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The Megali Idea
Megali Idea
(Greek: Μεγάλη Ιδέα, Megáli Idéa, "Great Idea")[1] was an irredentist concept of Greek nationalism
Greek nationalism
that expressed the goal of establishing a Greek state that would encompass all historically ethnic Greek-inhabited areas, including the large Greek populations that were still under Ottoman rule after the Greek War of Independence (1830) and all the regions that traditionally belonged to Greeks
Greeks
in ancient times (the Southern Balkans, Anatolia and Cyprus).[2] The term appeared for the first time during the debates of Prime Minister Ioannis Kolettis
Ioannis Kolettis
with King Otto that preceded the promulgation of the 1844 constitution.[3] This was a visionary nationalist aspiration that was to dominate foreign relations and, to a significant extent, determine domestic politics of the Greek state for much of the first century of independence. The expression was new in 1844 but the concept had roots in the Greek popular psyche. It long had hopes of liberation from Turkish rule and restoration of the Byzantine Empire.[3]

Πάλι με χρόνια με καιρούς,

πάλι δικά μας θα 'ναι!

(Once more, as years and time go by, once more they shall be ours).[4] The Megali Idea
Megali Idea
implied the goal of reviving the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, by establishing a Greek state, which would be, as ancient geographer Strabo
Strabo
wrote, a Greek world encompassing mostly the former Byzantine lands from the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
to the west, to Asia Minor and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east and from Thrace, Macedonia and Epirus
Epirus
to the north, to Crete
Crete
and Cyprus
Cyprus
to the south. This new state would have Constantinople
Constantinople
as its capital: it would be the " Greece
Greece
of Two Continents and Five Seas" (Europe and Asia, the Ionian, Aegean, Marmara, Black and Libyan seas, respectively). The Megali Idea
Megali Idea
dominated foreign policy and domestic politics of Greece
Greece
from the War of Independence in the 1820s through the Balkan wars in the beginning of the 20th century. It started to fade after the defeat of Greece
Greece
in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)
Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)
and the Great Fire of Smyrna
Great Fire of Smyrna
in 1922, followed by the Population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
in 1923. Despite the end of the Megali Idea project in 1922, the Greek state expanded five times in its history, either through military conquest or diplomacy (often with British support). After the creation of Greece
Greece
in 1830, it later annexed the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
(1864), Thessaly
Thessaly
(1881), Macedonia, Crete, southern Epirus
Epirus
and the Eastern Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
(1913), Western Thrace
Thrace
(1920) and the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
(1947), making them Greek territory.

Contents

1 Fall of Constantinople 2 Greeks
Greeks
under Ottoman rule 3 Greek War of Independence 4 Revolts, Cretan crisis and Greco-Turkish War (1897) 5 Early 20th century

5.1 Balkan Wars 5.2 World War I 5.3 Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

6 World War II, annexation of Dodecanese
Dodecanese
and the Cyprus
Cyprus
dispute 7 Today 8 Regions involved in the "Megali Idea" 9 See also 10 References

Fall of Constantinople[edit] Main article: Fall of Constantinople

Sultan Mehmed II's entry into Constantinople.

