Meiji period (明治時代, Meiji-jidai), also known as the Meiji
era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July
30, 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of
Japan during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated
feudal society to its modern form. Fundamental changes affected its
social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign
relations. The period corresponded to the reign of
Emperor Meiji after
1868, and lasted until his death in 1912. It was succeeded by the
Taishō period upon the accession of
Emperor Taishō to the throne.
1 Meiji Restoration
Meiji period (1868–77)
6 Foreign relations
7 Contemporary observers and historians
8 See also
11 External links
Main article: Meiji Restoration
See also: Abolition of the han system
On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his
father, Emperor Kōmei, to the
Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd
On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun
Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his
resignation to the Emperor, and formally stepped down ten days
later. Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3,
1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of
Edo in the
summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, and a new
era, Meiji, was proclaimed.
The first reform was the promulgation of the
Five Charter Oath
Five Charter Oath in
1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost
morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five
provisions consisted of:
Establishment of deliberative assemblies;
Involvement of all classes in carrying out state affairs;
Revocation of sumptuary laws and class restrictions on employment;
Replacement of "evil customs" with the "just laws of nature"; and
An international search for knowledge to strengthen the foundations of
Implicit in the
Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by
the bakufu (a shōgun's direct administration including officers), and
a move toward more democratic participation in government. To
implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with
eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new
Council of State, legislative bodies, and systems of ranks for nobles
and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public
balloting, provided for a new taxation system, and ordered new local
Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow
the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would
act in accordance with international law. Mutsuhito, who was to reign
until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened
Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To
further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto,
where it had been situated since 794, to
Tokyo (Eastern Capital), the
new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new
regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census
records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing
that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction.
The fifteen-year-old Meiji Emperor, moving from
Tokyo at the
end of 1868, after the fall of Edo
Meiji Constitution promulgation (1889)
Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors,
and the central government assumed their administrative expenses and
paid samurai stipends. The han were replaced with prefectures in 1871,
and authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials
from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, and
Hizen staffed the new ministries. Formerly old court nobles, and
lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and
daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
Emperor Meiji in his fifties.
In as much as the
Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor
to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a
Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since
Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior
one-thousand years and Buddhism had been closely connected with the
shogunate, this involved the separation of
Shinto and Buddhism
(shinbutsu bunri) and the associated destruction of various Buddhist
temples and related violence (haibutsu kishaku). Furthermore, a new
Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the
Shinto Worship (ja:神祇省) was established, ranking even
above the Council of State in importance. The kokutai ideas of the
Mito school were embraced, and the divine ancestry of the Imperial
House was emphasized. The government supported
Shinto teachers, a
small but important move. Although the Office of
Shinto Worship was
demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto
shrines and certain
Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto
was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had
its own resurgence. Christianity also was legalized, and Confucianism
remained an important ethical doctrine. Increasingly, however,
Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods.
Main articles: Meiji oligarchy, Government of Meiji Japan, and Meiji
Interior of National Diet, showing Minister speaking at the tribune
from which members address the House.
A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke
(1837–1919), a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the
Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought
peaceful, rather than rebellious, means to gain a voice in government.
He started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a
constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements
were called The Freedom and People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and
others wrote the Tosa Memorial (ja:民撰議院設立建白書) in
1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for
the immediate establishment of representative government.
Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as
the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized,
deeds were issued, and lands were assessed at fair market value with
taxes paid in cash rather than in kind as in pre-Meiji days and at
slightly lower rates.
Dissatisfied with the pace of reform after having rejoined the Council
of State in 1875, Itagaki organized his followers and other democratic
proponents into the nationwide
Aikokusha (Society of Patriots) to push
for representative government in 1878. In 1881, in an action for which
he is best known, Itagaki helped found the Jiyūtō (Liberal Party),
which favored French political doctrines.
Ōkuma Shigenobu established the Rikken Kaishintō
(Constitutional Progressive Party), which called for a British-style
constitutional democracy. In response, government bureaucrats, local
government officials, and other conservatives established the Rikken
Teiseitō (Imperial Rule Party), a pro-government party, in 1882.
Numerous political demonstrations followed, some of them violent,
resulting in further government restrictions. The restrictions
hindered the political parties and led to divisions within and among
them. The Jiyūtō, which had opposed the Kaishinto, was disbanded in
1884 and Ōkuma resigned as Kaishintō president.
