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_MEIN KAMPF_ (German: , _My Struggle_) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler . The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of _Mein Kampf_ was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926. The book was edited by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess .

Hitler began _Mein Kampf_ while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial." After Hitler's death, copyright of _Mein Kampf_ passed to the state government of Bavaria , which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. In 2016, following the expiry of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, _Mein Kampf_ was republished in Germany for the first time since 1945.

CONTENTS

* 1 Title * 2 Contents

* 3 Analysis

* 3.1 Antisemitism * 3.2 Lebensraum

* 4 Popularity * 5 Contemporary observations * 6 German publication history

* 7 English translations

* 7.1 Dugdale abridgement * 7.2 Reynal and Hitchcock translation * 7.3 Murphy translation * 7.4 Stackpole translation and controversy * 7.5 Cranston translation and controversy * 7.6 Manheim translation * 7.7 Excerpts * 7.8 Official Nazi translation

* 8 Sales and royalties

* 9 Current availability

* 9.1 India * 9.2 Netherlands * 9.3 Russia * 9.4 Sweden * 9.5 Turkey * 9.6 United States * 9.7 Online availability * 9.8 2016 republication in Germany

* 10 Sequel * 11 See also * 12 References

* 13 Further reading

* 13.1 Hitler * 13.2 Others

* 14 External links

* 14.1 Online versions of _Mein Kampf_

* 14.1.1 German * 14.1.2 English

TITLE

Hitler originally wanted to call his forthcoming book _Viereinhalb Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit_, or _Four and a Half Years (of Struggle) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice_. Max Amann , head of the Franz Eher Verlag and Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggested the much shorter "_Mein Kampf"_ or _"My Struggle_".

CONTENTS

The arrangement of chapters is as follows:

* Volume One: A Reckoning

* Chapter 1: In the House of My Parents * Chapter 2: Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna * Chapter 3: General Political Considerations Based on My Vienna Period * Chapter 4: Munich * Chapter 5: The World War * Chapter 6: War Propaganda * Chapter 7: The Revolution * Chapter 8: The Beginning of My Political Activity * Chapter 9: The "German Workers' Party" * Chapter 10: Causes of the Collapse * Chapter 11: Nation and Race * Chapter 12: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party

* Volume Two: The National Socialist Movement

* Chapter 1: Philosophy and Party * Chapter 2: The State * Chapter 3: Subjects and Citizens * Chapter 4: Personality and the Conception of the _Völkisch_ State * Chapter 5: Philosophy and Organization * Chapter 6: The Struggle of the Early Period – the Significance of the Spoken Word * Chapter 7: The Struggle with the Red Front * Chapter 8: The Strong Man Is Mightiest Alone * Chapter 9: Basic Ideas Regarding the Meaning and Organization of the Sturmabteilung * Chapter 10: Federalism as a Mask * Chapter 11: Propaganda and Organization * Chapter 12: The Trade-Union Question * Chapter 13: German Alliance Policy After the War * Chapter 14: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy * Chapter 15: The Right of Emergency Defense

* Conclusion * Index

ANALYSIS

In _Mein Kampf_, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril", which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership. The narrative describes the process by which he became increasingly antisemitic and militaristic , especially during his years in Vienna. He speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant. When he first encountered the antisemitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same antisemitic views, which became crucial to his program of national reconstruction of Germany.

_Mein Kampf_ has also been studied as a work on political theory . For example, Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's two evils: Communism and Judaism .

During his work, Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliament of the Weimar Republic , the Jews, and Social Democrats , as well as Marxists , though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, and the parliament were all working for Jewish interests. He announced that he wanted to completely destroy the parliamentary system , believing it to be corrupt in principle, as those who reach power are inherent opportunists .

ANTISEMITISM

While historians dispute the exact date Hitler decided to force the Jewish people to emigrate to Madagascar , few place the decision before the mid-1930s. First published in 1925, _Mein Kampf_ shows Hitler's personal grievances and his ambitions for creating a New Order .