Though the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was Roman in origin and was called the "Roman Empire" by its inhabitants and the entire world, until some 120 years after its fall, when Hieronymus Wolf
Hieronymus Wolf
coined the usage of Byzantium. It became Hellenistic with time to the point where Greek replaced Latin as the official language in AD 610, owing to several factors: Its religion, being Christian, with the New Testament written in Greek; its location in the Greek-speaking realm and sphere of influence; and the fact that, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire. Byzantium held out against the invasions of the centuries with a vitality that the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
lost, repelling the Visigoths, the Huns, the Saracens, the Mongols and finally the Turks (during the first siege). Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium, fell to the Fourth Crusaders in the early years of the 13th century. The city was eventually liberated by the Empire of Nicaea, a Byzantine successor, and the Empire was restored. However, the city fell to a different foe in 1453—the Ottoman Turks—and this fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
marked the nadir of Byzantine civilization; the city was comprehensively sacked and looted; the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
was turned into a mosque. Following the conquest of Constantinople, the capture of the remainder of the Byzantine territories was easily accomplished by the Ottomans. Greeks
Greeks
under Ottoman rule[edit] Further information: Ottoman Greece In the Millet system in force during the Ottoman empire, the population was classified according to religion rather than language or ethnicity. Orthodox Greeks
Greeks
were seen as part of the millet-i Rûm (literally "Roman community") which included all Orthodox Christians, including besides Greeks
Greeks
also Bulgarians, Serbs, Vlachs, Slavs, Georgians, Arabs, Romanians
Romanians
and Albanians, despite their differences in ethnicity and language and despite the fact that the religious hierarchy was Greek dominated. It is not clear to what extent one can speak of a Greek identity during those times as opposed to a Christian or Orthodox identity.[5] In the late 1780s, Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia
and Joseph II of Austria
Joseph II of Austria
intended to reclaim the Byzantine heritage and restore the Greek statehood as part of their joint Greek Plan. It is notable that during the Middle Ages and the Ottoman period, Greek-speaking Christians identified as Romans and thought of themselves as the descendants of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(including the Medieval Eastern Roman Empire). Indeed, the term Roman was often interpreted as synonymous with Christian throughout Europe and the Mediterranean during this time. The terms Greek or Hellene
Hellene
were largely seen by Ottoman Christians as referring to the ancient pagan peoples of the region. This, however, changed during the late stages of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the emergence of the Greek independence movement.[6][7] Greek War of Independence[edit] Main articles: Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
and Kingdom of Greece

The Greek Kingdom in 1831, after its independence.

"The Kingdom of Greece
Greece
is not Greece; it is merely a part: the smallest, poorest part of Greece. The Greek is not only he who inhabits the Kingdom, but also he who inhabits Ioannina, Salonika
Salonika
or Serres
Serres
or Adrianople
Adrianople
or Constantinople
Constantinople
or Trebizond or Crete
Crete
or Samos or any other region belonging to the Greek history or the Greek race... There are two great centres of Hellenism. Athens
Athens
is the capital of the Kingdom. Constantinople
Constantinople
is the great capital, the dream and hope of all Greeks."

Kolettis voicing his convictions in the National Assembly in January 1844.[8]

After the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
ended in 1829, a new Southern Greek state was established, with assistance from the United Kingdom, France
France
and Imperial Russia. However, this new Greek state under John Capodistria after the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
was, with Serbia, one of the only two countries of the era whose population was smaller than the population of the same ethnicity outside its borders; most of ethnic Greeks
Greeks
still resided within the borders of Ottoman Empire. This version of Greece
Greece
was designed by the Great Powers, who had no desire to see a larger Greek state supplant the Ottoman Empire. The Great Idea embodied a desire to bring all ethnic Greeks
Greeks
into the Greek state, and subsequently revive the Byzantine Empire; specifically those Greeks
Greeks
in Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, Thrace, the Aegean Islands, Crete, Cyprus, parts of Anatolia, and the city of Constantinople, which would replace Athens
Athens
as capital. When the young Danish prince Vilhelm Georg was elected king in 1863, the title offered to him by the Greek National Assembly was not "King of Greece", the title of his deposed predecessor, King Otto; but rather "King of the Hellenes". Implicit in the wording was that George I was to be king of all Greeks, regardless of whether they then lived within the borders of his new kingdom. The first areas to be incorporated into the Kingdom were the Ionian islands in 1864, and later Thessaly
Thessaly
with the Treaty of Berlin (1878). Revolts, Cretan crisis and Greco-Turkish War (1897)[edit] See also: Epirus
Epirus
Revolt of 1854, Cretan Revolt (1866–69), Epirus Revolt of 1878, Macedonian Struggle, and Greco-Turkish War of 1897

Constantine I of Greece
Greece
was called Constantine XII by his supporters, the legitimate successor to the Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos

Eleftherios Venizelos, the radical politician who tried to realize the Megali Idea

