The MEIJI PERIOD (明治時代, Meiji-jidai), also known as the MEIJI
ERA, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868 to July
30, 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of
* 1 Meiji Restoration * 2 Politics * 3 Society * 4 Economy
* 5 Military
* 5.1 Overview
* 5.2 Early
* 6 Foreign relations * 7 Contemporary observers and historians * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References
* 11 External links
* 11.1 Archives
Main article: Meiji Restoration See also: Abolition of the han system
On November 9, 1867, then-
The first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government . Its five provisions consisted of:
* Establishment of deliberative assemblies; * Involvement of all classes in carrying out state affairs; * Revocation of sumptuary laws and class restrictions on employment; * Replacement of "evil customs" with the "just laws of nature"; and * An international search for knowledge to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule.
Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu (a shogun's direct administration including officers), and a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State , legislative bodies, and systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, and ordered new local administrative rules.
Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow
the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would
act in accordance with international law. Mutsuhito, who was to reign
until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened
Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To
further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto
, where it had been situated since 794, to
Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors,
and the central government assumed their administrative expenses and
paid samurai stipends. The han were replaced with prefectures in 1871,
and authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials
from the favored former han, such as Satsuma , Chōshū , Tosa , and
In as much as the
Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor
to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto
-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since
Main articles: Meiji oligarchy , Government of Meiji Japan , and Meiji Constitution When Itagaki Taisuke was attacked by thugs in Gifu , he cried "Itagaki may die, but liberty – never!" (woodblock print by Utagawa Toyonobu)
A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke (1837–1919), a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, means to gain a voice in government. He started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly . Such movements were called The Freedom and People\'s Rights Movement . Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial (ja:民撰議院設立建白書) in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government.
Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, and lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in kind as in pre-Meiji days and at slightly lower rates.
Dissatisfied with the pace of reform after having rejoined the Council of State in 1875, Itagaki organized his followers and other democratic proponents into the nationwide Aikokusha (Society of Patriots) to push for representative government in 1878. In 1881, in an action for which he is best known, Itagaki helped found the Jiyūtō (Liberal Party), which favored French political doctrines.
Government leaders, long preoccupied with violent threats to stability and the serious leadership split over the Korean affair, generally agreed that constitutional government should someday be established. The Chōshū leader Kido Takayoshi had favored a constitutional form of government since before 1874, and several proposals for constitutional guarantees had been drafted. While acknowledging the realities of political pressure, however, the oligarchy was determined to keep control. Thus, modest steps were taken.
The Osaka Conference in 1875 resulted in the reorganization of government with an independent judiciary and an appointed Chamber of Elders (Genrōin) tasked with reviewing proposals for a legislature. The Emperor declared that "constitutional government shall be established in gradual stages" as he ordered the Council of Elders to draft a constitution.
Three years later, the Conference of Prefectural Governors established elected prefectural assemblies. Although limited in their authority, these assemblies represented a move in the direction of representative government at the national level, and by 1880 assemblies also had been formed in villages and towns. In 1880 delegates from twenty-four prefectures held a national convention to establish the Kokkai Kisei Dōmei (League for the Establishment of a National Assembly ).
Although the government was not opposed to parliamentary rule, confronted with the drive for "people's rights", it continued to try to control the political situation. New laws in 1875 prohibited press criticism of the government or discussion of national laws. The Public Assembly Law (1880) severely limited public gatherings by disallowing attendance by civil servants and requiring police permission for all meetings.
Within the ruling circle, however, and despite the conservative approach of the leadership, Okuma continued as a lone advocate of British-style government, a government with political parties and a cabinet organized by the majority party, answerable to the national assembly. He called for elections to be held by 1882 and for a national assembly to be convened by 1883; in doing so, he precipitated a political crisis that ended with an 1881 imperial rescript declaring the establishment of a national assembly in 1890 and dismissing Okuma.
Rejecting the British model, Iwakura and other conservatives borrowed heavily from the Prussian constitutional system . One of the Meiji oligarchy, Itō Hirobumi (1841–1909), a Chōshū native long involved in government affairs, was charged with drafting Japan's constitution. He led a constitutional study mission abroad in 1882, spending most of his time in Germany. He rejected the United States Constitution as "too liberal", and the British system as too unwieldy, and having a parliament with too much control over the monarchy; the French and Spanish models were rejected as tending toward despotism.
Ito was put in charge of the new Bureau for Investigation of Constitutional Systems in 1884, and the Council of State was replaced in 1885 with a cabinet headed by Ito as prime minister. The positions of chancellor (or chief-minister), minister of the left , and minister of the right , which had existed since the seventh century as advisory positions to the Emperor, were all abolished. In their place, the Privy Council was established in 1888 to evaluate the forthcoming constitution and to advise the Emperor.
