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The MEGAS DOUX (Greek : μέγας δούξ pronounced ; English: grand duke ) was one of the highest positions in the hierarchy of the later Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, denoting the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy . It is sometimes also given in English by the half-Latinizations MEGADUKE or MEGADUX. The Greek word δούξ is the Hellenized
Hellenized
form of the Latin
Latin
term dux , meaning leader or commander.

CONTENTS

* 1 History and functions

* 2 List of known holders

* 2.1 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 2.2 Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond

* 3 Cultural references * 4 References * 5 Sources

HISTORY AND FUNCTIONS

The office was initially created by Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
(r. 1081–1118), who reformed the derelict Byzantine navy and amalgamated the remnants of its various provincial squadrons into a unified force under the megas doux. The Emperor's brother-in-law John Doukas is usually considered to have been the first to hold the title, being raised to it in 1092, when he was tasked with suppressing the Turkish emir Tzachas
Tzachas
. There is however a document dated to December 1085, where a monk Niketas signs as supervisor of the estates of an unnamed megas doux. The office of "doux of the fleet" (δούξ τοῦ στόλου, doux tou stolou), with similar responsibilities and hence perhaps a precursor of the office of megas doux, is also mentioned at the time, being given ca. 1086 to Manuel Boutoumites and in 1090 to Constantine Dalassenos .

John Doukas, the first known megas doux, led campaigns on both land and sea and was responsible for the re-establishment of firm Byzantine control over the Aegean and the islands of Crete
Crete
and Cyprus
Cyprus
in the years 1092–93 and over western Anatolia
Anatolia
in 1097. From this time the megas doux was also given overall control of the provinces of Hellas , the Peloponnese and Crete
Crete
, which chiefly provided the manpower and resources for the fleet. However, since the megas doux was one of the Empire's senior officials, and mostly involved with the central government and various military campaigns, de factο governance of these provinces rested with the provinces' praitōr and various local leaders. During the 12th century, the post of megas doux was dominated by the Kontostephanos family; one of its members, Andronikos Kontostephanos , was one of the most important officers of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180), assisting him in achieving many land and naval victories.

With the virtual disappearance of the Byzantine fleet after the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
, the title was retained as an honorific in the Empire of Nicaea . Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
(r. 1259–1282) assumed the title when he became regent for John IV Laskaris (r. 1258–1261), before being raised to senior co-emperor. It was also used by the Latin
Latin
Empire , where, in ca. 1207, the Latin
Latin
emperor awarded the island of Lemnos
Lemnos
and the hereditary title of megadux to the Venetian (or possibly of mixed Greek and Venetian descent) Filocalo Navigajoso ("imperiali privilegio Imperii Megaducha est effectus"). His descendants inherited the title and the rule of Lemnos
Lemnos
until evicted by the Byzantines in 1278.

After the Byzantine recovery of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261, the title reverted to its old function as commander-in-chief of the navy, and remained a high rank for the remainder of the empire, its holder ranking sixth after the emperor, between the prōtovestiarios and the prōtostratōr . As such, it was also sometimes conferred upon foreigners in imperial service, the most notable among these being the Italian Licario , who recovered many Aegean islands for Emperor Michael VIII, and Roger de Flor , head of the Catalan Company . The mid-14th century Book of Offices of Pseudo-Kodinos lists the insignia of the megas doux as a golden-red skiadion hat decorated with embroideries in the klapoton style, without veil. Alternatively, a domed skaranikon hat could be worn, again in red and gold and decorated with golden wire, with a portrait of the emperor standing in front, and another of him enthroned in the rear. The megas doux also wore a rich silk tunic, the kabbadion , and could choose the fabric himself "from those that are in use". His staff of office (dikanikion) featured carved knots and knobs in gold, bordered with silver braid. Pseudo-Kodinos also records that, while the other warships flew "the usual imperial flag" of the cross and the firesteels , the flagship of the megas doux flew an image of the emperor on horseback. His subordinate officials were the megas droungarios tou stolou , the amēralios, the prōtokomēs, the junior droungarioi, and the junior komētes.