In January 1897, violence and disorder were escalating in Crete, polarizing the population. Massacres of the Christian population took place in Chania and Rethimno. The Greek government, pressured by public opinion, intransigent political elements, extreme nationalist groups (e.g. Ethniki Etairia) and with the Great Powers
Great Powers
reluctant to intervene, decided to send warships and personnel to assist the Cretans. The Great Powers
Great Powers
had no option then but to proceed with the occupation of the island, but they were too late. A Greek force of 1,500 men had landed at Kolymbari on 1 February 1897, and its commanding officer, Colonel Timoleon Vassos, declared that he was taking over the island "in the name of the King of the Hellenes" and that he was announcing the union of Crete
Crete
with Greece. This led to an uprising that spread immediately throughout the island. The Great Powers finally decided to land their troops and stopped the Greek army force from approaching Chania. At the same time their fleets blockaded Crete, preventing both Greeks
Greeks
and Turks from bringing any more troops to the island. The Ottoman Empire, in reaction to the rebellion of Crete
Crete
and the assistance sent by Greece, relocated a significant part of its army in the Balkans to the north of Thessaly, close to the borders with Greece. Greece
Greece
in reply reinforced its borders in Thessaly. However, irregular Greek forces and followers of the Megali Idea
Megali Idea
acted without orders and raided Turkish outposts, leading the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to declare war on Greece; the war is known as the Greco-Turkish War of 1897. The Turkish army, far outnumbering the Greek, was also better prepared, due to the recent reforms carried out by a German mission under Baron von der Goltz. The Greek army fell back in retreat. The other Great Powers
Great Powers
then intervened and an armistice was signed in May 1897. The war, however, only ended in December of that year. The military defeat of Greece
Greece
in the Greco-Turkish war cost it small territorial losses along the border line in northern Thessaly, and a large sum of financial reparations that wrecked Greece's economy for years, while giving no lasting solution to the Cretan Question. The Great Powers
Great Powers
(Britain, France, Russia, and Italy) in order to prevent future clashes and trying to avoid the creation of a revanchist climate in Greece, imposed what they thought of as the final solution on the Cretan Question: Crete
Crete
was proclaimed an autonomous Cretan State. The four Great Powers
Great Powers
assumed the administration of Crete; and, in a decisive diplomatic victory for Greece, Prince George of Greece (second son of King George I) became High Commissioner. Early 20th century[edit] Balkan Wars[edit] Main article: Greece
Greece
in the Balkan Wars

Poster celebrating the "New Greece" after the Balkan Wars.

A major proponent of the Megali Idea
Megali Idea
was Eleftherios Venizelos, under whose leadership Greek territory doubled in the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
of 1912–13 — southern Epirus, Crete, Lesbos, Chios, Samos
Samos
along with the totality of Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
and the majority of Macedonia were attached to Greece. Born and raised in Crete, in 1909 Venizelos was already a prominent Cretan and had influence in mainland Greece. As such, he was chosen after the Goudi coup
Goudi coup
in 1909 to become Prime Minister of Greece. A proponent of the Megali Idea, Venizelos pressed forward a series of reforms in society, as well as the military and administration, which helped Greece
Greece
succeed in its goals during the Balkan Wars. World War I[edit] Main articles: Greece
Greece
during World War I
World War I
and Treaty of Sèvres

Map of Megali Hellas after the Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
and featuring a picture of Eleftherios Venizelos.

The ongoing Greek genocide
Greek genocide
and refugees speaking of Turkish atrocities as well as a victory in World War I
World War I
seemed to promise an even greater realization of the Megali Idea. Greece
Greece
gained in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
the administration of Smyrna
Smyrna
and its hinterland for five years (after with a referendum it could be incorporated), the islands of Imbros
Imbros
and Tenedos, Western and Eastern Thrace, the border then drawn a few miles from the walls of Constantinople: the Imperial City seemed within reach. Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)[edit] Main article: Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)

Greek soldiers in Smyrna, May 1919.

