MELBOURNE (/ˈmɛlbən/ ) is the capital and most populous city of
Australian state of Victoria , and the second-most populous city
Oceania . The name "Melbourne" refers to an urban
agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2 (3,800 sq mi), which comprises the
broader metropolitan area, as well as being the common name for its
city centre . The metropolis is located on the large natural bay of
Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong
and Macedon mountain ranges,
Mornington Peninsula and
Yarra Valley .
Melbourne consists of 31 municipalities . It has a population of
4,641,636 as of 2016 , and its inhabitants are called Melburnians.
Founded by free settlers from the British
Crown colony of Van
Diemen\'s Land on 30 August 1835, in what was then the colony of New
Wales , it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It
was named "Melbourne" by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard
Bourke , in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William
Lamb, 2nd Viscount
Melbourne . It was officially declared a city by
Queen Victoria , to whom Lord
Melbourne was close, in 1847, after
which it became the capital of the newly founded colony of Victoria in
1851. During the
Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed
into one of the world's largest and wealthiest cities. After the
Australia in 1901, it served as the nation's interim
seat of government until 1927. Additionally, it was the host city of
1956 Summer Olympics and the
2006 Commonwealth Games .
Melbourne rates highly in education, entertainment, health care,
research and development, tourism and sport, making it the world\'s
most liveable city —for the sixth year in a row in 2016, according
Economist Intelligence Unit . It is a leading financial centre
Asia-Pacific region, and ranks among the top 30 cities in the
world in the
Global Financial Centres Index . Referred to as
Australia's "cultural capital", it is the birthplace of Australian
Australian rules football , the
Australian film and
television industries , and
Australian contemporary dance . It is
recognised as a
City of Literature and a major centre for
street art , music and theatre. It is home to many of Australia's
largest and oldest cultural institutions such as the
Ground , the
National Gallery of Victoria , the State Library of
Victoria and the
UNESCO World Heritage -listed Royal Exhibition
The main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is
Melbourne Airport (also called
Tullamarine Airport), the second
busiest in Australia. The
Port of Melbourne is Australia's busiest
seaport for containerised and general cargo.
Melbourne has an
extensive transport network . The main metropolitan train terminus is
Flinders Street Station
Flinders Street Station , and the main regional train and coach
Southern Cross Station .
Melbourne is also home to
Australia's most extensive freeway network and has the world\'s
largest urban tram network .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early history and foundation
Victorian gold rush
* 1.3 Land boom and bust
* 1.4 De facto Capital of
* 1.5 Post-war period
* 1.6 Contemporary
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 2.2 Environment and pollution
* 3 Urban structure
* 3.1 Housing
* 4 Culture
* 5 Architecture
* 6 Sport
* 7 Economy
* 8 Demographics
* 9 Education
* 10 Media
* 11 Religion
* 12 Governance
* 13 Infrastructure
* 13.1 Health
* 13.2 Transport
* 13.3 Utilities
* 14 Crime
* 15 Sister cities
* 16 See also
* 16.1 Lists
* 17 References
* 18 Further reading
* 19 External links
For more details on this topic, see
History of Melbourne . See also:
Timeline of Melbourne history and
History of Victoria
EARLY HISTORY AND FOUNDATION
Foundation of Melbourne
1840; watercolour by W. Liardet (1840)
Before the arrival of white settlers , humans had occupied the area
for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European
settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from
three indigenous regional tribes : the
Wurundjeri , Boonwurrung and
Wathaurong . The area was an important meeting place for the clans of
Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water.
The first European settlement in Victoria was established by Colonel
David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay , near present-day
Sorrento , but this settlement was relocated to what is now
Tasmania, in February 1804, due to a perceived lack of resources. It
would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted.
In May and June 1835, the area which is now central and northern
Melbourne was explored by
John Batman , a leading member of the Port
Phillip Association in Van Diemen\'s Land (now known as Tasmania), who
claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres (2,400 km2)
Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern
bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a
village". Batman then returned to Launceston in Tasmania. In early
August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe
Fawkner , left Launceston on the ship Enterprize . Fawkner was forced
to disembark at Georgetown, Tasmania, because of outstanding debts.
The remainder of the party continued and arrived at the mouth of the
Yarra River on 15 August 1835. On 30 August 1835 the party disembarked
and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne
Immigration Museum . Batman and his group arrived on 2 September 1835
and the two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement.
Batman\'s Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by the New South
Wales governor (who at the time governed all of eastern mainland
Australia), with compensation paid to members of the association. In
Governor Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of
Port Phillip District of New South Wales, and commissioned the
first plan for the city, the
Hoddle Grid , in 1837. The settlement
was named Batmania after Batman. However, later that year the
settlement was named "Melbourne" after the British Prime Minister ,
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne , whose seat was
in the market town of
Derbyshire . On 13 April 1837 the
settlement's general post office officially opened with that name.
Between 1836 and 1842 Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely
dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844,
there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in
Melbourne. The British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal
Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work
was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters to take
possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy
Europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and
became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for
generations to come.
Letters patent of
Queen Victoria , issued on 25 June 1847, declared
Melbourne a city.
On 1 July 1851 the
Port Phillip District became the separate Colony
of Victoria, with
Melbourne as its capital.
VICTORIAN GOLD RUSH
Victorian gold rush "Canvas Town", South
Melbourne in the 1850s depicting temporary accommodation for the
thousands who poured into
Melbourne each week during the gold rush.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 led to a gold rush ,
and Melbourne, which served as the major port and provided most
services for the region, experienced rapid growth. Within months, the
city's population had increased from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants.
Thereafter, growth was exponential and by 1865,
Sydney as Australia's most populous city.
An influx of intercolonial and overseas migrants, particularly Irish,
German and Chinese, saw the establishment of slums including a
temporary "tent city" on the southern banks of the Yarra. Chinese
migrants founded Chinatown in 1851, which remains the longest
continuous Chinese settlement outside Asia. In the aftermath of the
Eureka Rebellion , mass public support for the plight of the
miners resulted in major political changes to the colony, including
improvements in working conditions across mining, agriculture,
manufacturing and other local industries. The various nationalities
involved in the rebellion give some indication of immigration flows at
With the wealth brought on by the gold rush and the subsequent need
for public buildings, a program of grand civic construction soon
began. The 1850s and 1860s saw the commencement of Parliament House ,
the Treasury Building , the
Old Melbourne Gaol , Victoria Barracks ,
the State Library , University , General Post Office , Customs House ,
Melbourne Town Hall
Melbourne Town Hall , St Patrick\'s cathedral, though many
remained uncompleted for decades, with some still not finished.
