Mein Kampf (German: [maɪ̯n kampf], My Struggle) is a 1925
autobiographical book by
Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work
describes the process by which
Hitler became antisemitic and outlines
his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein
Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926. The book was
edited by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.
Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be
"political crimes" following his failed Putsch in
Munich in November
Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon
devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued,
that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume
scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted
at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many
editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and
to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial." The
book was a bestseller in Germany during the 1930s.
After Hitler's death, copyright of
Mein Kampf passed to the state
government of Bavaria, which refused to allow any copying or printing
of the book in Germany. In 2016, following the expiry of the copyright
held by the Bavarian state government,
Mein Kampf was republished in
Germany for the first time since 1945, which prompted public debate
and divided reactions from Jewish groups.
Lebensraum ("Living space")
5 Contemporary observations
6 German publication history
7 English translations
7.1 Dugdale abridgement
7.2 Reynal and Hitchcock translation
7.3 Murphy translation
7.4 Stackpole translation and controversy
7.5 Cranston translation and controversy
7.6 Manheim translation
7.8 Official Nazi translation
8 Sales and royalties
9 Current availability
9.6 United States
9.7 Online availability
9.8 2016 republication in Germany
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
14.1 Online versions of Mein Kampf
Hitler originally wanted to call his forthcoming book Viereinhalb
Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit, or Four and a
Half Years (of Struggle) Against Lies, Stupidity and
Cowardice. Max Amann, head of the Franz Eher Verlag
and Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggested the much shorter
"Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle".
The arrangement of chapters is as follows:
Volume One: A Reckoning
Chapter 1: In the House of My Parents
Chapter 2: Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna
Chapter 3: General Political Considerations Based on My
Chapter 4: Munich
Chapter 5: The World War
Chapter 6: War Propaganda
Chapter 7: The Revolution
Chapter 8: The Beginning of My Political Activity
Chapter 9: The "German Workers' Party"
Chapter 10: Causes of the Collapse
Chapter 11: Nation and Race
Chapter 12: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist
German Workers' Party
Volume Two: The National Socialist Movement
Chapter 1: Philosophy and Party
Chapter 2: The State
Chapter 3: Subjects and Citizens
Chapter 4: Personality and the Conception of the Völkisch State
Chapter 5: Philosophy and Organization
Chapter 6: The Struggle of the Early Period – the Significance of
the Spoken Word
Chapter 7: The Struggle with the Red Front
Chapter 8: The Strong Man Is Mightiest Alone
Chapter 9: Basic Ideas Regarding the Meaning and Organization of the
Chapter 10: Federalism as a Mask
Propaganda and Organization
Chapter 12: The Trade-Union Question
Chapter 13: German Alliance Policy After the War
Chapter 14: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy
Chapter 15: The Right of Emergency Defense
In Mein Kampf,
Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril",
which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership. The
narrative describes the process by which he became increasingly
antisemitic and militaristic, especially during his years in Vienna.
He speaks of not having met a
Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that
at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant. When he first
encountered the antisemitic press, he says, he dismissed it as
unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same
antisemitic views, which became crucial to his program of national
reconstruction of Germany.
Mein Kampf has also been studied as a work on political theory. For
Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the
world's two evils:
Communism and Judaism.
During his work,
Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliament
of the Weimar Republic, the Jews, and Social Democrats, as well as
Marxists, though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, and the
parliament were all working for Jewish interests. He announced that
he wanted to completely destroy the parliamentary system, believing it
to be corrupt in principle, as those who reach power are inherent
While historians dispute the exact date
Hitler decided to force the
Jewish people to emigrate to Madagascar, few place the decision before
the mid-1930s. First published in 1925,
Mein Kampf shows Hitler's
personal grievances and his ambitions for creating a New Order.
Ian Kershaw points out that several passages in Mein
Kampf are undeniably of a genocidal nature.
Hitler wrote "the
nationalization of our masses will succeed only when, aside from all
the positive struggle for the soul of our people, their international
poisoners are exterminated", and he suggested that, "If at the
beginning of the war and during the war twelve or fifteen thousand of
these Hebrew corrupters of the nation had been subjected to poison
gas, such as had to be endured in the field by hundreds of thousands
of our very best German workers of all classes and professions, then
the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in
The racial laws to which
Hitler referred resonate directly with his
ideas in Mein Kampf. In the first edition of Mein Kampf,
that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than
their protection. Apart from this allusion to humane treatment, Hitler
saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper
space and purity for the "strong".