The Serbian Empire , established in 1346 by Tsar Stefan Dushan , adopted various Byzantine titles, among them that of megas doux, which became the "grand voivode " (veliki vojvoda), albeit without any naval connotations. Holders of the office included senior noblemen such as Jovan Uglješa and Jovan Oliver .

LIST OF KNOWN HOLDERS

BYZANTINE EMPIRE

NAME TENURE APPOINTED BY NOTES REFS

John Doukas 1092 – unknown Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Brother-in-law of Alexios I, previously governor of Dyrrhachium .

Landulf 1099–1105 Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Admiral of Western origin.

Isaac Kontostephanos 1105–1108 Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Dismissed for his incompetence in the wars against Bohemond .

Marianos Maurokatakalon 1108 – unknown Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Successor of Isaac Konstostephanos.

Eumathios Philokales after 1112 – after 1118 Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Previously judicial official in Greece and long-time governor of Cyprus
Cyprus
.

Constantine Opos Unknown Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Distinguished general in the campaigns against the Turks.

Leo Nikerites Unknown Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Eunuch, previously governor in Bulgaria and the Peloponnese .

Nikephoros Vatatzes Unknown Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
(?) Known only through a seal, possibly dating to the reign of Alexios I.

Stephen Kontostephanos ?) – 1149 Manuel I Komnenos Brother-in-law of Manuel I, was killed while in office in 1149.

Alexios Komnenos ca. 1155 – after 1161 Manuel I Komnenos Son of Anna Komnene and Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger .

Andronikos Kontostephanos after 1161 – 1182 Manuel I Komnenos Manuel's nephew, he was the emperor's most trusted and distinguished general. Blinded by the usurper Andronikos I Komnenos
Andronikos I Komnenos
in 1182.

John Komnenos Unknown Manuel I Komnenos First cousin of Manuel I, son of the sebastokrator Andronikos Komnenos. He fell at Myriokephalon in 1176.

Constantine Angelos Unknown Isaac II Angelos
Isaac II Angelos
Afterwards governor of Philippopolis , he led an unsuccessful usurpation attempt.

Michael Stryphnos ca. 1195 – after 1201/1202 Alexios III Angelos A favourite of Alexios III. He reportedly sold off the fleet's equipment to enrich himself.

Theodotos Phokas ca. 1210 Theodore I Laskaris
Theodore I Laskaris
Uncle of Theodore I, emperor of Nicaea , known only from a monastic property deed dating to between 1206 and 1212.

John Gabalas ca. 1240 John III Vatatzes A letter by King Henry I of Cyprus
Cyprus
to the anonymous "great ruler of the God-guarded island of Rhodes
Rhodes
and the Cyclades
Cyclades
", identified by Spyridon Lambros with John, refers to him as pansebastos sebastos , megas doux, and gambros of the emperor.

Michael Palaiologos 1258 John IV Laskaris The future Michael VIII, he assumed the office after the murder of George Mouzalon in September 1258, when he was named regent for the young John IV. He was soon after raised to despotes and eventually to emperor.

Michael Tzamantouros Laskaris 1259 – ca. 1269/72 Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
Brother of Theodore I Laskaris, due to his advanced age he never held actual command of the fleet. He held the office until his death.

Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos ca. 1272/73 – ca. 1274/75 Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
Previously protostrator and de facto commander of the fleet since ca. 1263. Held the office of megas doux until his death.

Licario ca. 1275/77 – unknown Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
Italian renegade who entered Byzantine service, he conquered Negroponte and many of the Aegean islands.

John de lo Cavo after 1278 Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
Genoese privateer who entered Byzantine service, lord of Anafi
Anafi
and Rhodes.

Roger de Flor 1303–1304 Andronikos II Palaiologos Leader of the mercenary Catalan Company . He resigned his post in late 1304 favour of his lieutenant, Berenguer de Entença , and was murdered a few months later.