The layout of the inner suburbs on a largely one-mile grid pattern,
cut through by wide radial boulevards and parklands surrounding the
central city was largely established in the 1850s and 1860s. These
areas were rapidly filled by the ubiquitous terrace house, as well as
detached houses and grand mansions, while some of the major roads
developed as shopping streets.
Melbourne quickly became a major
finance centre, home to several banks, the Royal Mint , and
Australia's first stock exchange in 1861. In 1855 the Melbourne
Cricket Club secured possession of its now famous ground, the
Members of the
Melbourne Football Club codified
Australian football in
1859, and Yarra rowing clubs and "regattas" became popular about the
same time. In 1861 the
Melbourne Cup was first run. In 1864 Melbourne
acquired its first public monument—the Burke and Wills statue.
With the gold rush largely over by 1860,
Melbourne continued to grow
on the back of continuing gold mining, as the major port for exporting
the agricultural products of Victoria, especially wool, and a
developing manufacturing sector protected by high tariffs. An
extensive radial railway network spreading into the countryside was
established from the late 1850s. Further major public buildings were
begun in the 1860s and 1870s such as the Supreme Court , Government
House , and the
Queen Victoria Market . The central city filled up
with shops and offices, workshops, and warehouses. Large banks and
hotels faced the main streets, with fine townhouses in the east end of
Collins Street, contrasting with tiny cottages down laneways within
the blocks. The Aboriginal population continued to decline with an
estimated 80% total decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced
diseases, particularly smallpox , frontier violence and dispossession
from their lands.
LAND BOOM AND BUST
Lithograph of the
Royal Exhibition Building , built to host the
Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880
The decade of the 1880s was one of extraordinary growth, when
consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in the
price of land, led to an enormous amount of construction. This 'land
boom' was followed by a severe economic crash in the early 1890s which
lasted until the end of the century. During the boom,
reputedly become the richest city in the world, and the largest after
London in the
British Empire .
The decade began with the
Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880,
held in the large purpose-built Exhibition Building . In 1880 a
telephone exchange was established and in the same year the
foundations of St Paul\'s , were laid; in 1881 electric light was
installed in the Eastern Market, and in the following year a
generating station capable of supplying 2,000 incandescent lamps was
in operation. In 1885 the first line of the
Melbourne cable tramway
system was built, becoming one of the world's most extensive systems
by 1890. Federal Coffee Palace, one of many grand hotels erected
during the boom
During a visit in 1885 English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala
coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the
twentieth century and is still used today by Melburnians. Growing
building activity culminated in a "land boom" which, in 1888, reached
a peak of speculative development fuelled by consumer confidence and
escalating land value. As a result of the boom, large commercial
buildings, coffee palaces , terrace housing and palatial mansions
proliferated in the city. The establishment of a hydraulic facility
in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in
the first construction of high-rise buildings; most notably the APA
Building , amongst the world's tallest commercial buildings upon
completion in 1889. This period also saw the expansion of a major
radial rail-based transport network.
In 1888, the Exhibition Building hosted a second event even larger
than the first, the
Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, spurring
construction of numerous hotels including the 500 room Federal Hotel ,
The Palace Hotel in Bourke Street (both since demolished), and the
doubling in size of the Grand (Windsor) .
A brash boosterism that had typified
Melbourne during this time ended
in the early 1890s with a severe depression of the city's economy,
sending the local finance and property industries into a period of
chaos during which 16 small "land banks" and building societies
collapsed, and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. The
Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Australian
economic depression of the 1890s and the
Australian banking crisis of
1893 . The effects of the depression on the city were profound, with
virtually no new construction until the late 1890s.
DE FACTO CAPITAL OF AUSTRALIA
Further information: Federation of
Australia _ The Big Picture
_, the opening of the first Parliament of
Australia on 9 May 1901,
Tom Roberts .
At the time of Australia's federation on 1 January 1901, Melbourne
became the seat of government of the federation. The first federal
parliament was convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition
Building, subsequently moving to the Victorian Parliament House where
it was located until 1927, when it was moved to
Canberra . The
Australia resided at Government House in Melbourne
until 1930 and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne
well into the twentieth century.
In the immediate years after World War II,
rapidly, its growth boosted by post-war immigration to
primarily from Southern
Europe and the Mediterranean . While the
Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and
open air cafe cultures, the city centre was seen by many as
stale—the dreary domain of office workers—something expressed by
John Brack in his famous painting _
Collins St., 5 pm _ (1955).
ICI House , a symbol of progress and modernity in post-war
Height limits in the
Melbourne CBD were lifted in 1958, after the
ICI House , transforming the city's skyline with the
introduction of skyscrapers. Suburban expansion then intensified,
served by new indoor malls beginning with
Chadstone Shopping Centre .
The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the CBD and St Kilda
Road which significantly modernised the city. New fire regulations
and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings either
demolished or partially retained through a policy of facadism . Many
of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either
demolished or subdivided.
To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth,
the government began a series of controversial public housing projects
in the inner city by the
Housing Commission of Victoria , which
resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of
high-rise towers. In later years, with the rapid rise of motor
vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments
greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner
city population. The Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the
modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the
St Kilda Junction , the widening of
Hoddle Street and
then the extensive
1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face
of the city into a car-dominated environment.
Australia's financial and mining booms during 1969 and 1970 resulted
in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP
Billiton and Rio Tinto , among others) in the city.
Nauru 's then
booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in
Melbourne, such as
Nauru House .
Melbourne remained Australia's main
business and financial centre until the late 1970s, when it began to
lose this primacy to Sydney.
Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between 1989 and 1992,
following the collapse of several local financial institutions. In
1992, the newly elected Kennett government began a campaign to revive
the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works
coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a
focus on major events and sports tourism. During this period the
Australian Grand Prix
Australian Grand Prix moved to
Melbourne from Adelaide. Major projects
included the construction of a new facility for the
Melbourne Museum ,
Federation Square , the
Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre ,
Crown Casino and the
CityLink tollway . Other strategies included the
privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and
public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such
as health, education and public transport infrastructure.
Since the mid-1990s,
Melbourne has maintained significant population
and employment growth. There has been substantial international
investment in the city's industries and property market. Major
inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank ,
Port Melbourne ,
Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf .
According to the
Australian Bureau of Statistics ,
the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any
Australian capital city in the three years ended June 2004. These
factors have led to population growth and further suburban expansion
through the 2000s. A panoramic view of the
and the city skyline from Waterfront City, looking across Victoria
From 2006, the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and
beyond the city's urban growth boundary . Predictions of the city's
population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to
review the growth boundary in 2008 as part of its
Melbourne @ Five
Million strategy. In 2009,
Melbourne was less affected by the
late-2000s financial crisis in comparison to other
At this time, more new jobs were created in
Melbourne than any other
Australian city—almost as many as the next two fastest growing
Brisbane and Perth, combined, and Melbourne's property market
remained highly priced, resulting in historically high property
prices and widespread rent increases.
Geography of Melbourne Map of
Geelong urban areas
Melbourne is located in the south-eastern part of mainland Australia,
within the state of Victoria . Geologically, it is built on the
Quaternary lava flows to the west,
Silurian mudstones to
the east, and
Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port
Phillip . The southeastern suburbs are situated on the Selwyn fault
which transects Mount Martha and Cranbourne .
Melbourne extends along the
Yarra River towards the
Yarra Valley and
Dandenong Ranges to the east. It extends northward through the
undulating bushland valleys of the Yarra's tributaries—Moonee Ponds
Merri Creek ,
Darebin Creek and
Plenty River —to the outer suburban growth corridors of Craigieburn
and Whittlesea .
The city reaches south-east through Dandenong to the growth corridor
of Pakenham towards
West Gippsland , and southward through the
Dandenong Creek valley, the
Mornington Peninsula and the city of
Frankston taking in the peaks of Olivers Hill , Mount Martha and
Arthurs Seat , extending along the shores of
Port Phillip as a single
conurbation to reach the exclusive suburb of Portsea and Point Nepean
. In the west, it extends along the
Maribyrnong River and its
tributaries north towards Sunbury and the foothills of the Macedon
Ranges , and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Melton in
Werribee at the foothills of the
You Yangs granite ridge
south west of the CBD. The Little River, and the township of the same
name, marks the border between
Melbourne and neighbouring Geelong
Melbourne's major bayside beaches are located in the various suburbs
along the shores of
Port Phillip Bay, in areas like
Port Melbourne ,
Albert Park , St Kilda , Elwood , Brighton , Sandringham , Mentone ,
Frankston , Altona , Williamstown and
Werribee South. The nearest surf
beaches are located 85 kilometres (53 mi) south-east of the Melbourne
CBD in the back-beaches of Rye , Sorrento and Portsea .
Climate of Melbourne Further information: Extreme
weather events in
Carlton Gardens in autumn
Melbourne has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification _Cfb_) with warm summers and cool winters. and is
well known for its changeable weather conditions. This is mainly due
to Melbourne's location situated on the boundary of the very hot
inland areas and the cool southern ocean. This temperature
differential is most pronounced in the spring and summer months and
can cause very strong cold fronts to form. These cold fronts can be
responsible for varied forms of severe weather from gales to severe
thunderstorms and hail , large temperature drops and heavy rain.
Winters, however, are usually very stable, but rather damp and often
Port Phillip is often warmer than the surrounding oceans and/or the
land mass, particularly in spring and autumn; this can set up a "bay
effect" similar to the "lake effect " seen in colder climates where
showers are intensified leeward of the bay. Relatively narrow streams
of heavy showers can often affect the same places (usually the eastern
suburbs) for an extended period, while the rest of
surrounds stays dry. Overall,
Melbourne is, owing to the rain shadow
Otway Ranges , nonetheless drier than average for southern
Victoria. Within the city and surrounds, however, rainfall varies
widely, from around 425 millimetres (17 in) at Little River to 1,250
millimetres (49 in) on the eastern fringe at Gembrook . Melbourne
receives 48.6 clear days annually. Dewpoint temperatures in the summer
range from 9.5 °C (49.1 °F) to 11.7 °C (53.1 °F).
Melbourne is also prone to isolated convective showers forming when a
cold pool crosses the state, especially if there is considerable
daytime heating. These showers are often heavy and can contain hail
and squalls and significant drops in temperature, but they pass
through very quickly at times with a rapid clearing trend to sunny and
relatively calm weather and the temperature rising back to what it was
before the shower. This often occurs in the space of minutes and can
be repeated many times in a day, giving
Melbourne a reputation for
having "four seasons in one day", a phrase that is part of local
popular culture and familiar to many visitors to the city. The lowest
temperature on record is −2.8 °C (27.0 °F), on 21 July 1869. The
highest temperature recorded in
Melbourne city was 46.4 °C (115.5
°F), on 7 February 2009 . While snow is occasionally seen at higher
elevations in the outskirts of the city, it has not been recorded in
the Central Business District since 1986.
The average temperature of the sea ranges from 14.6 °C (58.3 °F) in
September to 18.8 °C (65.8 °F) in February; at
Port Melbourne , the
average sea temperature range is the same.
CLIMATE DATA FOR MELBOURNE REGIONAL OFFICE
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.2MM)
AVERAGE AFTERNOON RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Bureau of Meteorology 1981-2010 averages, records
Source #2: Sunshine hours taken from
Melbourne Airport, 1999-2016
ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION
See also: Environmental issues in
Melbourne's air quality is generally good and has improved
significantly since the 1980s. Like many urban environments, the city
faces significant environmental issues, many of them relating to the
city's large urban footprint and urban sprawl and the demand for
infrastructure and services. One such issue is the impact of drought
on water supply. Periodic droughts and consistently high summer
Melbourne water supplies, and climate change may
exacerbate the long-term impact of these factors on Melbourne's water
supplies. During the Millennium drought , the Bracks Government
implemented water restrictions and a range of other options including
water recycling, incentives for household water tanks, greywater
systems, water consumption awareness initiatives, and other water
saving and reuse initiatives. However, as water storages continued to
fall further measures were required; in June 2007 the Bracks
Government announced the construction of the $3.1 billion Wonthaggi
desalination plant , and the so-called
North-South Pipeline from the
Goulburn Valley in Victoria's north to Melbourne. Neither project was
used extensively before the drought broke during 2010, and therefore
both have been criticised as 'white elephants '.