Lebensraum ("Living space")
In the chapter "Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy",
that the Germans needed
Lebensraum in the East, a "historic destiny"
that would properly nurture the German people.
that "the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result
of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only a
wonderful example of the state-forming efficacity of the German
element in an inferior race."
Hitler openly stated the future German expansion in the
East, foreshadowing Generalplan Ost:
And so we National Socialists consciously draw a line beneath the
foreign policy tendency of our pre-War period. We take up where we
broke off six hundred years ago. We stop the endless German movement
to the south and west, and turn our gaze toward the land in the east.
At long last we break off the colonial and commercial policy of the
pre-War period and shift to the soil policy of the future.
If we speak of soil in Europe today, we can primarily have in mind
Russia and her vassal border states.
Hitler originally wrote
Mein Kampf mostly for the followers
of National Socialism, it grew in popularity after he rose to power.
(Two other books written by party members, Gottfried Feder's Breaking
The Interest Slavery and Alfred Rosenberg's The Myth of the Twentieth
Century, have since lapsed into comparative literary obscurity, and no
translation of Feder's book from the original German is known.)
Hitler had made about 1.2 million Reichsmarks from the income of the
book by 1933, when the average annual income of a teacher was about
4,800 Marks. He accumulated a tax debt of 405,500 Reichsmark
(very roughly in 2015 1.1 million GBP, 1.4 million EUR, 1.5 million
USD) from the sale of about 240,000 copies before he became chancellor
in 1933 (at which time his debt was waived).
Hitler began to distance himself from the book after becoming
chancellor of Germany in 1933. He dismissed it as "fantasies behind
bars" that were little more than a series of articles for the
Völkischer Beobachter, and later told
Hans Frank that "If I had had
any idea in 1924 that I would have become Reich chancellor, I never
would have written the book." Nevertheless,
Mein Kampf was a
bestseller in Germany during the 1930s. During Hitler's years in
power, the book was in high demand in libraries and often reviewed and
quoted in other publications. It was given free to every newlywed
couple and every soldier fighting at the front. By 1939 it had
sold 5.2 million copies in eleven languages. By the end of the
war, about 10 million copies of the book had been sold or distributed
Mein Kampf, in essence, lays out the ideological program Hitler
established for the German revolution, by identifying the Jews and
"Bolsheviks" as racially and ideologically inferior and threatening,
and "Aryans" and National Socialists as racially superior and
politically progressive. Hitler's revolutionary goals included
expulsion of the Jews from
Greater Germany and the unification of
German peoples into one Greater Germany.
Hitler desired to restore
German lands to their greatest historical extent, real or imagined.
Due to its racist content and the historical effect of
World War II
World War II and the Holocaust, it is considered a
highly controversial book. Criticism has not come solely from
opponents of Nazism. Italian Fascist dictator and Nazi ally Benito
Mussolini was also critical of the book, saying that it was "a boring
tome that I have never been able to read" and remarked that Hitler's
beliefs, as expressed in the book, were "little more than commonplace
The German journalist Konrad Heiden, an early critic of the Nazi
Party, observed that the content of
Mein Kampf is essentially a
political argument with other members of the
Nazi Party who had
appeared to be Hitler's friends, but whom he was actually denouncing
in the book's content – sometimes by not even including references
The American literary theorist and philosopher
Kenneth Burke wrote a
1939 rhetorical analysis of the work, The Rhetoric of Hitler's
"Battle", which revealed an underlying message of aggressive
John Gunther said in 1940 that compared to the
autobiographies of Leon Trotsky or Henry Adams
Mein Kampf was "vapid,
vain, rhetorical, diffuse, prolix. But it is a powerful and moving
book, the product of great passionate feeling". He suggested that the
book exhausted curious German readers, but its "ceaseless repetition
of the argument, left impregnably in their minds, fecund and
In March 1940, British writer
George Orwell reviewed a then-recently
published uncensored translation of
Mein Kampf for The New English
Weekly. Orwell suggested that the force of Hitler's personality shone
through the often "clumsy" writing, capturing the magnetic allure of
Hitler for many Germans. In essence, Orwell notes,
Hitler offers only
visions of endless struggle and conflict in the creation of "a
horrible brainless empire" that "stretch[es] to
thereabouts". He wrote, "Whereas Socialism, and even capitalism in a
more grudging way, have said to people 'I offer you a good time,'
Hitler has said to them, 'I offer you struggle, danger, and death,'
and as a result a whole nation flings itself at his feet." Orwell's
review was written in the aftermath of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop
Hitler made peace with
Russia after more than a decade of
vitriolic rhetoric and threats between the two nations; with the pact
in place, Orwell believed, England was now facing a risk of Nazi
attack and the UK must not underestimate the appeal of Hitler's
In his 1943 book The Menace of the Herd, Austrian scholar Erik von
Kuehnelt-Leddihn described Hitler's ideas in
Mein Kampf and
elsewhere as "a veritable reductio ad absurdum of 'progressive'
thought" and betraying "a curious lack of original thought" that
Hitler offered no innovative or original ideas but was merely "a
virtuoso of commonplaces which he may or may not repeat in the guise
of a 'new discovery.'" Hitler's stated aim, Kuehnelt-Leddihn
writes, is to quash individualism in furtherance of political goals:
Hitler and Mussolini attack the "western democracies" they
insinuate that their "democracy" is not genuine. National Socialism
envisages abolishing the difference in wealth, education, intellect,
taste, philosophy, and habits by a leveling process which necessitates
in turn a total control over the child and the adolescent. Every
personal attitude will be branded—after communist pattern—as
"bourgeois," and this in spite of the fact that the bourgeois is the
representative of the most herdist class in the world, and that
National Socialism is a basically bourgeois movement.