Berenguer de Entença 1304–1305 Andronikos II Palaiologos Roger de Flor's lieutenant and successor as leader of the mercenary Catalan Company . He resigned his office after disagreeing with the emperor

Fernand Ximenes de Arenos 1307/1308 – unknown Andronikos II Palaiologos One of the leaders of the Catalan Company , he was named megas doux defected to the Byzantines

Syrgiannes Palaiologos 1321–1322 or 1328/29 Andronikos II Palaiologos One of the main partisans of the young Andronikos III Palaiologos in the Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328 , he defected to the aged Andronikos II, who rewarded him with the office of megas doux. After plotting against him as well, he was imprisoned.

Isaac Palaiologos Asanes unknown – 1341 Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos
Promoted to panhypersebastos , and replaced in office by Alexios Apokaukos.

Alexios Apokaukos
Alexios Apokaukos
1341–1345 Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
A former partisan and protégé of John Kantakouzenos , Apokaukos was instrumental in the outbreak of the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347 , and until his murder in 1345 led the anti-Kantakouzenist regency for John V

Asomatianos Tzamplakon 1348–1349 John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
Head of the fleet during the Byzantine–Genoese war of 1348–1349 . He died some time before 1356

Mamonas after 1393/94 – before 1416/17 Manuel II Palaiologos The Mamonas family were hereditary rulers of Monemvasia . Mamonas ruled the city between 1384 and 1416/17

Manuel unknown – 1410 Manuel II Palaiologos Mentioned only in an anonymous chronicle as dying of an epidemic in 1409/10

Phrangopoulos ca. 1429 Theodore II Palaiologos Promoted from prōtostratōr to megas doux of the Despotate of the Morea in 1429. Manuel Phrangopoulos was a senior official of the Despotate already since the 1390s.

Paraspondelos ca. 1436 John VIII Palaiologos Known only as the father-in-law of Demetrios Palaiologos .

Loukas Notaras after 1441 – 1453 John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos A wealthy merchant and landowner with estates in Italy, Notaras served as ship captain in 1441, and then under both John VIII and Constantine XI as chief minister (mesazōn ). He was executed by the Ottomans after the Fall of Constantinople

EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND

NAME TENURE APPOINTED BY NOTES REFS

Lekes Tzatzintzaios unknown–1332

Executed by Basil Megas Komnenos on his arrival to Trebizond .

John 1332–1344 Basil Megas Komnenos Irene Palaiologina Eunuch and one of the leading participants in the Trapezuntine Civil War on the side of Empress Irene Palaiologina .

Niketas Scholarios 1344–1345 1349–1361 John III Megas Komnenos Michael Megas Komnenos Alexios III Megas Komnenos One of the leading participants in the Trapezuntine Civil War , as a partisan of John III Megas Komnenos . Imprisoned by Michael Megas Komnenos in 1345, he was reinstated by Michael in 1349 and remained in office under Alexios III , probably until his death in 1361.

John Kabazites after 1344 – 1349 Michael Megas Komnenos One of the leading participants in the Trapezuntine Civil War against Empress Irene Palaiologina . Killed fighting against the Genoese at Kaffa .

Scholaris ca. 1395

Otherwise unknown/unidentified.