Government leaders, long preoccupied with violent threats to stability
and the serious leadership split over the Korean affair, generally
agreed that constitutional government should someday be established.
The Chōshū leader
Kido Takayoshi had favored a constitutional form
of government since before 1874, and several proposals for
constitutional guarantees had been drafted. While acknowledging the
realities of political pressure, however, the oligarchy was determined
to keep control. Thus, modest steps were taken.
The Osaka Conference in 1875 resulted in the reorganization of
government with an independent judiciary and an appointed Chamber of
Elders (Genrōin) tasked with reviewing proposals for a legislature.
The Emperor declared that "constitutional government shall be
established in gradual stages" as he ordered the Council of Elders to
draft a constitution.
Three years later, the Conference of Prefectural Governors established
elected prefectural assemblies. Although limited in their authority,
these assemblies represented a move in the direction of representative
government at the national level, and by 1880 assemblies also had been
formed in villages and towns. In 1880 delegates from twenty-four
prefectures held a national convention to establish the Kokkai Kisei
Dōmei (League for the Establishment of a National Assembly).
Although the government was not opposed to parliamentary rule,
confronted with the drive for "people's rights", it continued to try
to control the political situation. New laws in 1875 prohibited press
criticism of the government or discussion of national laws. The Public
Assembly Law (1880) severely limited public gatherings by disallowing
attendance by civil servants and requiring police permission for all
Within the ruling circle, however, and despite the conservative
approach of the leadership, Okuma continued as a lone advocate of
British-style government, a government with political parties and a
cabinet organized by the majority party, answerable to the national
assembly. He called for elections to be held by 1882 and for a
national assembly to be convened by 1883; in doing so, he precipitated
a political crisis that ended with an 1881 imperial rescript declaring
the establishment of a national assembly in 1890 and dismissing Okuma.
Rejecting the British model, Iwakura and other conservatives borrowed
heavily from the Prussian constitutional system. One of the Meiji
Itō Hirobumi (1841–1909), a Chōshū native long
involved in government affairs, was charged with drafting Japan's
constitution. He led a constitutional study mission abroad in 1882,
spending most of his time in Germany. He rejected the United States
Constitution as "too liberal", and the British system as too unwieldy,
and having a parliament with too much control over the monarchy; the
French and Spanish models were rejected as tending toward despotism.
Ito was put in charge of the new Bureau for Investigation of
Constitutional Systems in 1884, and the Council of State was replaced
in 1885 with a cabinet headed by Ito as prime minister. The positions
of chancellor (or chief-minister), minister of the left, and minister
of the right, which had existed since the seventh century as advisory
positions to the Emperor, were all abolished. In their place, the
Privy Council was established in 1888 to evaluate the forthcoming
constitution and to advise the Emperor.
To further strengthen the authority of the State, the Supreme War
Council was established under the leadership of Yamagata Aritomo
(1838–1922), a Chōshū native who has been credited with the
founding of the modern Japanese army and was to become the first
constitutional Prime Minister. The Supreme War Council developed a
German-style general staff system with a chief of staff who had direct
access to the Emperor and who could operate independently of the army
minister and civilian officials.
When finally granted by the Emperor as a sign of his sharing his
authority and giving rights and liberties to his subjects, the 1889
Constitution of the
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan (or Meiji Constitution) provided
for the Imperial Diet (Teikoku Gikai), composed of a popularly elected
House of Representatives with a very limited franchise of male
citizens who were over twenty-five years of age and paid fifteen yen
in national taxes, about one percent of the population, and the House
of Peers, composed of nobility and imperial appointees; and a cabinet
responsible to the Emperor and independent of the legislature. The
Diet could approve government legislation and initiate laws, make
representations to the government, and submit petitions to the
Emperor. Nevertheless, in spite of these institutional changes,
sovereignty still resided in the Emperor on the basis of his divine
The new constitution specified a form of government that still was
authoritarian in character, with the Emperor holding the ultimate
power and only minimal concessions made to popular rights and
parliamentary mechanisms. Party participation was recognized as part
of the political process. The
Meiji Constitution was to last as the
fundamental law until 1947.