Mein Kampf repeatedly speaks of the "masses" and the "herd"
referring to the people. The German people should probably, in his
view, remain a mass of identical "individuals" in an enormous sand
heap or ant heap, identical even to the color of their shirts, the
garment nearest to the body.
In his The Second World War, published in several volumes in the late
1940s and early 1950s,
Winston Churchill wrote that he felt that after
Hitler's ascension to power, no other book than
Mein Kampf deserved
more intensive scrutiny.
German publication history
Hitler was in power (1933–1945),
Mein Kampf came to be
available in three common editions. The first, the Volksausgabe or
People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and
was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the
cover. The Hochzeitsausgabe, or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with
the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover
was given free to marrying couples. In 1940, the Tornister-Ausgabe, or
Knapsack Edition, was released. This edition was a compact, but
unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post
office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front.
These three editions combined both volumes into the same book.
A special edition was published in 1939 in honour of Hitler's 50th
birthday. This edition was known as the Jubiläumsausgabe, or
Anniversary Issue. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards
with a gold sword on the cover. This work contained both volumes one
and two. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller
and more common Volksausgabe.
The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's
rule, and was available in soft cover and hardcover. The soft cover
edition contained the original cover (as pictured at the top of this
article). The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered
boards. The cover and spine contained an image of three brown oak
The first English translation was an abridgement by
Edgar Dugdale who
started work on it in 1931, at the prompting of his wife, Blanche.
When he learned that the London publishing firm of Hurst &
Blackett had secured the rights to publish an abridgement in the
United Kingdom, he offered it for free in April 1933. However, a local
Nazi Party representative insisted that the translation be further
abridged before publication, so it was held back until 13 October
1933, although excerpts were allowed to run in
The Times in late July.
It was published by Hurst & Blackett as part of "The Paternoster
Houghton Mifflin secured the rights to the Dugdale
abridgement on 29 July 1933. The only differences
between the American and British versions are that the title was
translated My Struggle in the UK and My Battle in America; and that
Dugdale is credited as translator in the US edition, while the British
version withheld his name. Both Dugdale and his wife were active in
the Zionist movement; Blanche was the niece of Lord Balfour, and they
wished to avoid publicity.
Reynal and Hitchcock translation
Houghton and Mifflin licensed Reynal & Hitchcock the rights to
publish a full unexpurgated translation in 1938. The book was
translated from the two volumes of the first German edition (1925 and
1927), with notations appended noting any changes made in later
editions, which were deemed "not as extensive as popularly
supposed." The translation, made by a committee from the New
School for Social Research headed by Alvin Johnson, was said to
have been made with a view to readability rather than in an effort to
rigidly reproduce Hitler's sometimes idiosyncratic German form.