In response to attribution of recent climate change , the City of
Melbourne , in 2002, set a target to reduce carbon emissions to net
zero by 2020 and Moreland City Council established the Zero Moreland
program, however not all metropolitan municipalities have followed,
City of Glen Eira notably deciding in 2009 not to become
Melbourne has one of the largest urban footprints in
the world due to its low density housing, resulting in a vast suburban
sprawl, with a high level of car dependence and minimal public
transport outside of inner areas. Much of the vegetation within the
city are non-native species, most of European origin, and in many
cases plays host to invasive species and noxious weeds. Significant
introduced urban pests include the common myna , feral pigeon ,
brown rat , European wasp , common starling and red fox . Many
outlying suburbs, particularly towards the
Yarra Valley and the hills
to the north-east and east, have gone for extended periods without
regenerative fires leading to a lack of saplings and undergrowth in
urbanised native bushland. The Department of Sustainability and
Environment partially addresses this problem by regularly burning off.
Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of
Melbourne, including the
Mornington Peninsula National Park , Port
Phillip Heads Marine National Park and
Point Nepean National Park in
the south east,
Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong
Ranges National Park to the east. There are also a number of
significant state parks just outside Melbourne. Responsibility for
regulating pollution falls under the jurisdiction of the EPA Victoria
and several local councils. Air pollution, by world standards, is
classified as being good. Summer and autumn are the worst times of
year for atmospheric haze in the urban area.
Another recent environmental issue in
Melbourne was the Victorian
government project of channel deepening
Melbourne Ports by dredging
Port Phillip Bay—the
Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project . It was
subject to controversy and strict regulations among fears that beaches
and marine wildlife could be affected by the disturbance of heavy
metals and other industrial sediments. Other major pollution
Melbourne include levels of bacteria including _E. coli_
Yarra River and its tributaries caused by septic systems, as
well as litter . Up to 350,000 cigarette butts enter the storm water
runoff every day. Several programs are being implemented to minimise
beach and river pollution. In February 2010, _The Transition Decade
_, an initiative to transition human society, economics and
environment towards sustainability, was launched in Melbourne.
Melbourne city centre , List of heritage listed buildings
Lanes and arcades of Melbourne , Parks and gardens of
Melbourne , and
List of tallest buildings in Melbourne Aerial
view of the central business district surrounded by the inner suburbs
Aerial view of Albert Park
Hoddle Grid (dimensions of 1 by 1⁄2 mile (1.61 by 0.80 km))
forms the centre of Melbourne's central business district . The grid's
southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River. Office, commercial and
public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank and
Docklands have made these redeveloped areas into extensions of the CBD
in all but name. The city centre has a reputation for its historic and
prominent lanes and arcades (most notably Block Place and Royal Arcade
) which contain a variety of shops and cafés and are a byproduct of
the city's layout.
Melbourne's CBD, compared with other
Australian cities, has
comparatively unrestricted height limits and as a result of waves of
post-war development contains five of the seven tallest buildings in
Australia , the tallest of which is the
Eureka Tower , situated in
Southbank. It has an observation deck on the 88th floor. The Rialto
tower, the city's second tallest, remains the tallest building in the
old CBD; its observation deck closed on 31 December 2009.
The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic
buildings such as the
Royal Exhibition Building , the
Hall and Parliament House . Although the area is described as the
_centre_, it is not actually the demographic centre of
all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre
being located at Glen Iris .
Melbourne is typical of
Australian capital cities in that after the
turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a
'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to
locally as the
Australian Dream . This, coupled with the popularity of
the private automobile after 1945, led to the auto-centric urban
structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs. Much of
Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density
sprawl, whilst its inner city areas feature predominantly
medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. The city centre,
Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density
Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the
state of Victoria was once known as _the garden state_. There is an
abundance of parks and gardens in
Melbourne , many close to the CBD
with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped
vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. Melbourne's parks
are often considered the best public parks in all of Australia's major
cities. There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of
Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of Stonnington , Boroondara
Port Phillip , south east of the central business district. The
extensive area covered by urban
Melbourne is formally divided into
hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and
administered as local government areas 31 of which are located within
the metropolitan area.
Main article: Housing in Victoria,
terrace houses are common in the inner suburbs and have been the
subject of gentrification.
Melbourne has minimal public housing and high demand for rental
housing, which is becoming unaffordable for some. Public housing is
usually provided by the
Housing Commission of Victoria , and operates
within the framework of the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, by
which federal and state governments provide housing funding.
Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high
demand for housing. This housing boom has increased house prices and
rents, as well as the availability of all types of housing.
Subdivision regularly occurs in the outer areas of Melbourne, with
numerous developers offering house and land packages. However, after
10 years of planning policies to encourage medium-density and
high-density development in existing areas with greater access to
public transport and other services, Melbourne's middle and outer-ring
suburbs have seen significant brownfields redevelopment.
Culture of Melbourne The inner city is home to an
extensive network of lively laneways and arcades. (Pictured: Centre
Melbourne is an international cultural centre, with cultural
endeavours spanning major events and festivals, drama, musicals,
comedy, music, art, architecture, literature, film and television. The
climate, waterfront location and nightlife make it one of the most
vibrant destinations in Australia. For six years in a row (as of 2016
) it has held the top position in a survey by _The Economist
Intelligence Unit _ of the world\'s most liveable cities on the basis
of a number of attributes which include its broad cultural offerings.
The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events and
festivals of all types, including Australia's largest free community
Moomba , the
Melbourne International Arts Festival ,
Melbourne International Film Festival
Melbourne International Film Festival ,
Melbourne International Comedy
Festival and the
Melbourne Fringe Festival . The culture of the city
is an important drawcard for tourists, of which just under two million
international overnight visitors and 57.7 million domestic overnight
visited during the year ending March 2014. The State Library of
Victoria 's La Trobe Reading Room
Melbourne's rich and diverse literary history was recognised in 2008
when it became the second
City of Literature . The State
Library of Victoria is one of Australia's oldest cultural institutions
and one of many public and university libraries across the city.
Melbourne also has Australia's widest range of bookstores, as well the
nation's largest publishing sector. The city is home to significant
writers' festivals, most notably the
Melbourne Writers Festival .
Several major literary prizes are open to local writers including the
Melbourne Prize for Literature and the Victorian Premier\'s Literary
Awards . Significant novels set in
Fergus Hume 's
The Mystery of a Hansom Cab _,
Helen Garner 's _Monkey Grip_ and
Christos Tsiolkas ' _
The Slap _. Notable writers and poets from
Thomas Browne ,
C. J. Dennis ,
Germaine Greer and
Peter Carey . The
National Gallery of Victoria is Australia's,
and one of the world's, most visited art museums . Princess
Established in 1861, the
National Gallery of Victoria is Australia's
oldest public art museum. The
Heidelberg School , also known as
Australian Impressionism , grew out of Melbourne's rural suburbs in
the 1880s. The city is also home to the
Australian Centre for
Contemporary Art .