In the early years of constitutional government, the strengths and
weaknesses of the
Meiji Constitution were revealed. A small clique of
Satsuma and Chōshū elite continued to rule Japan, becoming
institutionalized as an extra-constitutional body of genrō (elder
statesmen). Collectively, the genro made decisions reserved for the
Emperor, and the genro, not the Emperor, controlled the government
Throughout the period, however, political problems usually were solved
through compromise, and political parties gradually increased their
power over the government and held an ever larger role in the
political process as a result. Between 1891 and 1895, Ito served as
Prime Minister with a cabinet composed mostly of genro who wanted to
establish a government party to control the House of Representatives.
Although not fully realized, the trend toward party politics was well
This section needs expansion with: an overview of art and design style
changes in the Meiji period, and their indelible influence on (and
later recursively by) European Art Nouveau. You can help by adding to
it. (October 2012)
Ginza in 1880s.
On its return, one of the first acts of the government was to
establish new ranks for the nobility. Five hundred people from the old
court nobility, former daimyo, and samurai who had provided valuable
service to the Emperor were organized into a new peerage, the Kazoku,
consisting of five ranks: prince, marquis, count, viscount, and baron.
In the transition between the
Edo and Meiji periods, the Ee ja nai ka
movement, a spontaneous outbreak of ecstatic behavior, took place.
In 1885, noted public intellectual
Yukichi Fukuzawa wrote the
influential essay "Leaving Asia", arguing that
Japan should orient
itself at the "civilized countries of the West", leaving behind the
"hopelessly backward" Asian neighbors, namely
Korea and China. This
essay certainly encouraged the economic and technological rise of
Japan in the Meiji period, but it also may have laid the intellectual
foundations for later Japanese colonialism in the region.
Meiji period saw a flowering of public discourse on the direction
of Japan. Works like Nakae Chōmin's A Discourse by Three Drunkards on
Government debated how best to blend the new influences coming from
the West with local Japanese culture. Grassroots movements like the
Freedom and People's Rights Movement called for the establishment of a
formal legislature, civil rights, and greater pluralism in the
Japanese political system. Journalists, politicians, and writers
actively participated in the movement, which attracted an array of
interest groups, including women's rights activists.
The elite class of the
Meiji period adapted many aspects of Victorian
taste, as seen in the construction of Western-style pavilions and
reception rooms called yōkan or yōma in their homes. These parts of
Meiji homes were displayed in popular magazines of the time, such as
Ladies' Graphic, which portrayed the often empty rooms of the homes of
the aristocracy of all levels, including the imperial palaces.
Integrating Western cultural forms with an assumed, untouched native
Japanese spirit was characteristic of Meiji society, especially at the
top levels, and represented Japan's search for a place within a new
world power system in which European colonial empires dominated.
Industrial Revolution § Japan
Industrial Revolution in
Japan occurred during the Meiji period.
The industrial revolution began about 1870 as
Meiji period leaders
decided to catch up with the West. The government built railroads,
improved roads, and inaugurated a land reform program to prepare the
country for further development. It inaugurated a new Western-based
education system for all young people, sent thousands of students to
the United States and Europe, and hired more than 3,000 Westerners to
teach modern science, mathematics, technology, and foreign languages
Japan (O-yatoi gaikokujin).
In 1871, a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission
toured Europe and the USA to learn western ways. The result was a
deliberate state led industrialisation policy to enable
quickly catch up. The Bank of Japan, founded in 1877, used taxes to
fund model steel and textile factories.
Modern industry first appeared in textiles, including cotton and
especially silk, which was based in home workshops in rural areas.
Due to the importing of new textile manufacturing technology from
Europe, between 1886 and 1897, Japan's total value of yarn output rose
from 12 million to 176 million yen. In 1886, 62% of yarn in
imported; by 1902, most yarn was produced locally. By 1913,
producing 672 million pounds of yarn per year, becoming the fourth
largest exporter of cotton yarn.
The first railway was opened between
Tokyo and Yokohama in 1872; and
railway was rapidly developed throughout
Japan well into the twentieth
century. The introduction of railway transportation led to more
efficient production due to the decline in transport costs; allowing
for manufacturing firms to move into more populated interior regions
Japan in search for labour input. The railway also enabled a
new-found access to raw materials that had previously been too
difficult or costly to transport.
There were at least two reasons for the speed of Japan's
modernization: the employment of more than 3,000 foreign experts
(called o-yatoi gaikokujin or 'hired foreigners') in a variety of
specialist fields such as teaching English, science, engineering, the
army and navy, among others; and the dispatch of many Japanese
students overseas to Europe and America, based on the fifth and last
article of the
Charter Oath of 1868: 'Knowledge shall be sought
throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of Imperial
rule.' This process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily
subsidized by the Meiji government, enhancing the power of the great
zaibatsu firms such as
Mitsui and Mitsubishi.