CULTURAL REFERENCES

In the 1490 Valencian
Valencian
epic romance Tirant lo Blanc , the valiant knight Tirant the White from Brittany travels to Constantinople
Constantinople
and becomes a Byzantine megadux. This story has no basis in actual history, though it may reflect the above-mentioned cases of the office being conferred upon foreigners.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F G H ODB , "Megas doux" (A. Kazhdan), p. 1330. * ^ Polemis 1968 , p. 67. * ^ Skoulatos 1980 , p. 147. * ^ Skoulatos 1980 , pp. 61, 181. * ^ Polemis 1968 , pp. 66–69. * ^ Skoulatos 1980 , pp. 145–149. * ^ Angold 1997 , p. 150. * ^ Angold 1997 , p. 151. * ^ Magdalino 2002 , p. 234. * ^ Bartusis 1997 , p. 274. * ^ Van Tricht 2011 , pp. 112, 130, 144. * ^ Bartusis 1997 , p. 381. * ^ Bartusis 1997 , p. 60. * ^ Verpeaux 1966 , pp. 153–154. * ^ A B Verpeaux 1966 , p. 167. * ^ PLP , 21150. Οὔγκλεσις Ἰωάννης. * ^ PLP , 14888. Λίβερος Ἰωάννης. * ^ A B C Guilland 1967 , p. 543. * ^ Skoulatos 1980 , pp. 169–171. * ^ Skoulatos 1980 , pp. 130–132. * ^ Skoulatos 1980 , pp. 186–187. * ^ Guilland 1967 , pp. 543–544. * ^ Skoulatos 1980 , pp. 79–82. * ^ A B C D Guilland 1967 , p. 544. * ^ A B Guilland 1967 , p. 545. * ^ Guilland 1967 , pp. 545–546. * ^ Guilland 1967 , p. 546. * ^ Guilland 1967 , pp. 546–547. * ^ A B Guilland 1967 , p. 547. * ^ Savvides 1990 , p. 186. * ^ PLP , 21528. Παλαιολόγος, Μιχαὴλ VIII. ∆ούκας Ἂγγελος Κομνηνός. * ^ Guilland 1967 , p. 548. * ^ PLP , 14554. Λάσκαρις, Μιχαὴλ Τζαμάντουρος. * ^ Guilland 1967 , pp. 548–549. * ^ PLP , 29751. Φιλανθρωπηνός, Ἀλέξιος Δούκας. * ^ A B Guilland 1967 , p. 549. * ^ PLP , 8154. Ἰκάριος. * ^ Geanakoplos 1959 , p. 211. * ^ Nicol 1992 , p. 202. * ^ PLP , 24386. Ῥοντζέριος. * ^ Guilland 1967 , pp. 549–550. * ^ Nicol 1993 , p. 131. * ^ PLP , 27580. Τέντζα Μπυριγέριος. * ^ A B C D E Guilland 1967 , p. 550. * ^ Nicol 1993 , pp. 133–134. * ^ PLP , 27944. Τζιμῆς Φαρέντα. * ^ Nicol 1993 , pp. 157–158. * ^ PLP , 27167. Συργιάννης Παλαιολόγος Φιλανθρωπηνὸς Κομνηνός. * ^ PLP , 1494. Ἀσάνης, Ἰσαάκιος Παλαιολόγος. * ^ Nicol 1993 , pp. 187–201. * ^ Nicol 1993 , p. 223. * ^ PLP , 27753. Τζαμπλάκων Ἀσωματιανός. * ^ A B C D Guilland 1967 , p. 551. * ^ PLP , 16580. Μαμωνᾶς Παῦλος (?). * ^ PLP , 16711. Μανουήλ. * ^ PLP , 30139. Φραγκόπουλος . * ^ PLP , 21905. Παρασπόνδυλος. * ^ PLP , 20730. Nοταρᾶς Λουκᾶς. * ^ A B PLP , 8597. Ἰωάννης. * ^ PLP , 27305. Σχολάριος Νικήτας. * ^ PLP , 10010. Καβαζίτης Ἰωάννης. * ^ PLP , 27308. Σχολάρις.

