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—— Tannaitic ——

Mishnah Tosefta

—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——

Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud

—— Later ——

Minor Tractates

Halakhic Midrash

—— Exodus ——

Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai

—— Leviticus ——

Sifra
Sifra
(Torat Kohanim)

—— Numbers and Deuteronomy ——

Sifre Sifrei Zutta on Numbers (Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim)

Aggadic Midrash

—— Tannaitic ——

Seder Olam Rabbah Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva Baraita
Baraita
of the Forty-nine Rules Baraita
Baraita
on the Thirty-two Rules Baraita
Baraita
on the Erection of the Tabernacle

—— 400–600 ——

Genesis Rabbah Lamentations Rabbah Pesikta de-Rav Kahana Esther Rabbah Midrash
Midrash
Iyyob Leviticus Rabbah Seder Olam Zutta Tanhuma Megillat Antiochus

—— 650–900 ——

Avot of Rabbi Natan Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer Tanna Devei Eliyahu Alphabet of Sirach Ecclesiastes Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah Deuteronomy Rabbah Devarim Zutta Pesikta Rabbati Midrash
Midrash
Shmuel Midrash
Midrash
Proverbs Ruth Rabbah Baraita
Baraita
of Samuel Targum
Targum
Sheni

—— 900–1000 ——

Ruth Zuta Eichah Zuta Midrash
Midrash
Tehillim Midrash
Midrash
Hashkem Exodus Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Zutta

—— 1000–1200 ——

Midrash
Midrash
Tadshe Sefer haYashar

—— Later ——

Yalkut Shimoni Machir ben Abba Mari Midrash
Midrash
Jonah Ein Yaakov Midrash
Midrash
HaGadol Numbers Rabbah Smaller midrashim

Targum

—— Torah
Torah
——

Targum
Targum
Onkelos Targum
Targum
Pseudo-Jonathan Fragment Targum Targum
Targum
Neofiti

—— Nevi'im
Nevi'im
——

Targum
Targum
Jonathan

—— Ketuvim
Ketuvim
——

Targum
Targum
Tehillim Targum
Targum
Mishlei Targum
Targum
Iyyov Targum
Targum
to the Five Megillot Targum Sheni
Targum Sheni
to Esther Targum
Targum
to Chronicles

v t e

The Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon (Hebrew: מכילתא דרבי שמעון בר יוחאי) is a Halakic midrash
Halakic midrash
on Exodus from the school of Rabbi Akiva, the "Rabbi Shimon" in question being Shimon bar Yochai. No midrash of this name is mentioned in Talmudic
Talmudic
literature, but medieval authors refer to one which they call either "Mekilta de-R. Simeon b. Yoḥai," or "Mekilta Aḥrita de-R. Shimon," or simply "Mekilta Aḥeret" = "another mekilta."

Contents

1 References by later writers 2 Current status 3 Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
bibliography 4 External links

References by later writers[edit] From this Mekhilta passages are cited, especially by Naḥmanides
Naḥmanides
in his Pentateuchal
Pentateuchal
commentary on Gen.
Gen.
xlix. 31; Ex. xiv. 19, xxi. 3, xxii. 12; Lev.
Lev.
xxiii. 24; and by R. Todros ha-Levi in his works Sefer ha-Razim and Oẓar ha-Kabod (MSS. in the Königliche Hofund Staatsbibliothek, Munich; comp. M. H. Landauer in Orient, Lit. 1845, vi. 182 et seq.). Until the early 1900s, aside from these quotations and some given by certain authors of the 16th century, as Elijah Mizraḥi in his commentary on Rashi's commentary on the Pentateuch, R. Shem-Ṭob b. Abraham in his Migdal 'Oz to Maimonides' Yad, and R. Meïr ibn Gabbai in his Tola'at Ya'aḳob (p. 63b, Cracow, 1570), the only other extract of any length from the Mekilta de-R. Shimon which was known was the one published by R. Isaac Elijah Landau from a manuscript of R. Abraham Halami, as an appendix to his edition of the Mekilta (Wilna, 1844).