To further strengthen the authority of the State, the Supreme War Council was established under the leadership of Yamagata Aritomo (1838–1922), a Chōshū native who has been credited with the founding of the modern Japanese army and was to become the first constitutional Prime Minister . The Supreme War Council developed a German-style general staff system with a chief of staff who had direct access to the Emperor and who could operate independently of the army minister and civilian officials.
When finally granted by the Emperor as a sign of his sharing his authority and giving rights and liberties to his subjects, the 1889 Constitution of the Empire of Japan (or Meiji Constitution) provided for the Imperial Diet (Teikoku Gikai), composed of a popularly elected House of Representatives with a very limited franchise of male citizens who were over twenty-five years of age and paid fifteen yen in national taxes, about one percent of the population, and the House of Peers , composed of nobility and imperial appointees; and a cabinet responsible to the Emperor and independent of the legislature. The Diet could approve government legislation and initiate laws, make representations to the government, and submit petitions to the Emperor. Nevertheless, in spite of these institutional changes, sovereignty still resided in the Emperor on the basis of his divine ancestry.
The new constitution specified a form of government that still was authoritarian in character, with the Emperor holding the ultimate power and only minimal concessions made to popular rights and parliamentary mechanisms. Party participation was recognized as part of the political process. The Meiji Constitution was to last as the fundamental law until 1947.
In the early years of constitutional government, the strengths and weaknesses of the Meiji Constitution were revealed. A small clique of Satsuma and Chōshū elite continued to rule Japan, becoming institutionalized as an extra-constitutional body of genrō (elder statesmen). Collectively, the genro made decisions reserved for the Emperor, and the genro, not the Emperor, controlled the government politically.
Throughout the period, however, political problems usually were solved through compromise, and political parties gradually increased their power over the government and held an ever larger role in the political process as a result. Between 1891 and 1895, Ito served as Prime Minister with a cabinet composed mostly of genro who wanted to establish a government party to control the House of Representatives. Although not fully realized, the trend toward party politics was well established.
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: an overview of art and design
style changes in the Meiji period, and their indelible influence on
(and later recursively by) European
On its return, one of the first acts of the government was to establish new ranks for the nobility. Five hundred people from the old court nobility, former daimyo, and samurai who had provided valuable service to the Emperor were organized into a new peerage, the Kazoku , consisting of five ranks: prince, marquis , count , viscount , and baron .
In the transition between the
In 1885, noted public intellectual
The elite class of the
In 1871, a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission
toured Europe and the USA to learn western ways. The result was a
deliberate state led industrialisation policy to enable
Modern industry first appeared in textiles, including cotton and especially silk, which was based in home workshops in rural areas.
There were at least two reasons for the speed of Japan's
modernization: the employment of more than 3,000 foreign experts
(called o-yatoi gaikokujin or 'hired foreigners') in a variety of
specialist fields such as teaching English, science, engineering, the
army and navy, among others; and the dispatch of many Japanese
students overseas to Europe and America, based on the fifth and last
article of the
Charter Oath of 1868: 'Knowledge shall be sought
throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of Imperial
rule.' This process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily
subsidized by the Meiji government, enhancing the power of the great
zaibatsu firms such as
Hand in hand, the zaibatsu and government guided the nation,
borrowing technology from the West.
Economic reforms included a unified modern currency based on the yen, banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchanges, and a communications network. Establishment of a modern institutional framework conducive to an advanced capitalist economy took time, but was completed by the 1890s. By this time, the government had largely relinquished direct control of the modernization process, primarily for budgetary reasons.
Many of the former daimyo, whose pensions had been paid in a lump sum, benefited greatly through investments they made in emerging industries. Those who had been informally involved in foreign trade before the Meiji Restoration also flourished. Old bakufu-serving firms that clung to their traditional ways failed in the new business environment.
The government initially was involved in economic modernization, providing a number of "model factories" to facilitate the transition to the modern period. After the first twenty years of the Meiji period, the industrial economy expanded rapidly until about 1920 with inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments. Stimulated by wars and through cautious economic planning, Japan emerged from World War I as a major industrial nation.
Undeterred by opposition, the Meiji leaders continued to modernize the nation through government-sponsored telegraph cable links to all major Japanese cities and the Asian mainland and construction of railroads, shipyards, munitions factories, mines, textile manufacturing facilities, factories, and experimental agriculture stations. Greatly concerned about national security, the leaders made significant efforts at military modernization, which included establishing a small standing army, a large reserve system, and compulsory militia service for all men. Foreign military systems were studied, foreign advisers, especially French ones, were brought in, and Japanese cadets sent abroad to Europe and the United States to attend military and naval schools.