The historian Ian Kershaw points out that several passages in _Mein Kampf_ are undeniably of a genocidal nature. Hitler wrote "the nationalization of our masses will succeed only when, aside from all the positive struggle for the soul of our people, their international poisoners are exterminated", and he suggested that, "If at the beginning of the war and during the war twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the nation had been subjected to poison gas, such as had to be endured in the field by hundreds of thousands of our very best German workers of all classes and professions, then the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain."

The racial laws to which Hitler referred resonate directly with his ideas in _Mein Kampf_. In the first edition of _Mein Kampf_, Hitler stated that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than their protection. Apart from this allusion to humane treatment, Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the "strong".

LEBENSRAUM

In the chapter "Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy", Hitler argued that the Germans needed Lebensraum in the East, a "historic destiny" that would properly nurture the German people. Hitler believed that "the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only a wonderful example of the state-forming efficacity of the German element in an inferior race."

In _Mein Kampf_ Hitler openly stated the future German expansion in the East, foreshadowing Generalplan Ost :

And so we National Socialists consciously draw a line beneath the foreign policy tendency of our pre-War period. We take up where we broke off six hundred years ago. We stop the endless German movement to the south and west, and turn our gaze toward the land in the east. At long last we break off the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-War period and shift to the soil policy of the future.

If we speak of soil in Europe today, we can primarily have in mind only Russia and her vassal border states.

POPULARITY

Although Hitler originally wrote the book mostly for the followers of National Socialism, it grew in popularity. Hitler had made about 1.2 million Reichsmarks from the income of his book by 1933, when the average annual income of a teacher was about 4,800 Marks. He accumulated a tax debt of 405,500 Reichsmark (very roughly in 2015 1.1 million GBP , 1.4 million EUR , 1.5 million USD ) from the sale of about 240,000 copies before he became chancellor in 1933 (at which time his debt was waived).

After Hitler rose to power, the book gained greater popularity. (Two other books written by party members, Gottfried Feder 's _Breaking The Interest Slavery_ and Alfred Rosenberg 's _The Myth of the Twentieth Century ,_ have since lapsed into comparative literary obscurity, and no translation of Feder's book from the original German is known.) The book was in high demand in libraries and often reviewed and quoted in other publications. During Hitler's years in power, the book was given free to every newlywed couple and every soldier fighting at the front. By 1939 the book had sold 5.2 million copies in eleven languages. By the end of the war, about 10 million copies of the book had been sold or distributed in Germany.

After becoming chancellor of Germany in 1933, Hitler began to distance himself from the book and dismissed it as "fantasies behind bars" that were little more than a series of articles for the _ Völkischer Beobachter _ and later told Hans Frank that "If I had had any idea in 1924 that I would have become Reich chancellor, I never would have written the book."

There are currently six e-book versions of _Mein Kampf_ available for sale. In 2014, two of these versions reached the 12th and 15th spots on the iTunes Politics and Current Events section. The same year a digital version of the book reached number one on the Amazon Propaganda and Political Psychology chart.

CONTEMPORARY OBSERVATIONS

_Mein Kampf_, in essence, lays out the ideological program Hitler established for the German revolution, by identifying the Jews and "Bolsheviks" as racially and ideologically inferior and threatening, and "Aryans" and National Socialists as racially superior and politically progressive. Hitler's revolutionary goals included expulsion of the Jews from Greater Germany and the unification of German peoples into one Greater Germany. Hitler desired to restore German lands to their greatest historical extent, real or imagined.

Due to its racist content and the historical effect of Nazism upon Europe during World War II and the Holocaust , it is considered a highly controversial book. Criticism has not come solely from opponents of Nazism. Italian Fascist dictator and Nazi ally Benito Mussolini was also critical of the book, saying that it was "a boring tome that I have never been able to read" and remarked that Hitler's beliefs, as expressed in the book, were "little more than commonplace clichés".

The German journalist Konrad Heiden , an early critic of the Nazi Party, observed that the content of _Mein Kampf_ is essentially a political argument with other members of the Nazi Party who had appeared to be Hitler's friends, but whom he was actually denouncing in the book's content – sometimes by not even including references to them.