Melbourne is regarded as one of the world's major
street art centres ; readers of _
Lonely Planet _ voted the city's
street art and laneways as Australia's most popular cultural
Melbourne's live performance institutions date from the foundation of
the city, with the first theatre, the Pavilion, opening in 1841. The
East End Theatre District includes theatres that similarly date
from the 1850s to the 1920s, including the Princess Theatre , Regent
Theatre , Her Majesty\'s Theatre ,
Forum Theatre , Comedy Theatre ,
and the Athenaeum Theatre . The
Melbourne Arts Precinct in Southbank
is home to
Arts Centre Melbourne , which includes the State Theatre ,
Hamer Hall , the Playhouse and the Fairfax Studio. The Melbourne
Recital Centre and
Southbank Theatre (principal home of the MTC, which
includes the Sumner and Lawler performance spaces) are also located
in Southbank. The
Sidney Myer Music Bowl , which dates from 1955, is
located in the gardens of Kings Domain; and the
Palais Theatre is a
feature of the St Kilda Beach foreshore.
The national ballet company, the
Australian Ballet is based in
Melbourne, as are the state based companies, the
Orchestra , the
Melbourne Theatre Company (MTC), and the Victorian
Melbourne is also the second home of the national Opera
Australia after it merged with the defunct
Victoria State Opera in
The Story of the Kelly Gang _, the world's first feature film , was
Melbourne in 1906.
Melbourne filmmakers continued to produce
bushranger films until they were banned by Victorian politicians in
1912 for the perceived promotion of crime, thus contributing to the
decline of one of the silent film era's most productive industries. A
notable film shot and set in
Melbourne during Australia's cinematic
lull is _On the Beach _ (1959). The 1970s saw the rise of the
Australian New Wave and its
Ozploitation offshoot, instigated by
Melbourne-based productions _Stork _ and _
Alvin Purple _. _Picnic at
Hanging Rock _ and _
Mad Max _, both shot in and around Melbourne,
achieved worldwide acclaim. 2004 saw the construction of Melbourne's
largest film and television studio complex, Docklands Studios
Melbourne , which has hosted many domestic productions, as well as
Melbourne is also home to the headquarters of
Village Roadshow Pictures , Australia's largest film production
company. Famous modern day actors from
Melbourne include Cate
Rachel Griffiths ,
Guy Pearce ,
Geoffrey Rush and Eric
As of 2013 ,
Melbourne is home to at least 460 music venues, and its
live music industry contributes A$1 billion per annum to the Victorian
economy. Bands and musicians that have emerged from the Melbourne
music scene include
Clare Bowditch , Adalita , Vika "> Modern
skyscrapers are set back from the street in order to preserve
Victorian era buildings on Collins Street .
The city is recognised for its mix of modern architecture which
intersects with an extensive range of nineteenth and early twentieth
century buildings. Some of the most architecturally noteworthy
historic buildings include the
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site -listed Royal
Exhibition Building , constructed over a two-year period for the
Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, A.C. Goode House, a Neo
Gothic building located on Collins Street designed by Wright, Reed ">
Eureka Tower , Melbourne's tallest building, reaching the clouds at
The city also features the
Shrine of Remembrance , which was built as
a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I
and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. The
now demolished Queen Anne style APA
Australian Building (1889), the
world's 3rd tallest building at the time of completion, is said to
have anticipated the skyscraper race in
New York City
New York City and
In 2012, the city contained a total of 594 high-rise buildings, with
8 under construction, 71 planned and 39 at proposal stage making the
city's skyline the second largest in Australia. The CBD is dominated
by modern office buildings including the
Rialto Towers (1986), built
on the site of several grand classical Victorian buildings, two of
which — the Rialto Building (1889) designed by William Pitt and the
Winfield Building (1890) designed by Charles D'Ebro and Richard
Speight — still remain today and more recently high-rise apartment
Eureka Tower (2006), which is listed as the 13th
tallest residential building in the world in January 2014.
Residential architecture is not defined by a single architectural
style, but rather an eclectic mix of houses, townhouses, condominiums,
and apartment buildings in the metropolitan area (particularly in
areas of urban sprawl). Free standing dwellings with relatively large
gardens are perhaps the most common type of housing outside inner city
Melbourne. Victorian terrace housing, townhouses and historic
Tudor revival and Neo-Georgian mansions are all common in
neighbourhoods such as Toorak .
Sport in Victoria
Melbourne hosts the Australian
Open , one of four annual Grand Slam tennis tournaments.
Melbourne is notable as the host city for the 1956 Summer Olympic
Games (the first Olympic Games held in the southern hemisphere and
Oceania, with all previous games held in
Europe and the United
Melbourne is so far the southernmost city to host the
Melbourne also hosted the
2006 Commonwealth Games . The
city is home to three major annual international sporting events: the
Australian Open (one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments); the
Melbourne Cup (horse racing); and the
Australian Grand Prix
Australian Grand Prix (Formula
One ). Also, the
Australian Masters golf tournament is held at
Melbourne since 1979, having been co-sanctioned by the European Tour
from 2006 to 2009.
Melbourne was proclaimed the "World's Ultimate
Sports City", in 2006, 2008 and 2010. The city is home to the
National Sports Museum , which until 2003 was located outside the
members pavilion at the
Cricket Ground. It reopened in 2008
in the Olympic Stand.
Australian rules football and cricket are the most popular sports in
Melbourne. It is considered the spiritual home of the two sports in
Australia. The first official
Test cricket match was played at the
Melbourne Cricket Ground in March 1877. The origins of Australian
rules football can be traced to matches played next to the
Australian Football League is headquartered at Docklands
Stadium . Nine of the League's teams are based in the Melbourne
metropolitan area: Carlton , Collingwood , Essendon , Hawthorn ,
Melbourne , North
Melbourne , Richmond , St Kilda , and Western
Bulldogs . Up to five AFL matches are played each week in Melbourne,
attracting an average 40,000 people per game. Additionally, the city
annually hosts the
AFL Grand Final . Statue at the Melbourne
Cricket Ground of
Tom Wills umpiring an 1858 football match between
Scotch College and
Melbourne Grammar School . The first games of
Australian rules football were played in adjacent parklands .