EARLY MEIJI PERIOD (1868–77)
In 1854, after Admiral Matthew C. Perry forced the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa , Japanese elites took the position that they needed to modernize the state's military capacities, or risk further coercion from Western powers. The Tokugawa shogunate did not officially share this point of view, however, as evidenced by the imprisonment of the Governor of Nagasaki, Shanan Takushima for voicing his views of military reform and weapons modernization.
It wasn't until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868 that the
Japanese government began taking military modernization seriously. In
1868, the Japanese government established the
In 1885, the
Meiji government sponsored a telegraph system,
throughout Japan, situating the telegraphs in all major Japanese
cities at the time.
In conjunction with the new conscription law, the Japanese government began modeling their ground forces after the French military. Indeed, the new Japanese army used the same rank structure as the French. The enlisted corps ranks were: private, noncommissioned officers, and officers. The private classes were: jōtō-hei or upper soldier, ittō-sotsu or first-class soldier, and nitō-sotsu or second-class soldier. The noncommissioned officer class ranks were: gochō or corporal, gunsō or sergeant, sōchō or sergeant major, and tokumu-sōchō or special sergeant major. Finally, the officer class is made up of: shōi or second lieutenant, chūi or first lieutenant, tai or captain, shōsa or major, chūsa or lieutenant colonel, taisa or colonel, shōshō or major general, chūjō or lieutenant general, taishō or general, and gensui or field marshal. The French government also contributed greatly to the training of Japanese officers. Many were employed at the military academy in Kyoto, and many more still were feverishly translating French field manuals for use in the Japanese ranks.
Despite the Conscription Law of 1873, and all the reforms and progress, the new Japanese army was still untested. That all changed in 1877, when Saigō Takamori led the last rebellion of the samurai in Kyūshū. In February 1877, Saigō left Kagoshima with a small contingent of soldiers on a journey to Tokyo. Kumamoto castle was the site of the first major engagement when garrisoned forces fired on Saigō's army as they attempted to force their way into the castle. Rather than leave an enemy behind him, Saigō laid siege to the castle. Two days later, Saigō's rebels, while attempting to block a mountain pass, encountered advanced elements of the national army en route to reinforce Kumamoto castle. After a short battle, both sides withdrew to reconstitute their forces. A few weeks later the national army engaged Saigō's rebels in a frontal assault at what now is called the Battle of Tabaruzuka. During this eight-day-battle, Saigō's nearly ten thousand strong army battled hand-to-hand the equally matched national army. Both sides suffered nearly four thousand casualties during this engagement. Due to conscription, however, the Japanese army was able to reconstitute its forces, while Saigō's was not. Later, forces loyal to the emperor broke through rebel lines and managed to end the siege on Kumamoto Castle after fifty-four days. Saigō's troops fled north and were pursued by the national army. The national army caught up with Saigō at Mt. Enodake . Saigō's army was outnumbered seven-to-one, prompting a mass surrender of many samurai. The remaining five hundred samurai loyal to Saigō escaped, travelling south to Kagoshima. The rebellion ended on September 24, 1877, following the final engagement with Imperial forces which resulted in the deaths of the remaining forty samurai including Saigō, who, having suffered a fatal bullet wound in the abdomen, was honourably beheaded by his retainer. The national army's victory validated the current course of the modernization of the Japanese army as well as ended the era of the samurai.
Main article: Foreign relations of Meiji Japan
When the United States Navy ended Japan's sakoku policy , and thus
its isolation, the latter found itself defenseless against military
pressures and economic exploitation by the Western powers. For Japan
to emerge from the feudal period, it had to avoid the colonial fate of
other Asian countries by establishing genuine national independence
and equality. Following the
María Luz Incident ,
Following Japan's victory over China in the Sino-Japanese War
Following the First World War, a weakened Europe left a greater share
in international markets to the United States and Japan, which emerged
greatly strengthened. Japanese competition made great inroads into
hitherto-European-dominated markets in Asia, not only in China, but
even in European colonies such as India and
CONTEMPORARY OBSERVERS AND HISTORIANS
* ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Meiji" in Japan
encyclopedia, p. 624, p. 624, at
Google Books ; n.b., Louis-Frédéric
is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche
Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
* ^ Takano, p. 256.
* ^ Nakae, C. and Tsukui, N. and Hammond, J. A Discourse by Three
Drunkards on Government. 1984.
* ^ Hane, M. Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Rebel Women in
Prewar Japan. University of California Press. 1988.
* ^ Sand, Jordan (2000). "Was Meiji Taste in Interiors
"Orientalist?"". positions: east asia cultures critique. Duke
University Press. 8 (3): 637–673.
* ^ G.C. Allen, Short Economic History of Modern
* This article incorporates public domain material from the Library
of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.
* GlobalSecurity.org (2008). Meiji military. Retrieved August 5,
* Kublin, H. (November 1949). The "modern" army of early meiji
Japan. The Far East Quarterly, , 20-41.
National Diet Library