The American literary theorist and philosopher Kenneth Burke wrote a 1939 rhetorical analysis of the work, _The Rhetoric of Hitler\'s "Battle" _, which revealed its underlying message of aggressive intent.

In March 1940, British writer George Orwell reviewed a then-recently published uncensored translation of _Mein Kampf_ for _The New English Weekly _. Orwell suggested that the force of Hitler's personality shone through the often "clumsy" writing, capturing the magnetic allure of Hitler for many Germans. In essence, Orwell notes, Hitler offers only visions of endless struggle and conflict in the creation of "a horrible brainless empire" that "stretch to Afghanistan or thereabouts". He wrote, "Whereas Socialism, and even capitalism in a more grudging way, have said to people 'I offer you a good time,' Hitler has said to them, 'I offer you struggle, danger, and death,' and as a result a whole nation flings itself at his feet." Orwell's review was written in the aftermath of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact , when Hitler made peace with Russia after more than a decade of vitriolic rhetoric and threats between the two nations; with the pact in place, Orwell believed, England was now facing a risk of Nazi attack and the UK must not underestimate the appeal of Hitler's ideas.

In his 1943 book _The Menace of the Herd_, Austrian scholar Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn described Hitler's ideas in _Mein Kampf_ and elsewhere as "a veritable _reductio ad absurdum _ of 'progressive ' thought" and betraying "a curious lack of original thought" that shows Hitler offered no innovative or original ideas but was merely "a _virtuoso_ of commonplaces which he may or may not repeat in the guise of a 'new discovery.'" Hitler's stated aim, Kuehnelt-Leddihn writes, is to quash individualism in furtherance of political goals:

When Hitler and Mussolini attack the "western democracies" they insinuate that their "democracy" is not genuine. National Socialism envisages abolishing the difference in wealth, education, intellect, taste, philosophy, and habits by a leveling process which necessitates in turn a total control over the child and the adolescent. Every personal attitude will be branded—after communist pattern—as "bourgeois ," and this in spite of the fact that the bourgeois is the representative of the most herdist class in the world, and that National Socialism is a basically bourgeois movement.

Hitler in _Mein Kampf_ repeatedly speaks of the "masses" and the "herd" referring to the people. The German people should probably, in his view, remain a mass of identical "individuals" in an enormous sand heap or ant heap, identical even to the color of their shirts, the garment nearest to the body.

In his _The Second World War _, published in several volumes in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Winston Churchill wrote that he felt that after Hitler's ascension to power, no other book than _Mein Kampf_ deserved more intensive scrutiny.

GERMAN PUBLICATION HISTORY

While Hitler was in power (1933–1945), _Mein Kampf_ came to be available in three common editions. The first, the _Volksausgabe_ or People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the cover. The _Hochzeitsausgabe_, or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover was given free to marrying couples. In 1940, the _Tornister-Ausgabe_, or Knapsack Edition, was released. This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front. These three editions combined both volumes into the same book.

A special edition was published in 1939 in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. This edition was known as the _Jubiläumsausgabe_, or Anniversary Issue. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards with a gold sword on the cover. This work contained both volumes one and two. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common _Volksausgabe_.

The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's rule, and was available in soft cover and hardcover. The soft cover edition contained the original cover (as pictured at the top of this article). The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered boards. The cover and spine contained an image of three brown oak leaves.

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS

DUGDALE ABRIDGEMENT

The first English translation was an abridgement by Edgar Dugdale who started work on it in 1931, at the prompting of his wife, Blanche. When he learned that the London publishing firm of Hurst & Blackett had secured the rights to publish an abridgement in the United Kingdom, he offered it for free in April 1933. However, a local Nazi Party representative insisted that the translation be further abridged before publication, so it was held back until 13 October 1933, although excerpts were allowed to run in _ The Times _ in late July. It was published by Hurst "> The only differences between the American and British versions are that the title was translated _My Struggle_ in the UK and _My Battle_ in America; and that Dugdale is credited as translator in the US edition, while the British version withheld his name. Both Dugdale and his wife were active in the Zionist movement; Blanche was the niece of Lord Balfour , and they wished to avoid publicity.