The city is home to many professional franchises/teams in national
Twenty20 cricket clubs
Melbourne Stars and
Melbourne Renegades , who play in the
Big Bash League ; Victoria
Bushrangers cricket team, which compete in the domestic competitions
Sheffield Shield and
Matador BBQs One-Day Cup ; soccer clubs Melbourne
Melbourne City FC , which play in the A-League
Rugby league club
Melbourne Storm which plays in the
NRL competition; rugby union clubs
Melbourne Rebels and Melbourne
Rising , which play in the
Super Rugby and National Rugby Championship
competitions respectively; netball clubs
Melbourne Vixens and
Netball , of whom both play in the newly formed
(as of 2017) Suncorp Super
Netball ; basketball club
, which plays in the NBL competition;
Bulleen Boomers and Dandenong
Rangers , which play in the WNBL ;
Ice hockey teams
Melbourne Ice and
Melbourne Mustangs , who play in the
Australian Ice Hockey League ;
and baseball club
Melbourne Aces , which plays in the Australian
Baseball League . Rowing is also a large part of Melbourne's sporting
identity, with a number of clubs located on the Yarra River, out of
Australian Olympians trained. The city previously held the
nation's premier long distance swimming event the annual Race to
Prince\'s Bridge , in the Yarra River. Notable amateur sports clubs
include the country's top ranked women's (VRDL ) and men's (VMRD )
roller derby teams.
In November 2008, it was announced that the Victorian Major Events
Company had informed the
Australian Olympic Committee that Melbourne
was considering making bids for either the 2024 or 2028 Summer
See also: Category:Companies based in
Melbourne and Tourism in
Melbourne Melbourne's entertainment and conference precinct
(Crown Casino and Convention Centre) make substantial annual
contributions to the Victorian economy ($2 billion and $3 billion
Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths
in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics,
transportation and tourism.
Melbourne houses the headquarters of many
of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest
in the country (based on revenue), and five of the largest seven in
the country (based on market capitalisation ) (ANZ , BHP Billiton
(the world's largest mining company), the National
Australia Bank ,
Telstra , as well as such representative bodies and think
tanks as the Business Council of
Australia and the
of Trade Unions . Melbourne's suburbs also have the Head Offices of
Wesfarmers companies Coles (including
Bunnings , Target
, K-Mart "> The atrium of Melbourne's flagship
store , which generates yearly revenue of almost $300 million.
CSL , one of the world's top five biotech companies, and Sigma
Pharmaceuticals have their headquarters in Melbourne. The two are the
Australian pharmaceutical companies.
Melbourne has an
important ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of
Australia's ICT workforce), with a turnover of $19.8 billion and
export revenues of $615 million. In addition, tourism also plays an
important role in Melbourne's economy, with about 7.6 million domestic
visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004. In 2008,
Sydney with the amount of money that domestic
tourists spent in the city, accounting for around $15.8 billion
Melbourne has been attracting an increasing share of
domestic and international conference markets. Construction began in
February 2006 of a $1 billion 5000-seat international convention
centre, Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne
Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the Yarra
River with the Southbank precinct and multibillion-dollar Docklands
Economist Intelligence Unit ranks
Melbourne as the fourth most
expensive city in the world to live in according to its worldwide cost
of living index in 2013. The most visited attractions are: Federation
Queen Victoria Market , Crown Casino , Southbank , Melbourne
Melbourne Aquarium , Docklands ,
National Gallery of Victoria ,
Melbourne Museum ,
Melbourne Observation Deck,
Arts Centre Melbourne ,
Melbourne Cricket Ground .
Economist Intelligence Unit also has ranked
Melbourne as the most
liveable city in the world for 6 consecutive years (2011-2016).
Demographics of Melbourne
Part of a series on
ETHNICITY IN MELBOURNE
Chinese New Year celebrations in Chinatown
Melbourne (Greater Capital City Statistical Areas), 63.3%
of residents were born in Australia. The other most common countries
of birth were the
United Kingdom (3.4%),
SARs and Taiwan) (2.3%),
Italy (1.7%) and
New Zealand (1.7%). In 2011
the most common cited ancestries in Greater
Melbourne (Greater Capital
City Statistical Areas) were English (21.1%),
Irish (6.9%), Scottish (5.7%), and Italian (5.5%).
Melbourne has the largest Greek-speaking population outside of
Europe, a population comparable to some larger Greek cities like
Thessaloniki is Melbourne's Greek sister city.
The Vietnamese surname
Nguyen is the second most common in Melbourne's
phone book after Smith . The city also features substantial Indian,
Sri Lankan, and Malaysian-born communities, in addition to recent
South African and Sudanese influxes. The cultural diversity is
reflected in the city's restaurants that serve international cuisines.
LARGEST OVERSEAS BORN POPULATIONS
COUNTRY OF BIRTH
Over two-thirds of Melburnians speak only English at home (68.1%).
Cantonese and Mandarin ) is the second-most-common
language spoken at home (3.6%), with Greek third, Italian fourth and
Vietnamese fifth, each with more than 100,000 speakers. Although
Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the population of
Melbourne statistical division has grown by about 70,000 people a
year since 2005.
Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of
international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing
Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having
strong interstate migration from
Sydney and other capitals due to more
affordable housing and cost of living.
In recent years, Melton , Wyndham and Casey , part of the Melbourne
statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all
local government areas in Australia.
Melbourne could overtake Sydney
in population by 2028, The ABS has projected in two scenarios that
Sydney will remain larger than
Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a
margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. Melbourne's
population could overtake that of
Sydney by 2037 or 2039, according
to the first scenario projected by the ABS; primarily due to larger
levels of internal migration losses assumed for Sydney. Another study
Melbourne will surpass
Sydney in population by 2040.
After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the
city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs,
aided in part by Victorian Government planning, such as Postcode 3000
Melbourne 2030 which have aimed to curtail urban sprawl.
According to the
Australian Bureau of Statistics as of June 2013,
Melbourne had the highest population density with 12,400
people per km2. Surrounding inner city suburbs experienced an increase
in population density between 2012 and 2013; Carlton (9,000 people per
km2) and Fitzroy (7,900).
Education in Melbourne
Ormond College , part of
University of Melbourne
Some of Australia's most prominent and well known schools are based
in Melbourne. Of the top twenty high schools in
Australia according to
the Better Education ranking, six are located in Melbourne. There has
also been a rapid increase in the number of International students
studying in the city. Furthermore,
Melbourne was ranked the world's
fourth top university city in 2008 after London,
Tokyo in a
poll commissioned by the Royal
Melbourne Institute of Technology .