SOURCES

* Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

* Angold, Michael (1997). The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204: A Political History. Second Edition. Longman. ISBN 0-582-29468-1 . * Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society 1204–1453. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1620-2 . * Geanakoplos, Deno John (1959). Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West, 1258–1282: A Study in Byzantine- Latin
Latin
Relations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. * Guilland, Rodolphe (1967). "Le Drongaire de la flotte, le Grand drongaire de la flotte, le Duc de la flotte, le Mégaduc". Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tome I (in French). Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. pp. 535–562. * Haldon, John F. (1999). Warfare, state and society in the Byzantine world, 565–1204. Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-494-1 . * Kazhdan, Alexander , ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8 . * Nicol, Donald M. (1992). Byzantium and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42894-1 . * Nicol, Donald MacGillivray (1993). The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43991-6 . * Magdalino, Paul (2002). The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52653-1 . * Polemis, Demetrios I. (1968). The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography. London. * Savvides, Alexis (1990). "Η γενουατική κατάληψη της Ρόδου το 1248-1250 μ.Χ.". Παρνασσός (in Greek). 32: 183–199. * Skoulatos, Basile (1980). Les personnages byzantins de l'Alexiade. Analyse prosopographique et synthèse (in French). Louvain-la-Neuve: Nauwelaerts. * Trapp, Erich; Beyer, Hans-Veit; Walther, Rainer; Sturm-Schnabl, Katja; Kislinger, Ewald; Leontiadis, Ioannis; Kaplaneres, Sokrates (1976–1996). Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit (in German). Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 3-7001-3003-1 . * Van Tricht, Filip (2011). The Latin
Latin
Renovatio of Byzantium: The Empire of Constantinople
Constantinople
(1204–1228). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-20323-5 . * Verpeaux, Jean, ed. (1966). Pseudo-Kodinos, Traité des Offices (in French). Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

* v * t * e

On the order of the palace offices, after pseudo-Kodinos

* Despotes * Sebastokrator * Caesar * Megas domestikos * Panhypersebastos * Protovestiarios * Megas doux * Protostrator * Megas logothetes * Megas stratopedarches * Megas primmikerios * Megas konostaulos * Protosebastos * Pinkernes * Kouropalates * Parakoimomenos tes sphendones * Parakoimomenos tou koitonos * Logothetes tou genikou * Protovestiarites * Domestikos tes trapezes * Epi tes trapezes * Megas papias * Eparchos * Megas droungarios tes vigles * Megas hetaireiarches * Megas chartoullarios * Logothetes tou dromou * Protasekretis * Epi tou stratou * Mystikos * Domestikos ton scholon * Megas droungarios tou stolou * Primmikerios tes aules * Protospatharios * Megas archon * Tatas tes aules * Megas tzaousios * Praitor tou demou * Logothetes ton oikeiakon * Megas logariastes * Protokynegos * Skouterios * Ameralios * Epi ton deeseon * Koiaistor * Megas adnoumiastes * Logothetes tou stratiotikou * Protoierakarios * Logothetes ton agelon * Megas diermeneutes * Akolouthos * Krites tou phossatou * Archon tou allagiou * Protallagator * Megas dioiketes * Orphanotrophos * Protonotarios * Epi ton anamneseon * Domestikos ton teicheon * Prokathemenos of the koiton * Prokathemenos of the vestiarion * Vestiariou * Hetaireiarches * Logariastes tes aules * Stratopedarches of the monokaballoi * Stratopedarches of the tzangratores * Stratopedarches of the mourtatoi * Stratopedarches of the Tzakones * Prokathemenos of the Great Palace * Prokathemenos of the Palace of Blachernae * Domestikos of the themata * Domestikos of the eastern themata * Domestikos of the western themata * Megas myrtaïtes * Protokomes * Papias * Droungarios * Sebastos * Myrtaïtes * Prokathemenoi of the cities according to their importance

* (unknown rank) Epi tou kanikleiou * (unknown rank) Megas baïoulos

* v * t * e

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
topics

HISTORY

PRECEDING

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire

* Dominate
Dominate

(330–717) EARLY

* Constantinian dynasty * Valentinian dynasty * Theodosian dynasty * Leonid dynasty * Justinian dynasty * Heraclian dynasty * Twenty Years\' Anarchy

(717–1204) MIDDLE

* Isaurian dynasty * Nikephorian dynasty * Amorian dynasty * Macedonian dynasty * Doukas dynasty * Komnenos dynasty * Angelos dynasty

(1204–1453) LATE

* Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
* Latin
Latin
Empire / Nicaea / Epirus –Thessalonica / Morea / Trebizond / others * Palaiologos dynasty * Fall of Constantinople

GOVERNANCE

CENTRAL

* Emperors

* Basileus * Autokrator
Autokrator

* Senate * Imperial bureaucracy * Eparch

EARLY

* Praetorian prefects * Magister officiorum
Magister officiorum
* Comes sacrarum largitionum * Comes rerum privatarum * Quaestor sacri palatii
Quaestor sacri palatii