REYNAL AND HITCHCOCK TRANSLATION

Houghton and Mifflin licensed Reynal ">

MURPHY TRANSLATION

One of the earlier complete English translations of _Mein Kampf_ was by James Murphy in 1939. It was the only English translation approved by Nazi Germany. The version published by Hutchison & Co. in association with Hurst & Blackett, Ltd (London) in 1939 of the combined volumes I and II is profusely illustrated with many full page drawings and photographs. The opening line, "It has turned out fortunate for me to-day that destiny appointed Braunau-on-the-Inn to be my birthplace," is characteristic of Hitler's sense of destiny that began to develop in the early 1920s. Hurst "> Today, the profits and proceeds are given to various charities.

MANHEIM TRANSLATION

Houghton Mifflin published a translation by Ralph Manheim in 1943. They did this to avoid having to share their profits with Reynal & Hitchcock, and to increase sales by offering a more readable translation. The Manheim translation was first published in the United Kingdom by Hurst sales totals by 31 March 1939 were 10,345.

The Murphy and Houghton Mifflin translations were the only ones published by the authorised publishers while Hitler was still alive, and not at war with the U.K. and the U.S.

There was some resistance from Eher Verlag to Hurst and Blackett's Murphy translation, as they had not been granted the rights to a full translation. However, they allowed it _de facto_ permission by not lodging a formal protest, and on 5 May 1939, even inquired about royalties. The British publishers responded on the 12th that the information they requested was "not yet available" and the point would be moot within a few months, on 3 September 1939, when all royalties were halted due to the state of war existing between Britain and Germany.

Royalties were likewise held up in the United States due to the litigation between Houghton Mifflin and Stackpole. Because the matter was only settled in September 1941, only a few months before a state of war existed between Germany and the U.S., all Eher Verlag ever got was a $2,500 advance from Reynal and Hitchcock. It got none from the unauthorised Stackpole edition or the 1943 Manheim edition.

CURRENT AVAILABILITY

At the time of his suicide, Hitler's official place of residence was in Munich , which led to his entire estate, including all rights to _Mein Kampf_, changing to the ownership of the state of Bavaria . The government of Bavaria, in agreement with the federal government of Germany, refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. It also opposed copying and printing in other countries, but with less success. As per German copyright law, the entire text entered the public domain on 1 January 2016, 70 years after the author's death.

Owning and buying the book in Germany is not an offence. Trading in old copies is lawful as well, unless it is done in such a fashion as to "promote hatred or war." In particular, the unmodified edition is not covered by §86 StGB that forbids dissemination of means of propaganda of unconstitutional organisations, since it is a "pre-constitutional work" and as such cannot be opposed to the free and democratic basic order, according to a 1979 decision of the Federal Court of Justice of Germany . Most German libraries carry heavily commented and excerpted versions of _Mein Kampf._ In 2008, Stephan Kramer, secretary-general of the Central Council of Jews in Germany , not only recommended lifting the ban, but volunteered the help of his organization in editing and annotating the text, saying that it is time for the book to be made available to all online.

A variety of restrictions or special circumstances apply in other countries.

INDIA

Since its first publication in India in 1928, _Mein Kampf_ has gone through hundreds of editions and sold over 100,000 copies.

NETHERLANDS

In the Netherlands the sale of _Mein Kampf_ is forbidden.

RUSSIA

In the Russian Federation , _Mein Kampf_ has been published at least three times since 1992; the Russian text is also available on websites. In 2006 the Public Chamber of Russia proposed banning the book. In 2009 St. Petersburg's branch of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs requested to remove an annotated and hyper-linked Russian translation of the book from a historiography web site. On 13 April 2010, it was announced that _Mein Kampf_ is outlawed on grounds of extremism promotion.

SWEDEN

_Mein Kampf_ has been reprinted several times since 1945; in 1970, 1992, 2002 and 2010. In 1992 the Government of Bavaria tried to stop the publication of the book, and the case went to the Supreme Court of Sweden which ruled in favour of the publisher, stating that the book is protected by copyright, but that the copyright holder is unidentified (and not the State of Bavaria ) and that the original Swedish publisher from 1934 had gone out of business. It therefore refused the Government of Bavaria's claim. The only translation changes came in the 1970 edition, but they were only linguistic, based on a new Swedish standard.