Rabbinical eras

Chazal

Zugot Tannaim Amoraim Savoraim

Geonim Rishonim Acharonim

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There were, therefore, various erroneous opinions regarding this lost work. Zunz (G. V. p. 419, note a) considered it as a cabalistic work ascribed to R. Simeon b. Yoḥai. M. H. Landauer (l.c.) identified it with the Mekilta de-R. Yishmael, while J. Perles (in Monatsschrift, 1858, pp. 145 et seq.) held that the medieval authors applied the name "Mekilta de-R. Shim'on" merely to his maxims which were included in the Mekilta de-R. Yishmael, since separate sentences could be called "mekilta". M. Friedmann
M. Friedmann
was the first to maintain, in his introduction to the Mekilta of R. Ismael (pp. 54 et seq., Vienna, 1870), that, in addition to R. Ishmael's work, there was a halakic midrash to Exodus by R. Simeon, which was called the "Mekilta de-R. Shim'on," and that this Mekilta formed part of the Sifre
Sifre
mentioned in the Talmud
Talmud
Babli ( Sanh. 86a; Ber. 47b; Meg. 28b; Ḳid. 49a; Sheb. 41b); Ḥag. 3a). This assumption of Friedmann's was subsequently confirmed by the publication of a geonic responsum (A. Harkavy, Teshubot ha-Ge'onim, p. 107, No. 229, Berlin, 1888), where a baraita from the Sifre de-Be Rab to Exodus is quoted, which is the same passage as that cited by Naḥmanides
Naḥmanides
from the Mekilta de-R. Shimon b. Yoḥai, in his commentary on Ex. xxii. 12. This extract designates the work of R. Ishmael as the "Mekilta of Palestine," in contradistinction to R. Simeon b. Yoḥai's midrash. It is clear, therefore, that the Mekilta of R. Simeon was implied in the title Sifre
Sifre
de-Be Rab (comp. David Zvi Hoffman, Einleitung in die Halachischen Midraschim, p. 46); and it is mentioned in the Midrash Tehillim
Midrash Tehillim
(ed. S. Buber, Wilna, 1891), p. 252 (comp. Buber's note there), under the Hebrew
Hebrew
name Middot R. Shim'on b. Yoḥai. It is possible also that Simeon himself intended to refer to his midrash in his saying: "Learn my middot" ( Giṭ. 67a). The Judean sources, the Yerushalmi and the haggadic midrashim, introduce baraitot from this Mekilta with the phrase, "Teni R. Shim'on" = "R. Simeon has taught" (comp. Friedmann, introduction to his edition of the Mekilta, pp. 55 et seq.; Hoffmann, l.c. p. 48). The phrase "Tena de-Be R. Shim'on" is extremely rare, however, in Babli, where this midrash ranks as one of the " Sifre
Sifre
de-Be Rab" (Hoffmann, l.c. p. 50). Many sentences of R. Simeon are quoted there in the name of his son Eleazar, so that Hoffmann has very plausibly concluded (l.c. p. 51) that Eleazar edited his father's midrash. Current status[edit] The Mekilta de-R. Shim'on had disappeared, but some extracts from it were preserved in the collection known as Midrash
Midrash
ha-Gadol, as Israel Lewy first pointed out (Ein Wort über die Mechilta des R. Simon). These fragments were collected by David Zvi Hoffman
David Zvi Hoffman
and published under the title Mechilta des R. Simon b. Jochai in the Hebrew
Hebrew
monthly Ha-Peles (vols. i. to iv., passim). This Mekilta compiled from the Midrash
Midrash
ha-Gadol preserves abundant material from the earliest Scriptural commentaries, quoting, for instance, a sentence from the Doreshe Reshumot on Ex. xxi. 12 (Ha-Peles, iii. 258) which is found nowhere else. It contains also much from post- Talmudic
Talmudic
literature (comp. Hoffmann, l.c. p. 387, note 19), for the collector and redactor of the Midrash
Midrash
ha-Gadol had a peculiar way of dressing sentences of such medieval authorities as Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Aruk, and Maimonides
Maimonides
in midrashic garb and presenting them as ancient maxims (comp. S. Schechter, Introduction to Midrash ha-Gadol, p. 13, Cambridge, 1902). A critical version, using newly discovered fragments of texts, was later published by Yaakov Nahum Epstein and his student Ezra Zion Melamed. Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
bibliography[edit]

M. Friedmann, introduction to his edition of the Mekilta, pp. 51-73, Vienna, 1870; David Zvi Hoffman, Einleitung in die Halachischen Midraschim, pp. 45-51, Berlin, 1887; Israel Lewy, Ein Wort über die Mechilta des R. Simon, Breslau, 1889.

External links[edit]

Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
article for Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon, by Isidore Singer and Jacob Zallel Lauterbach. Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon by Epstein David Hoffman, Einleitung in hal. Midraschim, freecopy

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "article name needed". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

Israel Lewy, "EinWort ü. Mechilta..." defect scan,

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