Hand in hand, the zaibatsu and government guided the nation, borrowing
technology from the West.
Japan gradually took control of much of
Asia's market for manufactured goods, beginning with textiles. The
economic structure became very mercantilistic, importing raw materials
and exporting finished products—a reflection of Japan's relative
poverty in raw materials.
Japan emerged from the Tokugawa–Tennō (Keiō–Meiji) transition in
1868 as the first Asian industrialized nation. Domestic commercial
activities and limited foreign trade had met the demands for material
culture until the
Keiō period, but the modernized
Meiji period had
radically different requirements. From the onset, the Meiji rulers
embraced the concept of a market economy and adopted British and North
American forms of free enterprise capitalism. The private sector—in
a nation with an abundance of aggressive entrepreneurs—welcomed such
Tokyo Industrial Exhibition
Economic reforms included a unified modern currency based on the yen,
banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchanges, and a
communications network. Establishment of a modern institutional
framework conducive to an advanced capitalist economy took time, but
was completed by the 1890s. By this time, the government had largely
relinquished direct control of the modernization process, primarily
for budgetary reasons.
Many of the former daimyo, whose pensions had been paid in a lump sum,
benefited greatly through investments they made in emerging
industries. Those who had been informally involved in foreign trade
Meiji Restoration also flourished. Old bakufu-serving firms
that clung to their traditional ways failed in the new business
The government initially was involved in economic modernization,
providing a number of "model factories" to facilitate the transition
to the modern period. After the first twenty years of the Meiji
period, the industrial economy expanded rapidly until about 1920 with
inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments.
Stimulated by wars and through cautious economic planning, Japan
emerged from World War I as a major industrial nation.
In 1885, the
Meiji government sponsored a telegraph system, throughout
Japan, situating the telegraphs in all major Japanese cities at the
Main articles: Modernization of Japanese Military 1868–1931,
Imperial Japanese Army, and Imperial Japanese Navy
Undeterred by opposition, the Meiji leaders continued to modernize the
nation through government-sponsored telegraph cable links to all major
Japanese cities and the Asian mainland and construction of railroads,
shipyards, munitions factories, mines, textile manufacturing
facilities, factories, and experimental agriculture stations. Greatly
concerned about national security, the leaders made significant
efforts at military modernization, which included establishing a small
standing army, a large reserve system, and compulsory militia service
for all men. Foreign military systems were studied, foreign advisers,
especially French ones, were brought in, and Japanese cadets sent
abroad to Europe and the United States to attend military and naval
Meiji period (1868–77)
In 1854, after Admiral Matthew C. Perry forced the signing of the
Treaty of Kanagawa, Japanese elites took the position that they needed
to modernize the state's military capacities, or risk further coercion
from Western powers. The
Tokugawa shogunate did not officially
share this point of view, however, as evidenced by the imprisonment of
the Governor of Nagasaki, Shanan Takushima for voicing his views of
military reform and weapons modernization.
It wasn't until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868 that the
Japanese government began taking military modernization seriously. In
1868, the Japanese government established the
Tokyo Arsenal. This
arsenal was responsible for the development and manufacture of small
arms and associated ammunition. The same year, Ōmura Masujirō
established Japan's first military academy in Kyoto. Ōmura further
proposed military billets be filled by all classes of people including
farmers and merchants. The shōgun class,[clarification needed] not
happy with Ōmura's views on conscription, assassinated him the
Japan expanded its military production base by opening
another arsenal in Osaka. The Osaka Arsenal was responsible for the
production of machine guns and ammunition. Also, four gunpowder
facilities also were opened at this site. Japan's production capacity
Yamagata Aritomo and Saigō Tsugumichi, both new field
marshals, founded the Corps of the Imperial Guards. This corps was
composed of the warrior classes from the Tosa, Satsuma, and Chōshū
clans. Also, in the same year, the hyobusho (war office) was
replaced with a War Department and a Naval Department. The samurai
class suffered great disappointment the following years, when in
January the Conscription Law of 1873 was passed. This law required
every able-bodied male Japanese citizen, regardless of class, to serve
a mandatory term of three years with the first reserves and two
additional years with the second reserves. This monumental law,
signifying the beginning of the end for the samurai class, initially
met resistance from both the peasant and warrior alike. The peasant
class interpreted the term for military service, ketsu-eki (blood tax)
literally, and attempted to avoid service by any means necessary.