TURKEY

_Mein Kampf_ was widely available and growing in popularity in Turkey , even to the point where it became a bestseller, selling up to 100,000 copies in just two months in 2005. Analysts and commentators believe the popularity of the book to be related to a rise in nationalism and anti-U.S. sentiment. A columnist in Shalom stated this was a result of "what is happening in the Middle East, the Israeli-Palestinian problem and the war in Iraq ." Doğu Ergil, a political scientist at Ankara University, said both far-right ultranationalists and extremist Islamists had found common ground - "not on a common agenda for the future, but on their anxieties, fears and hate".

UNITED STATES

In the United States, _Mein Kampf_ can be found at many community libraries and can be bought, sold and traded in bookshops. The U.S. government seized the copyright in September 1942 during the Second World War under the Trading with the Enemy Act and in 1979, Houghton Mifflin, the U.S. publisher of the book, bought the rights from the government pursuant to 28 C.F.R. 0.47. More than 15,000 copies are sold a year. In 2016, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt reported that it was having difficulty finding a charity that would accept profits from the sales of its version of _Mein Kampf_, which it had promised to donate.

ONLINE AVAILABILITY

In 1999, the Simon Wiesenthal Center documented that major Internet booksellers such as Amazon.com and Barnesandnoble.com sell _Mein Kampf_ to Germany. After a public outcry, both companies agreed to stop those sales to addresses in Germany. The book is currently available through both companies online. It is also available in various languages, including German, at the Internet Archive . The Murphy translation of the book is freely available on Project Gutenberg Australia . Since the January 2016 republication of the book in Germany, the book can be ordered at Amazon's German website.

2016 REPUBLICATION IN GERMANY

On 3 February 2010, the Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) in Munich announced plans to republish an annotated version of the text, for educational purposes in schools and universities, in 2015, when the copyright currently held by the Bavarian state government expires (2016). The book had last been published in Germany in 1945. A group of German historians argued that a republication was necessary to get an authoritative annotated edition by the time the copyright runs out, which might open the way for neo-Nazi groups to publish their own versions. "Once Bavaria's copyright expires, there is the danger of charlatans and neo-Nazis appropriating this infamous book for themselves," Wolfgang Heubisch said. The Bavarian government opposed the plan, citing respect for victims of the Holocaust . Its Finance Ministry said that permits for reprints would not be issued, at home or abroad. This would also apply to a new annotated edition. The republished book might be banned as Nazi propaganda. Even after expiration of the copyright, the Bavarian government emphasised that "the dissemination of Nazi ideologies will remain prohibited in Germany and is punishable under the penal code".

On 12 December 2013 the Bavarian government cancelled its financial support for an annotated edition. The Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) in Munich, which is preparing the translation, announced that it intended to proceed with publication after the copyright expired. The IfZ scheduled an edition of _Mein Kampf_ for release in 2016. _ Two-volume annotated edition of Mein Kampf_, 2016

Richard Verber, vice-president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews , stated in 2015 that the board trusted the academic and educational value of republishing. “We would, of course, be very wary of any attempt to glorify Hitler or to belittle the Holocaust in any way,” Verber declared to _ The Observer _. “But this is not that. I do understand how some Jewish groups could be upset and nervous, but it seems it is being done from a historical point of view and to put it in context.”

An annotated edition of _Mein Kampf_ was published in Germany in January 2016 and sold out within hours on Amazon's German site. The book's publication led to public debate in Germany, and divided reactions from Jewish groups, with some supporting, and others opposing, the decision to publish. German officials had previously said they would limit public access to the text amid fears that its republication could stir neo-Nazi sentiment. Some bookstores stated that they would not stock the book. Dussmann, a Berlin bookstore, stated that one copy was available on the shelves in the history section, but that it would not be advertised and more copies would be available only on order. As of January 2017, the German annotated edition has sold over 85,000 copies.