The text was heavily annotated for an American audience with
biographical and historical details derived largely from German
sources. As the translators deemed the book "a propagandistic
essay of a violent partisan", which "often warps historical truth and
sometimes ignores it completely," the tone of many of these
annotations reflected a conscious attempt to provide "factual
information that constitutes an extensive critique of the
original." The book appeared for sale on 28 February
One of the earlier complete English translations of
Mein Kampf was by
James Murphy in 1939. It was the only English translation approved by
Nazi Germany. The version published by Hutchison & Co. in
association with Hurst & Blackett, Ltd (London) in 1939 of the
combined volumes I and II is profusely illustrated with many full page
drawings and photographs. The opening line, "It has turned out
fortunate for me to-day that destiny appointed Braunau-on-the-Inn to
be my birthplace," is characteristic of Hitler's sense of destiny that
began to develop in the early 1920s. Hurst & Blackett ceased
publishing the Murphy translation in 1942 when the original plates
were destroyed by German bombing, but it is still published and
available in facsimile editions and also on the Internet.
Stackpole translation and controversy
The small Pennsylvania firm of Stackpole and Sons released its own
unexpurgated translation by William Soskin on the same day as Houghton
Mifflin, amid much legal wrangling. The Second Circuit Court of
Appeals ruled in Houghton Mifflin's favour that June and ordered
Stackpole to stop selling their version, but litigation followed
for a few more years until the case was finally resolved in September
Among other things, Stackpole argued that
Hitler could not have
legally transferred his right to a copyright in the United States to
Eher Verlag in 1925, because he was not a citizen of any country.
Houghton Mifflin v. Stackpole was a minor landmark in American
copyright law, definitively establishing that stateless persons have
the same copyright status in the United States that any other
foreigner would. In the three months that Stackpole's version
was available it sold 12,000 copies.
Cranston translation and controversy
Houghton Mifflin's abridged English translation left out some of
Hitler's more antisemitic and militaristic statements. This motivated
Alan Cranston, an American reporter for
United Press International
United Press International in
Germany (and later a U.S. Senator from California), to publish his own
abridged and annotated translation. Cranston believed this version
more accurately reflected the contents of the book and Hitler's
intentions. In 1939, Cranston was sued by Hitler's publisher for
copyright infringement, and a Connecticut judge ruled in Hitler's
favour. By the time the publication of Cranston's version was stopped,
500,000 copies had already been sold. Today, the
profits and proceeds are given to various charities.
Houghton Mifflin published a translation by
Ralph Manheim in 1943.
They did this to avoid having to share their profits with Reynal &
Hitchcock, and to increase sales by offering a more readable
translation. The Manheim translation was first published in the United
Kingdom by Hurst & Blackett in 1969 amid some controversy.
In addition to the above translations and abridgments, the following
collections of excerpts were available in English before the start of
Central Germany, 7 May 1936 – Confidential- A
Translation of Some of
the More Important Passages of Hitler's
Mein Kampf (1925 edition)
British Embassy in Berlin
Germany's Foreign Policy as Stated in
Mein Kampf by
Adolf Hitler FOE
Duchess of Atholl
Friends of Europe
Mein Kampf: An Unexpurgated Digest
B. D. Shaw
Political Digest Press of New York City
Mein Kampf: A New Unexpurgated
Translation Condensed with Critical
Comments and Explanatory Notes
Notes by Sen. Alan Cranston
Noram Publishing Co. of Greenwich, Conn.
Official Nazi translation
A previously unknown English translation was released in 2008, which
had been prepared by the official Nazi printing office, the Franz Eher
Verlag. In 1939, the
Nazi propaganda ministry hired James Murphy to
create an English version of Mein Kampf, which they hoped to use to
promote Nazi goals in English-speaking countries. While Murphy was in
Germany, he became less enchanted with Nazi ideology and made some
statements that the
Propaganda Ministry disliked. As a result, they
asked him to leave Germany immediately. He was not able to take any of
his notes but later sent his wife back to obtain his partial
translation. These notes were later used to create the Murphy
Sales and royalties
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Sales of Dugdale abridgment in the United Kingdom.
£58.5.6/ RM 715
£635.68 /RM 7410
In 1938, 8,000 copies were sold in the United States.
Sales of the
Houghton Mifflin Dugdale translation in the United
The first printing of the U.S. Dugdale edition, the October 1933 with
7,603 copies, of which 290 were given away as complimentary gifts.
6 mon. ending
The royalty on the first printing in the U.S. was 15% or $3,206.45
total. Curtis Brown, literary agent, took 20%, or $641.20 total, and
the IRS took $384.75, leaving Eher Verlag $2,180.37 or RM 5668.
The January 1937 second printing was c. 4,000 copies.
6 mon. ending
There were three separate printings from August 1938 to March 1939,
totaling 14,000; sales totals by 31 March 1939 were 10,345.