Melbourne is the home of seven public universities: the University of
Monash University ,
La Trobe University , Royal Melbourne
Institute of Technology (RMIT University) ,
Deakin University ,
Swinburne University of Technology and Victoria University .
Melbourne universities have campuses all over
Australia and some
internationally. Swinburne University has campuses in
Malaysia , while
Monash has a research centre based in Prato,
Italy . The University of
Melbourne, the second oldest university in Australia, was ranked
Australian universities in the 2016 THES international
rankings. _The 2016–2017
Times Higher Education Supplement_ ranked
University of Melbourne as the 33rd best university in the world.
Monash University was ranked as the 74th best university in the world.
Both universities are members of the Group of Eight , a coalition of
Australian tertiary institutions offering comprehensive and
RMIT University was also ranked among the top 51–100 universities
in the world in the subjects of: accounting , Business and Management,
communication and media studies , computer science and information
systems . The
Swinburne University of Technology , based in the inner
Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn is ranked 76–100 in the world for
Physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities making Swinburne
Australian university outside the Group of Eight to achieve a
top 100 rating in a science discipline.
Deakin University maintains
two major campuses in
Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest
university in Victoria. In recent years, the number of international
students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an
increasing number of places being made available to full fee paying
Education in Melbourne is overseen by the Victorian
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD), whose
role is to 'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of
Media in Melbourne _ Headquarters of
The Age _
Melbourne is served by twenty-eight digital free-to-air television
* ABC HD (ABC broadcast in HD )
ABC News 24
SBS HD (SBS broadcast in HD )
* Food Network
7HD (Seven broadcast in HD)
9HD (Nine broadcast in HD)
Ten HD (Ten broadcast in HD)
C31 Melbourne (Melbourne's community TV station)
Three daily newspapers serve Melbourne: the _
Herald Sun _ (tabloid),
The Age _ (formerly broadsheet, now compact) and _The
(national broadsheet). Six free-to-air television stations service
Melbourne and Geelong: ABC Victoria, (ABV ), SBS Victoria
Melbourne (HSV ), Nine
Melbourne (GTV ), Ten Melbourne
C31 Melbourne (MGV) – community television. Each station
(excluding C31) broadcasts a primary channel and several
multichannels. C31 is only broadcast from the transmitters at Mount
Dandenong and South Yarra. Hybrid digital/print media companies such
as Broadsheet and ThreeThousand are based in and primarily serve
Television shows are produced in Melbourne, most notably _Neighbours
_, _Kath productions such as _
Million Dollar Minute _, _The Chase
Australia _, _
Millionaire Hot Seat _ and _Family Feud _ are all based
in Melbourne. Reality television productions such as _Dancing with the
Stars _, _MasterChef _, _The Block _ and _The Real Housewives of
Melbourne _ are all filmed in and around Melbourne.
Pay television in
Melbourne is largely delivered through cable and
Foxtel and Optus are the main pay television
providers. Sky News and Fox Sports both have studio facilities based
A long list of AM and FM radio stations broadcast to greater
Melbourne. These include "public" (i.e., state-owned ABC and SBS ) and
community stations. Many commercial stations are networked-owned: DMG
Nova 100 and Smooth ; ARN controls
Gold 104.3 and
KIIS 101.1 ; and
Southern Cross Austereo runs both Fox and Triple M . Stations from
towns in regional Victoria may also be heard (e.g.
93.9 Bay FM ,
Geelong). Youth alternatives include ABC
Triple J and youth run SYN .
Triple J, and similarly PBS and Triple R , strive to play under
represented music. JOY 94.9 caters for gay, lesbian, bisexual and
transgender audiences. For fans of classical music there are
ABC Classic FM .
Light FM is a contemporary Christian station. AM
stations include ABC: 774 ,
Radio National , and News Radio ; also
3AW (talk ) and Magic (easy listening ). For sport
fans and enthusiasts there is
SEN 1116 .
Melbourne has many community
run stations that serve alternative interests, such as 3CR and 3KND
(Indigenous). Many suburbs have low powered community run stations
serving local audiences.
St Paul\'s Cathedral
Melbourne has a wide range of religious faiths, the most widely held
of which is Christianity. This is signified by the city's two large
cathedrals—St Patrick\'s (Roman Catholic), and St Paul\'s
(Anglican). Both were built in the
Victorian era and are of
considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city.
According to the 2011 Census, the largest responses on religious
Roman Catholic (27.2%), no religion (23.5%),
Eastern Orthodox (5.5%),
Buddhist (4.0%), Muslim
(3.5%), Jewish (2.5%) and
Nearly 150,000 Muslims live in Melbourne. Muslim religious life in
Melbourne is centred on more than 25 mosques and a large number of
prayer rooms at university campuses, workplaces and other venues.
As of 2000 ,
Melbourne had the largest population of Polish
Australia. The city was also home to the largest number of Holocaust
survivors of any
Australian city, indeed the highest per capita
Israel itself. Reflecting this vibrant and growing community,
Melbourne has a plethora of Jewish cultural, religious and educational
institutions, including over 40 synagogues and 7 full-time parochial
day schools, along with a local Jewish newspaper .
The governance of
Melbourne is split between the government of
Victoria and the 26 cities and five shires which comprise the
metropolitan area. There is no ceremonial or political head of
Melbourne; however, the Lord Mayor of the
City of Melbourne often
fulfils such a role as a first amongst equals, particularly when
interstate or overseas.
The local councils are responsible for providing the functions set
out in the _Local Government Act_ 1989 such as urban planning and
waste management . Most other government services are provided or
regulated by the Victorian state government , which governs from
Parliament House in Spring Street . These include services which are
associated with local government in other countries and include public
transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above
preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects.
The state government retains the right to override certain local
government decisions, including urban planning, and Melburnian issues
often feature prominently in state election.
In 2012, Mercer Consulting ranked Melbourne's infrastructure 17th in
the world, behind only one other
Australian city, Sydney, which ranked
10th in the world.
Aerial view of
Royal Melbourne Hospital
Royal Melbourne Hospital in Parkville
Government of Victoria 's Department of Health and Human Services
oversees about 30 public hospitals in the
region, and 13 health services organisations.
There are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research
institutions located in Melbourne: St. Vincent\'s Institute of Medical
Australian Stem Cell Centre , the
Burnet Institute ,
Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute , Victorian Institute of
Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer
Centre , the
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research , and
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre .
Other institutions include the
Howard Florey Institute , the Murdoch
Childrens Research Institute , Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
Australian Synchrotron . Many of these institutions are
associated with and are located near universities.