SEQUEL

Main article: Zweites Buch

After the party's poor showing in the 1928 elections, Hitler believed that the reason for his loss was the public's misunderstanding of his ideas. He then retired to Munich to dictate a sequel to _Mein Kampf_ to expand on its ideas, with more focus on foreign policy.

Only two copies of the 200-page manuscript were originally made, and only one of these was ever made public. The document was neither edited nor published during the Nazi era and remains known as _Zweites Buch _, or "Second Book". To keep the document strictly secret, in 1935 Hitler ordered that it be placed in a safe in an air raid shelter. It remained there until being discovered by an American officer in 1945.

The authenticity of the document found in 1945 has been verified by Josef Berg (former employee of the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag) and Telford Taylor (former Brigadier General U.S.A.R. and Chief Counsel at the Nuremberg war-crimes trials).

In 1958, the _Zweites Buch_ was found in the archives of the United States by American historian Gerhard Weinberg . Unable to find an American publisher, Weinberg turned to his mentor – Hans Rothfels at the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, and his associate Martin Broszat – who published _Zweites Buch_ in 1961. A pirated edition was published in English in New York in 1962. The first authoritative English edition was not published until 2003 (_Hitler\'s Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf ,_ ISBN 1-929631-16-2 ).

SEE ALSO

* Gustave Le Bon , a main influence of this book and crowd psychology * Generalplan Ost , Hitler's "new order of ethnographical relations" * _ LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii _ * _Mein Kampf_ in Arabic * Ich Kämpfe