MIDDLE

* Logothetes tou dromou * Sakellarios * Logothetes tou genikou * Logothetes tou stratiotikou * Chartoularios tou sakelliou * Chartoularios tou vestiariou * Epi tou eidikou * Protasekretis * Epi ton deeseon

LATE

* Megas logothetes * Mesazon

PROVINCIAL

EARLY

* Praetorian prefectures * Dioceses * Provinces * Quaestura exercitus * Exarchate of Ravenna * Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Bandon * Catepanates

LATE

* Kephale * Despotates

DIPLOMACY

* Treaties * Diplomats

MILITARY

ARMY

* Battle tactics * Military manuals * Wars * Battles * Revolts * Siege warfare * Generals * Mercenaries

EARLY

* Late Roman army
Late Roman army

* East Roman army
East Roman army

* Foederati
Foederati
* Bucellarii * Scholae Palatinae * Excubitors
Excubitors

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Tourma * Droungos * Bandon * Tagmata * Domestic of the Schools * Hetaireia * Akritai * Varangian Guard

LATE

* Komnenian army

* Pronoia * Vestiaritai

* Palaiologan army

* Allagion
Allagion
* Paramonai
Paramonai

* Grand Domestic
Grand Domestic

NAVY

* Karabisianoi

* Maritime themata

* Cibyrrhaeot * Aegean Sea * Samos

* Dromon
Dromon
* Greek fire
Greek fire
* Droungarios of the Fleet
Droungarios of the Fleet
* Megas doux * Admirals * Naval battles

RELIGION AND LAW

RELIGION

* Eastern Orthodox Church * Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
* Ecumenical councils * Saints * Patriarchate of Constantinople
Constantinople
* Arianism * Monophysitism
Monophysitism
* Paulicianism
Paulicianism
* Iconoclasm * Great Schism * Bogomilism
Bogomilism
* Hesychasm * Mount Athos
Mount Athos

* Missionary activity

* Bulgaria * Moravia * Serbs * Kievan Rus\'

* Jews * Muslims

LAW

* Codex Theodosianus * Corpus Juris Civilis * Ecloga
Ecloga
* Basilika
Basilika
* Hexabiblos * Mutilation

CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARCHITECTURE

* Secular

* Sacred

* Cross-in-square * Domes

CONSTANTINOPLE

* Great Palace of Constantinople
Great Palace of Constantinople
* Blachernae Palace * Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
* Hagia Irene
Hagia Irene
* Chora Church * Pammakaristos Church * City Walls

THESSALONICA

* Arch of Galerius and Rotunda
Arch of Galerius and Rotunda
* Hagios Demetrios
Hagios Demetrios
* Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
* Panagia Chalkeon

RAVENNA

* San Vitale * Sant\'Apollinare in Classe * Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo

OTHER LOCATIONS

* Daphni Monastery * Hosios Loukas * Nea Moni of Chios * Saint Catherine\'s Monastery * Mystras
Mystras

ART

* Icons * Enamel * Glass * Mosaics * Painters * Macedonian period art * Komnenian renaissance

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Coinage * Mints

* Trade

* silk * Silk Road
Silk Road
* Varangians

* Dynatoi

LITERATURE

* Novel

* Acritic songs
Acritic songs

* Digenes Akritas
Digenes Akritas

* Alexander romance * Historians

EVERYDAY LIFE

* Calendar * Cuisine * Dance * Dress * Flags and insignia * Hippodrome

* Music

* Octoechos

* People

* Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks

* Slavery * Units of measurement

* Science * Learning

* Encyclopedias * Inventions * Medicine

* Philosophy

* Neoplatonism

* Scholars * University

IMPACT

* Byzantine commonwealth
Byzantine commonwealth
* Byzantine studies * Museums * Byzantinism * Cyrillic script * Neo- Byzantine architecture * Greek scholars in the Renaissance * Third Rome * Megali Idea
Megali Idea

* BYZANTINE EMPIRE PORTAL

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