Melbourne also is
the home of the Royal Children\'s Hospital .
Australian capital cities,
Melbourne ties with
first place for the highest male life expectancy (80.0 years) and
ranks second behind
Perth in female life expectancy (84.1 years).
Transport in Melbourne Further information: Buses in
Trams in Melbourne The
Bolte Bridge is part of the
CityLink tollway system.
Melbourne has a high dependency on the
automobile for transport, particularly in the outer suburban areas
where the largest number of cars are bought, with a total of 3.6
million private vehicles using 22,320 km (13,870 mi) of road, and one
of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world. The early
20th century saw an increase in popularity of automobiles, resulting
in large-scale suburban expansion. By the mid 1950s there was just
under 200 passenger vehicles per 1000 people by 2013 there was 600
passenger vehicles per 1000 people. Today it has an extensive network
of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including
freight as well as public transport systems including bus and taxis.
Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway ,
Monash Freeway and
West Gate Freeway (which spans the large West Gate
Bridge ), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to
other major cities, including
CityLink (which spans the large Bolte
Bridge ), Eastlink , the Western Ring Road ,
Calder Freeway ,
Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the
Hume Freeway which
Melbourne and Sydney.
Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around
extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems. Flinders Street Station
was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram
network overtook Sydney's to become the world's largest in the 1940s,
at which time 25% of travellers used public transport but by 2003 it
had declined to just 7.6%. The public transport system was privatised
in 1999, symbolising the peak of the decline. Despite privatisation
and successive governments persisting with auto-centric urban
development into the 21st century, there have since been large
increases in public transport patronage, with the mode share for
commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips. A target of 20%
public transport mode share for
Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state
government in 2006. Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown
by over 20%.
Southern Cross Station
Melbourne rail network has its origins in privately built lines
from the 1850s gold rush era, and today the suburban network consists
of 209 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop
, a partially underground metro section of the network beneath the
Central Business District (Hoddle Grid).
Flinders Street Station
Flinders Street Station is
Melbourne's busiest railway station, and was the world's busiest
passenger station in 1926. It remains a prominent
and meeting place. The city has rail connections with regional
Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services to Sydney
Adelaide and beyond which depart from Melbourne's other major rail
Southern Cross Station in Spencer Street. In the 2013–2014
financial year, the
Melbourne rail network recorded 232.0 million
passenger trips, the highest in its history. Many rail lines, along
with dedicated lines and rail yards are also used for freight. The
Adelaide departs Southern Cross twice a week, while the
Sydney departs twice a day.
Melbourne is home to the
world's largest tram network .
Melbourne has the largest tram network in the world which had its
origins in the city's 1880s land boom. In 2013–2014, 176.9 million
passenger trips were made by tram. Melbourne's is Australia's only
tram network to comprise more than a single line and consists of 250
km (155.3 mi) of track, 487 trams, 25 routes , and 1,763 tram stops .
Around 80 per cent of Melbourne's tram network shares road space with
other vehicles, while the rest of the network is separated or are
light rail routes. Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic
cultural assets and a tourist attraction. Heritage trams operate on
the free City Circle route , intended for visitors to Melbourne, and
heritage restaurant trams travel through the city and surrounding
areas during the evening.
Melbourne is currently building 50 new E
Class trams with some already in service in 2014. The E Class trams
are about 30 metres long and are superior to the C2 class tram of
similar length. Melbourne's bus network consists of almost 300 routes
which mainly service the outer suburbs and fill the gaps in the
network between rail and tram services. 127.6 million passenger
trips were recorded on Melbourne's buses in 2013–2014, an increase
of 10.2 percent on the previous year.
Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport
Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and
general cargo port and also its busiest. The port handled two million
shipping containers in a 12-month period during 2007, making it one of
the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere.
Station Pier on Port
Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and
the Spirit of
Tasmania ferries which cross
Bass Strait to Tasmania
docking there. Ferries and water taxis run from berths along the
Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip
Melbourne has four airports .
Melbourne Airport , at
Tullamarine , is
the city's main international and domestic gateway and second busiest
in Australia. The airport is home base for passenger airlines Jetstar
Airways and Tiger Airways
Australia and cargo airlines
Toll Priority ; and is a major hub for
Qantas and Virgin
Avalon Airport , located between
is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and
maintenance facility. Buses and taxis are the only forms of public
transport to and from the city's main airports. Air Ambulance
facilities are available for domestic and international transportation
Melbourne also has a significant general aviation
Moorabbin Airport in the city's south east that also handles
a small number of passenger flights.
Essendon Airport , which was once
the city's main airport also handles passenger flights, general
aviation and some cargo flights.
The city also has a bicycle sharing system . It was established in
2010 and uses a network of marked road lanes and segregated cycle
Sugarloaf Reservoir at Christmas Hills in the metropolitan area
is one of Melbourne's closest water supplies. Main article: Energy
Water storage and supply for
Melbourne is managed by
, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also
responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments
in the region as well as the
Wonthaggi desalination plant and
North–South Pipeline . Water is stored in a series of reservoirs
located within and outside the Greater
Melbourne area. The largest
Thomson River Dam , located in the Victorian Alps, is capable
of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity, while smaller
dams such as the
Upper Yarra Dam ,
Yan Yean Reservoir , and the
Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies.
Gas is provided by three distribution companies:
AusNet Services , which provides gas from Melbourne's inner
western suburbs to southwestern Victoria.
Multinet Gas , which provides gas from Melbourne's inner eastern
suburbs to eastern Victoria. (owned by SP AusNet after acquisition,
but continuing to trade under the brand name Multinet Gas)
Australian Gas Networks , which provides gas from Melbourne's
inner northern suburbs to northern Victoria, as well as the majority
of southeastern Victoria.
Electricity is provided by five distribution companies:
Citipower , which provides power to Melbourne's CBD, and some
Powercor , which provides power to the outer western suburbs, as
well as all of western Victoria (
Powercor are owned by
the same entity)
Jemena , which provides power to the northern and inner western
* United Energy , which provides power to the inner eastern and
southeastern suburbs, and the
AusNet Services , which provides power to the outer eastern
suburbs and all of the north and east of Victoria.
Numerous telecommunications companies provide
terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services and wireless
internet services and at least since 2016
Melbourne offers a free
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Although Melbourne's crime rate dropped 6.3% in 2014, it still has
Victoria's worst crime rate with over 26,000 offences per 100,000
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influence, which extends from educational, cultural and sporting
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Boston , Massachusetts, USA (1985)
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