock Festival Seattle Pop Festival Atlantic City Pop Festival Woodstock Vancouver Pop Festival Texas International Pop Festival New Orleans Pop Festival Toronto Rock and Roll Revival Altamont Free Concert



Festival of Political Songs Hollywood Music Festival The Kickapoo Creek Rock Festival World Popular Song Festival Atlanta International Pop Festival II Super Concert '70 Aachen Open Air Pop Festival Piedra Roja Bath Festival of Blues
Bath Festival of Blues
and Progressive Music Phun City Kralingen Music Festival Strawberry Fields Ruisrock Pinkpop Festival Powder Ridge Rock Festival Goose Lake International Music Festival Man-Pop Festival Glastonbury Festival Vortex I


Festival de Ancon Roskilde Festival Pesnya goda Vilar de Mouros Festival Myponga Pop Festival Bumbershoot Ilosaarirock Tokyo Music Festival Weeley Festival Northern Lights Festival Boréal Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro Sunbury Pop Festival Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival Bickershaw Festival Concert 10 Mar y Sol Pop Festival Windsor Free Festival BOOM Festival The Great Ngaruawahia Music Festival Aquarius Festival Day on the Green Summer Jam at Watkins Glen Hurricane Festival


Stonehenge Free Festival Volunteer Jam Ashton Court Festival Knebworth Festival Village Fair Zaire 74 August Jam Ozark Music Festival Rock Werchter California Jam Hollywood Rock Watchfield Free Festival Michigan Womyn's Music Festival Midtfyns Festival Stemweder Open Air Cropredy Convention 100 Club Punk Special Paléo Festival Nambassa Deeply Vale Festivals Texxas Jam Havana Jam Gurtenfestival Waikino Music Festival California Jam
California Jam
II Canada Jam Bele Chere

Key people

Chet Helms Tom Rounds Mel Lawrence Lou Adler John Phillips Hilly Kristal Michael Lang Bill Graham Wally Hope Ubi Dwyer Sid Rawle Bill Hanley Wavy Gravy Freddy Bannister Barry Fey Merry Pranksters Alex Cooley Graeme Dunstan Mick Farren Russ Gibb Shelly Finkel Jim Koplik Stewart Levine Hugh Masekela Leonard Stogel Robert Raymond Bruce Lundvall Jerry Masucci


Counterculture of the 1960s

Summer of Love UK underground


la Onda deadheads

rock concert

crowd surfing audience wave

music festival

folk festival pop festival rock fest