Avoidance methods included maiming, self-mutilation, and local
uprisings. The samurai were generally resentful of the new,
western-style military and at first, refused to stand in formation
with the peasant class.
Emperor Meiji receives the second French Military Mission to Japan
In conjunction with the new conscription law, the Japanese government
began modeling their ground forces after the French military. Indeed,
the new Japanese army used the same rank structure as the French.
The enlisted corps ranks were: private, noncommissioned officers, and
officers. The private classes were: jōtō-hei or upper soldier,
ittō-sotsu or first-class soldier, and nitō-sotsu or second-class
soldier. The noncommissioned officer class ranks were: gochō or
corporal, gunsō or sergeant, sōchō or sergeant major, and
tokumu-sōchō or special sergeant major. Finally, the officer class
is made up of: shōi or second lieutenant, chūi or first lieutenant,
tai or captain, shōsa or major, chūsa or lieutenant colonel, taisa
or colonel, shōshō or major general, chūjō or lieutenant general,
taishō or general, and gensui or field marshal. The French
government also contributed greatly to the training of Japanese
officers. Many were employed at the military academy in Kyoto, and
many more still were feverishly translating French field manuals for
use in the Japanese ranks.
Despite the Conscription Law of 1873, and all the reforms and
progress, the new Japanese army was still untested. That all changed
in 1877, when
Saigō Takamori led the last rebellion of the samurai in
Kyūshū. In February 1877, Saigō left Kagoshima with a small
contingent of soldiers on a journey to Tokyo. Kumamoto castle was the
site of the first major engagement when garrisoned forces fired on
Saigō's army as they attempted to force their way into the castle.
Rather than leave an enemy behind him, Saigō laid siege to the
castle. Two days later, Saigō's rebels, while attempting to block a
mountain pass, encountered advanced elements of the national army en
route to reinforce Kumamoto castle. After a short battle, both sides
withdrew to reconstitute their forces. A few weeks later the national
army engaged Saigō's rebels in a frontal assault at what now is
called the Battle of Tabaruzuka. During this eight-day-battle,
Saigō's nearly ten thousand strong army battled hand-to-hand the
equally matched national army. Both sides suffered nearly four
thousand casualties during this engagement. Due to conscription,
however, the Japanese army was able to reconstitute its forces, while
Saigō's was not. Later, forces loyal to the emperor broke through
rebel lines and managed to end the siege on
Kumamoto Castle after
fifty-four days. Saigō's troops fled north and were pursued by the
national army. The national army caught up with Saigō at Mt. Enodake.
Saigō's army was outnumbered seven-to-one, prompting a mass surrender
of many samurai. The remaining five hundred samurai loyal to Saigō
escaped, travelling south to Kagoshima. The rebellion ended on
September 24, 1877, following the final engagement with Imperial
forces which resulted in the deaths of the remaining forty samurai
including Saigō, who, having suffered a fatal bullet wound in the
abdomen, was honourably beheaded by his retainer. The national army's
victory validated the current course of the modernization of the
Japanese army as well as ended the era of the samurai.
Main article: Foreign relations of Meiji Japan
When the United States Navy ended Japan's sakoku policy, and thus its
isolation, the latter found itself defenseless against military
pressures and economic exploitation by the Western powers. For Japan
to emerge from the feudal period, it had to avoid the colonial fate of
other Asian countries by establishing genuine national independence
and equality. Following the María Luz Incident,
Japan released the
Chinese coolies from a western ship in 1872, after which the Qing
imperial government of China gave thanks to Japan.
Following Japan's victory over China in the Sino-Japanese War
Japan broke through as an international power with a
victory against Russia in
Manchuria (north-eastern China) in the
Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. Allied with Britain since the
Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed in London on January 30, 1902, Japan
joined the Allies in World War I, seizing German-held territory in
China and the Pacific in the process, but otherwise remained largely
out of the conflict.
Following the First World War, a weakened Europe left a greater share
in international markets to the United States and Japan, which emerged
greatly strengthened. Japanese competition made great inroads into
hitherto-European-dominated markets in Asia, not only in China, but
even in European colonies such as India and Indonesia, reflecting the
development of the Meiji era.