* Nazi Germany portal * Books portal * Fascism portal

REFERENCES

* ^ _Mein Kampf_ _("My Fight"),_ Adolf Hitler (originally 1925–1926), Reissue edition (15 September 1998), Publisher: Mariner Books, Language: English, paperback, 720 pages, ISBN 978-1495333347 * ^ Page 198 of William L. Shirer's The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich * ^ Robert G.L. Waite, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Basic Books, 1977, pp.237–243 * ^ Heinz, Heinz (1934). _Germany\'s Hitler_. Hurst & Blackett. p. 191. * ^ Payne, Robert (1973). _The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler_. Popular Library. p. 203. * ^ Richard Cohen."Guess Who\'s on the Backlist". _The New York Times ._ 28 June 1998. Retrieved on 24 April 2008. * ^ Mein Kampf – The Text, its Themes and Hitler\'s Vision, History Today * ^ "Mein Kampf". _Internet Archive_. * ^ Browning, Christopher R. (2003). _Initiating the Final Solution: The Fateful Months of September–October 1941_. Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies. p. 12. OCLC 53343660 . * ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889-1936 Hubris (1999), p.258 * ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume One - A Reckoning, Chapter XII: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party * ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume Two - A Reckoning, Chapter XV: The Right of Emergency Defense, p. 984, quoted in Yahlil, Leni (1991). "2. Hitler Implements Twentieth-Century Anti-Semitism". _The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945_. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-504523-9 . OCLC 20169748 . Retrieved 9 January 2016. * ^ A. Hitler. Mein Kampf (Munich: Franz Eher Nachfolger, 1930), pg 478 * ^ "Hitler’s expansionist aims > Professor Sir Ian Kershaw > WW2History.com". _ww2history.com_. * ^ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Eastern Orientation or Eastern policy * ^ Joachim C. Fest (1 February 2013). _Hitler_. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 216. ISBN 0-544-19554-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ Hitler dodged taxes, expert finds BBC News * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Mythos Ladenhüter Spiegel Online * ^ Mein Kampf work by Hitler. Encyclopædia Britannica. Last updated 19 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2015 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/373362/Mein-Kampf * ^ Timothy W. Ryback (6 July 2010). _Hitler's Private Library: The Books that Shaped his Life_. Random House. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-1-4090-7578-3 . * ^ Hitler's 'Waldron, B. (2014) Mein Kampf' Surges in E-Book Sales. ABC News. Retrieved 21 May 2015 from http://abcnews.go.com/Business/hitlers-mein-kampf-surges-book-sales/story?id=21466401 * ^ Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' becomes online bestseller. (2014) Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 21 May 2014 from http://www.dw.de/hitlers-mein-kampf-becomes-online-bestseller/a-17355880 * ^ Smith, Denis Mack. 1983. _Mussolini: A Biography_. New York: Vintage Books. p. 172 / London: Paladin, p. 200 * ^ Uregina.ca Archived 25 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Orwell, George. "Mein Kampf" review, reprinted in _The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell_, Vol 2., Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, eds., Harourt Brace Jovanovich 1968 * ^ Francis Stuart Campbell, pen name of Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn (1943), _Menace of the Herd, or, Procrustes at Large_, Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Publishing Company * ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 159 * ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 201 * ^ Kuehnelt-Leddihn, pp. 202–203 * ^ _Winston Churchill: The Second World War_. Volume 1, Houghton Mifflin Books 1986, S. 50. "Here was the new Koran of faith and war: turgid, verbose, shapeless, but pregnant with its message." * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Introduction," _Mein Kampf_. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1940; pg. viii. * ^ Prefatory Note, _Mein Kampf._ New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1940; pg. 2. * ^ "Introduction" to Reynal and Hitchcock edition, pg. ix. * ^ http://www.greatwar.nl/books/meinkampf/meinkampf.pdf * ^ U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit, _Houghton Mifflin Co. v. Stackpole Sons, Inc., et al._, 104 Fed.2d 306 (1939); Note, 49 Yale L.J. 132 (1939). * ^ "HOUGHTON MIFFLIN CO. v. STACKPOLE SONS, INC.". * ^ "Kampleman US & International Copyright 1947". * ^ Mein Royalties Cabinet Magazine Online. * ^ Hitler's Mein Kampf in Britain and America: A Publishing History 1930–39; Barnes, James J.; Patience P. Barnes (1980–2008) Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-07267-0 * ^ TNO Staff—. " Mein Kampf Publishing Furore Heightened with Release of Only Official Translation". _The New Observer_. * ^ § 64 Allgemeines, German Copyright Law. The copyright has been relinquished for the Dutch and Swedish editions and some English ones (though not in the U.S., see below). * ^ Judgement of 25 July 1979 – 3 StR 182/79 (S); BGHSt 29, 73 ff. * ^ "Jewish Leader Urges Book Ban End", _Dateline World Jewry_, World Jewish Congress , July/August 2008. * ^ "Archiv – 33/2013 – Dschungel – Über die Wahrnehmung von Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus in Indien". _Jungle-world.com_. * ^ "Hitler\'s "Mein Kampf" on India\'s best sellers list". _RT.com_. * ^ "Shop owner cleared of spreading hatred for selling Mein Kampf - DutchNews.nl". 14 February 2017. * ^ "metronieuws.nl cookie consent". _tmgonlinemedia.nl_. * ^ A well-known historiography web site shut down over publishing Hitler\'s book, Newsru.com , 8 July 2009. * ^ "Моя борьба". 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009. * ^ Adolf Hitler, annotated and hyper-linked ed. by Vyacheslav Rumyantsev, archived from the original 12 February 2008; an abridged version remained intact. * ^ Radio Netherlands Worldwide * ^ "Hägglunds förlag". _Hagglundsforlag.se_. * ^ Smith, Helena (29 March 2005). " Mein Kampf sales soar in Turkey". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ " Hitler book bestseller in Turkey". _ BBC News_. 18 March 2005. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pascal, Julia (25 June 2001). "Unbanning Hitler". _New Statesman _. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. * ^ "The Milwaukee Journal - Google News Archive Search". * ^ Boston publisher grapples with \'Mein Kampf\' profits Boston Globe Retrieved 3 May 2016. * ^ BEYETTE, BEVERLY (5 January 2000). "Is hate for sale?". _LA Times_. * ^ "Mein Kampf: Adolf Hitler, Ralph Manheim: 9780395925034: Amazon.com: Books". _amazon.com_. * ^ "Mein Kampf". Barnes & Noble. 21 October 2010. * ^ " Internet Archive Search: MEIN KAMPF". _archive.org_. * ^ " Mein Kampf - Project Gutenberg Australia". * ^ _A_ _B_ Eddy, Melissa (2016-01-08). "\'Mein Kampf,\' Hitler\'s Manifesto, Returns to German Shelves". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 2016-01-08. * ^ "\'Mein Kampf\' to see its first post-WWII publication in Germany". _ The Independent _. London. 6 February 2010. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. * ^ Associated Press (5 February 2010). "Historians Hope to Publish \'Mein Kampf\' in Germany". _ The New York Times _. * ^ Kulish, Nicholas (4 February 2010). "Rebuffing Scholars, Germany Vows to Keep Hitler Out of Print". _ The New York Times _. * ^ Isenson, Nancy; Reuters (4 February 2010). "German institute seeks to reprint Hitler\'s \'Mein Kampf\'". Deutsche Welle . * ^ "The Kampf for \'Mein Kampf\': Annotated Version of Hitler Polemic in the Works". _ Der Spiegel _. 4 February 2010. * ^ " Bavaria abandons plans for new edition of Mein Kampf". _BBC News_. 12 December 2013. * ^ Logwin, Pierre (20 February 2015). "\'Anti-Hitler\' Mein Kampf? Germany to republish Nazi leader\'s manifesto after 70 years". rt.com. Reuters. Retrieved 26 March 2015. ... scholars have heavily annotated the 2016 edition, turning the Nazi leader's infamous manifesto into an "anti-Hitler" text. * ^ Alison Smale (1 December 2015). "Scholars Unveil New Edition of Hitler’s ‘Mein Kampf’". _ The New York Times _. * ^ Vanessa Thorpe. "British Jews give wary approval to the return of Hitler’s Mein Kampf". _The Guardian_. * ^ "High demand for reprint of Hitler\'s Mein Kampf takes publisher by surprise". _ The Guardian _. 8 January 2016. * ^ " Copyright of Adolf Hitler\'s Mein Kampf expires". _ BBC News_. * ^ " Mein Kampf hits stores in tense Germany". _ BBC News_. * ^ "The annotated version of Hitler\'s \'Mein Kampf\' is a hit in Germany". _Business Insider_.