The Murphy and
Houghton Mifflin translations were the only ones
published by the authorised publishers while
Hitler was still alive,
and not at war with the U.K. and the U.S.
There was some resistance from Eher Verlag to Hurst and Blackett's
Murphy translation, as they had not been granted the rights to a full
translation. However, they allowed it de facto permission by not
lodging a formal protest, and on 5 May 1939, even inquired about
royalties. The British publishers responded on the 12th that the
information they requested was "not yet available" and the point would
be moot within a few months, on 3 September 1939, when all royalties
were halted due to the state of war existing between Britain and
Royalties were likewise held up in the United States due to the
Houghton Mifflin and Stackpole. Because the matter
was only settled in September 1941, only a few months before a state
of war existed between Germany and the U.S., all Eher Verlag ever got
was a $2,500 advance from Reynal and Hitchcock. It got none from the
unauthorised Stackpole edition or the 1943 Manheim edition.
At the time of his suicide, Hitler's official place of residence was
in Munich, which led to his entire estate, including all rights to
Mein Kampf, changing to the ownership of the state of Bavaria. The
government of Bavaria, in agreement with the federal government of
Germany, refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in
Germany. It also opposed copying and printing in other countries, but
with less success. As per German copyright law, the entire text
entered the public domain on 1 January 2016, 70 years after the
Owning and buying the book in Germany is not an offence. Trading in
old copies is lawful as well, unless it is done in such a fashion as
to "promote hatred or war." In particular, the unmodified edition is
not covered by §86
StGB that forbids dissemination of means of
propaganda of unconstitutional organisations, since it is a
"pre-constitutional work" and as such cannot be opposed to the free
and democratic basic order, according to a 1979 decision of the
Federal Court of Justice of Germany. Most German libraries carry
heavily commented and excerpted versions of Mein Kampf. In 2008,
Stephan Kramer, secretary-general of the Central Council of Jews in
Germany, not only recommended lifting the ban, but volunteered the
help of his organization in editing and annotating the text, saying
that it is time for the book to be made available to all online.
A variety of restrictions or special circumstances apply in other
Since its first publication in India in 1928,
Mein Kampf has gone
through hundreds of editions and sold over 100,000 copies.
In the Netherlands the sale of
Mein Kampf is forbidden.
In the Russian Federation,
Mein Kampf has been published at least
three times since 1992; the Russian text is also available on
websites. In 2006 the Public Chamber of
Russia proposed banning the
book. In 2009 St. Petersburg's branch of the Russian Ministry of
Internal Affairs requested to remove an annotated and hyper-linked
Russian translation of the book from a historiography
website. On 13 April 2010, it was announced that Mein
Kampf is outlawed on grounds of extremism promotion.
Mein Kampf has been reprinted several times since 1945; in 1970, 1992,
2002 and 2010. In 1992 the Government of
Bavaria tried to stop the
publication of the book, and the case went to the Supreme Court of
Sweden which ruled in favour of the publisher, stating that the book
is protected by copyright, but that the copyright holder is
unidentified (and not the State of Bavaria) and that the original
Swedish publisher from 1934 had gone out of business. It therefore
refused the Government of Bavaria's claim. The only translation
changes came in the 1970 edition, but they were only linguistic, based
on a new Swedish standard.
Mein Kampf was widely available and growing in popularity in Turkey,
even to the point where it became a bestseller, selling up to 100,000
copies in just two months in 2005. Analysts and commentators believe
the popularity of the book to be related to a rise in nationalism and
anti-U.S. sentiment. A columnist in Shalom stated this was a result of
"what is happening in the Middle East, the Israeli-Palestinian problem
and the war in Iraq." Doğu Ergil, a political scientist at Ankara
University, said both far-right ultranationalists and extremist
Islamists had found common ground - "not on a common agenda for the
future, but on their anxieties, fears and hate".
In the United States,
Mein Kampf can be found at many community
libraries and can be bought, sold and traded in bookshops. The
U.S. government seized the copyright in September 1942 during the
Second World War under the Trading with the Enemy Act and in 1979,
Houghton Mifflin, the U.S. publisher of the book, bought the rights
from the government pursuant to 28 C.F.R. 0.47. More than 15,000
copies are sold a year. In 2016,
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
reported that it was having difficulty finding a charity that would
accept profits from the sales of its version of Mein Kampf, which it
had promised to donate.