Contemporary observers and historians
A key foreign observer of the remarkable and rapid changes in Japanese
society during this period was Ernest Mason Satow, resident in Japan
from 1862 to 1883 and 1895 to 1900.
List of political figures of Meiji Japan
^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Meiji" in
p. 624, p. 624, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym
of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
^ Takano, p. 256.
^ Nakae, C. and Tsukui, N. and Hammond, J. A Discourse by Three
Drunkards on Government. 1984.
^ Hane, M. Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Rebel Women in
Prewar Japan. University of California Press. 1988.
^ Sand, Jordan (2000). "Was Meiji Taste in Interiors "Orientalist?"".
positions: east asia cultures critique. Duke University Press. 8 (3):
^ G.C. Allen, Short Economic History of Modern
^ Landes, David S. (1999). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some
Are So Rich and Some So Poor. New York: Norton.
^ "Rail transport in Japan".. 2018-01-28.
^ Tang, John P. (September 2014). "Railroad Expansion and
Industrialization: Evidence from Meiji Japan". The Journal of Economic
History. Volume 74: 863–886 – via CRKN Cambridge University Press
^ Gordon (2000).
^ a b c d e f g GlobalSecurity.org (2008).
^ Shinsengumihq.com, n.d.
National Diet Library (2008).
^ Kublin (1949) p.32.
^ Kublin (1949) p.31.
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Library of Congress Country Studies website
GlobalSecurity.org (2008). Meiji military. Retrieved August 5, 2008.
Kublin, H. (November 1949). The "modern" army of early meiji Japan.
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Shinsengumihq.com, (n.d.). No sleep, no rest: Meiji law
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Vos, F., et al., Meiji, Japanese Art in Transition, Ceramics,
Cloisonné, Lacquer, Prints, Organized by the Society for Japanese Art
and Crafts, 's-Gravenhage, the Netherlands, Gemeentemuseum, 1987.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Meiji era.
Meiji Taisho 1868-1926
National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview
plus illustrative images from library's collection
"Encouragement for Learning" by Fukuzawa Yukichi, a best-selling book
Japan (English Translation)
Milasi, Luca. "“Tra realtà e finzione: la rivalutazione della
narrativa premoderna nella critica letteraria Meiji" (" (). XXXIV
CONVEGNO DI STUDI SUL GIAPPONE AISTUGIA (16-17-18 settembre 2010)
Università degli studi di Napoli "L'Orientale"(Rettorato
dell'Università "L'Orientale", Palazzo Du Mesnil, in via Partenope
10/A. (in Italian)
Lt. John T. Alderson collection of
Japan photographs. circa 1890s. 40
photographic prints (1 box) : hand colored ; sizes vary. At
the University of Washington Libraries,
Era or nengō
Empire of Japan
House of Councillors
House of Representatives
Deputy Prime Minister
Agriculture, forestry, fishing
Anime / Manga
Onsen / Sentō
Japanese era names (nengō) by period
a Not recognized by the Northern Court, which retained
b Not recognized by the Southern Court.
Genchū discontinued upon reunification of the Northern and Southern
Courts in 1392 and
Meitoku retained until 1394.
d The Heisei era will officially conclude on 30 April 2019 when
Akihito intends to abdicate, as which his son Naruhito intends to
become the new Emperor and a new era begins.
Empire of Japan
Foreign commerce and shipping
Flag of Japan
Rising Sun Flag
Imperial Seal of Japan
Government Seal of Japan
State Seal of Japan
Privy Seal of Japan
Imperial Rescript on Education
National Spiritual Mobilization Movement
Peace Preservation Law
Supreme Court of Judicature
Greater East Asia Conference
Agriculture and Commerce
Commerce and Industry
Greater East Asia
East Asia Development Board (Kōain)
Legislative & Deliberative Bodies
Imperial General Headquarters
Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors
Senjinkun military code
Nuclear weapons program
Supreme War Council
Imperial Japanese Army
Railways and Shipping
Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha)
Imperial Japanese Navy
First Sino-Japanese War
World War I
General Election Law
Washington Naval Treaty
Shōwa financial crisis
Pacification of Manchukuo
Second Sino-Japanese War
Soviet–Japanese border conflicts
Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Surrender (Potsdam Declaration, Gyokuon-hōsō)
Greater East Asia
Dutch East Indies
World War II
World War II industrial co-operation
Racial Equality Proposal
Shinmin no Michi
International Military Tribunal for the Far East
Japanese dissidence during the Shōwa period