FURTHER READING

HITLER

* Hitler, A. (1925). _Mein Kampf_, Band 1, Verlag Franz Eher Nachfahren, München. (Volume 1, publishing company Fritz Eher and descendants, Munich). * Hitler, A. (1927). _Mein Kampf_, Band 2, Verlag Franz Eher Nachfahren, München. (Volume 2, after 1930 both volumes were only published in one book). * Hitler, A. (1935). _ Zweites Buch _ (trans. ) _Hitler's Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler._ Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1-929631-61-2 . * Hitler, A. (1945). _My Political Testament ._ Wikisource Version. * Hitler, A. (1945). _My Private Will and Testament ._ Wikisource Version. * Hitler, A., et al. (1971). _Unmasked: two confidential interviews with Hitler in 1931 ._ Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-1642-0 . * Hitler, A., et al. (1974). _Hitler\'s Letters and Notes ._ Harper first published as Hitlers Zweites Buch, 1961), in Hitler: Reden, Schriften, Anordnungen, Februar 1925 bis Januar 1933, Vol IIA, with an introduction by G. L. Weinberg; G. L. Weinberg, C. Hartmann and K. A. Lankheit, eds (Munich: K. G. Saur, 1995) * Christopher Browning, _Initiating the Final Solution: The Fateful Months of September–October 1941_, Miles Lerman Center for the Study of Jewish Resistance, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum (Washington, D.C.: USHMM, 2003). * Gunnar Heinsohn, "What Makes the Holocaust a Uniquely Unique Genocide", Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 2, no. 3 (2000): 411–430.

OTHERS

* Barns, James J.; Barns, Patience P. (1980). _ Hitler Mein Kampf in Britain and America_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. → All information about English language publication history taken from this book. * Jäckel, Eberhard (1972). _Hitler's Weltanschauung: A Blueprint For Power_. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-4042-0 . * Hauner, Milan (1978). "Did