In 1999, the
Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center documented that major Internet
booksellers such as
Amazon.com and Barnesandnoble.com sell Mein Kampf
to Germany. After a public outcry, both companies agreed to stop those
sales to addresses in Germany. The book is currently available
through both companies online. It is also available in various
languages, including German, at the Internet Archive. The Murphy
translation of the book is freely available on Project Gutenberg
Australia. Since the January 2016 republication of the book in
Germany, the book can be ordered at Amazon's German website.
2016 republication in Germany
On 3 February 2010, the Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) in
Munich announced plans to republish an annotated version of the text,
for educational purposes in schools and universities, in 2015, when
the copyright currently held by the Bavarian state government expires
(2016). The book had last been published in Germany in 1945. A group
of German historians argued that a republication was necessary to get
an authoritative annotated edition by the time the copyright runs out,
which might open the way for neo-Nazi groups to publish their own
versions. "Once Bavaria's copyright expires, there is the danger of
charlatans and neo-Nazis appropriating this infamous book for
themselves," Wolfgang Heubisch said. The Bavarian government opposed
the plan, citing respect for victims of the Holocaust. Its Finance
Ministry said that permits for reprints would not be issued, at home
or abroad. This would also apply to a new annotated edition. The
republished book might be banned as Nazi propaganda. Even after
expiration of the copyright, the Bavarian government emphasised that
"the dissemination of Nazi ideologies will remain prohibited in
Germany and is punishable under the penal code".[dead
On 12 December 2013 the Bavarian government cancelled its financial
support for an annotated edition. The Institute of Contemporary
History (IfZ) in Munich, which is preparing the translation, announced
that it intended to proceed with publication after the copyright
expired. The IfZ scheduled an edition of
Mein Kampf for release in
Two-volume annotated edition of Mein Kampf, 2016
Richard Verber, vice-president of the Board of Deputies of British
Jews, stated in 2015 that the board trusted the academic and
educational value of republishing. “We would, of course, be very
wary of any attempt to glorify
Hitler or to belittle the
any way,” Verber declared to The Observer. “But this is not that.
I do understand how some Jewish groups could be upset and nervous, but
it seems it is being done from a historical point of view and to put
it in context.”
An annotated edition of
Mein Kampf was published in Germany in January
2016 and sold out within hours on Amazon's German site. The book's
publication led to public debate in Germany, and divided reactions
from Jewish groups, with some supporting, and others opposing, the
decision to publish. German officials had previously said they
would limit public access to the text amid fears that its
republication could stir neo-Nazi sentiment. Some bookstores
stated that they would not stock the book. Dussmann, a Berlin
bookstore, stated that one copy was available on the shelves in the
history section, but that it would not be advertised and more copies
would be available only on order. By January 2017, the German
annotated edition had sold over 85,000 copies.
Main article: Zweites Buch
After the party's poor showing in the 1928 elections,
that the reason for his loss was the public's misunderstanding of his
ideas. He then retired to
Munich to dictate a sequel to
Mein Kampf to
expand on its ideas, with more focus on foreign policy.
Only two copies of the 200-page manuscript were originally made, and
only one of these was ever made public. The document was neither
edited nor published during the Nazi era and remains known as Zweites
Buch, or "Second Book". To keep the document strictly secret, in 1935
Hitler ordered that it be placed in a safe in an air raid shelter. It
remained there until being discovered by an American officer in 1945.
The authenticity of the document found in 1945 has been verified by
Josef Berg (former employee of the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag)
Telford Taylor (former Brigadier General U.S.A.R. and Chief
Counsel at the Nuremberg war-crimes trials).
In 1958, the
Zweites Buch was found in the archives of the United
States by American historian Gerhard Weinberg. Unable to find an
American publisher, Weinberg turned to his mentor –
Hans Rothfels at
the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, and his associate
Martin Broszat – who published
Zweites Buch in 1961. A pirated
edition was published in English in New York in 1962. The first
authoritative English edition was not published until 2003 (Hitler's
Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf,
Gustave Le Bon, a main influence of this book and crowd psychology
Generalplan Ost, Hitler's "new order of ethnographical relations"
LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii
Mein Kampf in Arabic
List of books banned by governments
Berlin Without Jews, a dystopian satirical novel about German
antisemitism, published in the same year as Mein Kampf
Nazi Germany portal
Mein Kampf ("My Fight"),
Adolf Hitler (originally 1925–1926),
Reissue edition (15 September 1998), Publisher: Mariner Books,
Language: English, paperback, 720 pages, ISBN 978-1495333347
^ Page 198 of William L. Shirer's The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
^ Robert G.L. Waite, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Basic Books,
^ Heinz, Heinz (1934). Germany's Hitler. Hurst & Blackett.
^ Payne, Robert (1973). The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. Popular
Library. p. 203.
^ Richard Cohen."Guess Who's on the Backlist". The New York Times. 28
June 1998. Retrieved on 24 April 2008.
Mein Kampf – The Text, its Themes and Hitler's Vision, History
^ "Mein Kampf". Internet Archive.
^ Browning, Christopher R. (2003). Initiating the Final Solution: The
Fateful Months of September–October 1941. Washington, D.C.: United
Holocaust Memorial Museum, Center for Advanced Holocaust
Studies. p. 12. OCLC 53343660.
^ Ian Kershaw,
Hitler 1889-1936 Hubris (1999), p.258
^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume One - A Reckoning, Chapter XII: The
First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers'
^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume Two - A Reckoning, Chapter XV: The
Right of Emergency Defense, p. 984, quoted in Yahlil, Leni (1991). "2.
Hitler Implements Twentieth-Century Anti-Semitism". The Holocaust: The
Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945. Oxford University Press.
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9 January 2016.
^ A. Hitler.
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^ "Hitler's expansionist aims > Professor Sir
Ian Kershaw >
^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Eastern Orientation or Eastern policy
^ Joachim C. Fest (1 February 2013). Hitler. Houghton Mifflin
Harcourt. p. 216. ISBN 0-544-19554-X.
^ a b c d Mythos Ladenhüter Spiegel Online
^ a b
Hitler dodged taxes, expert finds
^ Timothy W. Ryback (6 July 2010). Hitler's Private Library: The Books
that Shaped his Life. Random House. pp. 92–93.
^ a b "High demand for reprint of Hitler's
Mein Kampf takes publisher
by surprise". The Guardian. 8 January 2016.
Mein Kampf work by Hitler. Encyclopædia Britannica. Last updated 19
February 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2015 from
^ Smith, Denis Mack. 1983. Mussolini: A Biography. New York: Vintage
Books. p. 172 / London: Paladin, p. 200
^ Uregina.ca Archived 25 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper &
Brothers. p. 31.
^ Orwell, George. "Mein Kampf" review, reprinted in The Collected
Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, Vol 2., Sonia Orwell
and Ian Angus, eds., Harourt Brace Jovanovich 1968
^ Francis Stuart Campbell, pen name of Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn
(1943), Menace of the Herd, or, Procrustes at Large, Milwaukee, WI:
The Bruce Publishing Company
^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 159
^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 201
^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, pp. 202–203
^ Winston Churchill: The Second World War. Volume 1, Houghton Mifflin
Books 1986, S. 50. "Here was the new Koran of faith and war: turgid,
verbose, shapeless, but pregnant with its message."
^ a b c "Introduction," Mein Kampf. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock,
1940; pg. viii.
^ Prefatory Note, Mein Kampf. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1940;
^ "Introduction" to Reynal and Hitchcock edition, pg. ix.
^ U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit,
Houghton Mifflin Co. v.
Stackpole Sons, Inc., et al., 104 Fed.2d 306 (1939); Note, 49 Yale
L.J. 132 (1939).
^ "HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO. v. STACKPOLE SONS, INC."
^ "Kampleman US & International
^ Mein Royalties Cabinet Magazine Online.
Mein Kampf in Britain and America: A Publishing History
1930–39; Barnes, James J.; Patience P. Barnes (1980–2008)
Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-07267-0
^ § 64 Allgemeines, German
Copyright Law. The copyright has been
relinquished for the Dutch and Swedish editions and some English ones
(though not in the U.S., see below).
^ Judgement of 25 July 1979 – 3 StR 182/79 (S); BGHSt 29, 73 ff.
^ "Jewish Leader Urges Book Ban End", Dateline World Jewry, World
Jewish Congress, July/August 2008.
^ "Archiv – 33/2013 – Dschungel – Über die Wahrnehmung von
Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus in Indien". Jungle-world.com.
^ "Hitler's "Mein Kampf" on India's best sellers list". RT.com.
^ "Shop owner cleared of spreading hatred for selling
Mein Kampf -
DutchNews.nl". 14 February 2017.
^ "metronieuws.nl cookie consent". tmgonlinemedia.nl.
^ A well-known historiography web site shut down over publishing
Hitler's book, Newsru.com, 8 July 2009.
^ "Моя борьба". 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
^ Adolf Hitler, annotated and hyper-linked ed. by Vyacheslav
Rumyantsev, archived from the original 12 February 2008; an abridged
version remained intact.
^ Radio Netherlands Worldwide
^ "Hägglunds förlag". Hagglundsforlag.se. Archived from the original
on 31 March 2012.
^ Smith, Helena (29 March 2005). "
Mein Kampf sales soar in Turkey".
The Guardian. London.
Hitler book bestseller in Turkey".
BBC News. 18 March 2005.
^ a b Pascal, Julia (25 June 2001). "Unbanning Hitler". New Statesman.
Archived from the original on 5 June 2011.
^ "The Milwaukee Journal - Google News Archive Search".
^ Boston publisher grapples with 'Mein Kampf' profits Boston Globe
Retrieved 3 May 2016.
^ BEYETTE, BEVERLY (5 January 2000). "Is hate for sale?". LA
^ "Mein Kampf: Adolf Hitler, Ralph Manheim: 9780395925034: Amazon.com:
^ "Mein Kampf". Barnes & Noble. 21 October 2010.
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^ a b Eddy, Melissa (2016-01-08). "'Mein Kampf,' Hitler's Manifesto,
Returns to German Shelves". The New York Times. Retrieved
^ "'Mein Kampf' to see its first post-WWII publication in Germany".
The Independent. London. 6 February 2010. Archived from the original
on 12 February 2010.
Associated Press (5 February 2010). "Historians Hope to Publish
'Mein Kampf' in Germany". The New York Times.
^ Kulish, Nicholas (4 February 2010). "Rebuffing Scholars, Germany
Vows to Keep
Hitler Out of Print". The New York Times.
^ Isenson, Nancy;
Reuters (4 February 2010). "German institute seeks
to reprint Hitler's 'Mein Kampf'". Deutsche Welle.
^ "The Kampf for 'Mein Kampf': Annotated Version of
Hitler Polemic in
the Works". Der Spiegel. 4 February 2010.
Bavaria abandons plans for new edition of Mein Kampf".
BBC News. 12
^ Logwin, Pierre (20 February 2015). "'Anti-Hitler' Mein Kampf?
Germany to republish Nazi leader's manifesto after 70 years". rt.com.
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the 2016 edition, turning the Nazi leader's infamous manifesto into an
^ Alison Smale (1 December 2015). "Scholars Unveil New Edition of
Hitler's 'Mein Kampf'". The New York Times.
^ Vanessa Thorpe. "British Jews give wary approval to the return of
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Copyright of Adolf Hitler's
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^ "The annotated version of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' is a hit in
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München. (Volume 1, publishing company Fritz Eher and descendants,
Hitler, A. (1927). Mein Kampf, Band 2, Verlag Franz Eher Nachfahren,
München. (Volume 2, after 1930 both volumes were only published in
Hitler, A. (1935).
Zweites Buch (trans.) Hitler's Second Book: The
Unpublished Sequel to
Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler. Enigma Books.
Hitler, A. (1945). My Political Testament. Wikisource Version.
Hitler, A. (1945). My Private Will and Testament. Wikisource Version.
Hitler, A., et al. (1971). Unmasked: two confidential interviews with
Hitler in 1931. Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-1642-0.
Hitler, A., et al. (1974). Hitler's Letters and Notes. Harper &
Row. ISBN 0-06-012832-1.
Hitler, A., et al. (2008). Hitler's Table Talk. Enigma Books.
Payne, Robert. (1973). "The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler" Praeger
Publishers, Inc., 111 4th Ave., New York City. Library of Congress
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A. Hitler, Außenpolitische Standortbestimmung nach der Reichtagswahl
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1961), in Hitler: Reden, Schriften, Anordnungen, Februar 1925 bis
Januar 1933, Vol IIA, with an introduction by G. L. Weinberg; G. L.
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Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1960). "Hitlers Kriegsziele". Vierteljahrshefte
für Zeitgeschichte. 8: 121–133. ISSN 0042-5702.
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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mein Kampf
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Online versions of Mein Kampf
1936 edition (172.-173. printing) in German
Fraktur script (71.4 Mb)
German version as an audiobook, human-read (27h 17m, 741 Mb)
Murphy translation at archive.org (pdf)
Murphy translation at Gutenberg
Murphy translation at greatwar.nl (pdf, txt)
Complete Dugdale abridgment at archive.org
1939 Reynal and Hitchcock translation at archive.org.
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