A major defeat followed in 1922, however, when the Turkish revolutionaries defeated and expelled the Greeks
Greeks
from Anatolia
Anatolia
during the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). The Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
saw Greece lose Eastern Thrace, Imbros
Imbros
and Tenedos, Smyrna
Smyrna
and the possibility of staying in Anatolia. To avoid any further territorial claims, both Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
engaged in an "exchange of populations": During the conflict, 151,892 Greeks
Greeks
had already fled Asia Minor. The Treaty of Lausanne moved 1,104,216 Greeks
Greeks
from Turkey,[9] while 380,000 Turks left the Greek territory for Turkey. Also, in Greece
Greece
had also moved (after WWI) 40,027 Greeks
Greeks
from Bulgaria, 58,522 from Russia (because of the defeat of Wrangel) and 10,080 from other lands (for example Dodecanese
Dodecanese
or Albania), while 60,000 Bulgarians
Bulgarians
from Thrace
Thrace
and Macedonia had moved to Bulgaria. The immediate reception of refugees to Greece
Greece
cost 45 million francs, so the League of Nations arranged for a loan of 150 million francs to aid settlement of refugees. In 1930, Venizelos even went on an official visit to Turkey, where he proposed that Mustafa Kemal be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. World War II, annexation of Dodecanese
Dodecanese
and the Cyprus
Cyprus
dispute[edit] See also: Military history of Greece
Greece
during World War II, EOKA, and 1974 Cypriot coup d'état Although the Great Idea ceased to be a driving force behind Greek foreign policy, some remnants continued to influence Greek foreign policy throughout the remainder of the 20th century. Thus, after his coup d'état of 4 August 1936, Ioannis Metaxas proclaimed the advent of the "Third Hellenic Civilization", similar to Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.[10] The attack by Italy from Albania
Albania
and the Greek victories enabled Greece
Greece
to conquer, during the winter of 1940–1941, parts of southern Albania
Albania
(Northern Epirus, as it is identified by Greeks) which were administered as a province of Greece for a short time until the German offensive of April 1941. The occupation, resistance and the civil war initially put the Great Idea in the background. Nevertheless, another very good diplomatic performance by the Greek side at the Paris Peace Conference, 1946 secured a further enlargement of Greek territory, in the form of the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
Islands, despite the very strong opposition of Vyacheslav Molotov and the Soviet delegates.[11] The Soviet opposition was also the main reason for the non incorporation of the Northern Epirus, since Albania
Albania
was, after WW2, communist controlled. The British colony of Cyprus
Cyprus
became the "apple of discord" in Greco-Turkish relations. In 1955, a Greek army colonel of Greek Cypriot origin, George Grivas, began a campaign of civil disobedience whose purpose was primarily to drive the British from the island, then move for Enosis
Enosis
with Greece. The Greek Prime Minister, Alexandros Papagos, was not unfavourable to this idea.[citation needed] There was increasing polarisation of opinion between the dominant Greek population and the minority Turks.[citation needed] The problems in Cyprus
Cyprus
affected the continent itself. In September 1955, in response to the demand for Énosis, an anti-Greek riot took place in Istanbul. During the Istanbul
Istanbul
Pogrom 4,000 stores, 100 hotels and restaurants and 70 churches were destroyed or damaged.[12] This led to the last great wave of migration from Turkey
Turkey
to Greece.

The partition of Cyprus
Cyprus
showing the Turkish-occupied north and government controlled south.

The Zürich Agreement of 1959 culminated in independence of the island within the British Commonwealth. The inter-ethnic clashes from 1960 led to the dispatch of a peacekeeping force of the United Nations in 1964. The Cyprus
Cyprus
issue was revived by the dictatorship of the colonels, who presented their April 21, 1967, coup d'état as the only way to defend the traditional values of what they called the "Hellenic-Christian Civilization".

“ Youth of Greece
Greece
... you recall, in your heart and your faith, the deep sense of sacrifice. It dates back to Leonidas, "Come and take them!", to Constantine XI, "I do not wish to give the City.", and Metaxás, "No!". It is in the "Stop or I draw!". ”

Against the backdrop of the oil crisis in the Aegean, Brigadier General Ioannidis arranged, in July 1974, to overthrow Cypriot President Archbishop
Archbishop
Makarios, and proceed to Enosis
Enosis
with Greece.[citation needed] This led to an immediate reaction from Turkey. Turkey
Turkey
invaded the north part of the island. The two countries moved to a general mobilization and there was a well-founded fear of an imminent war with Turkey. Today[edit] See also: Greco-Turkish relations Today, there is no significant population of Greeks
Greeks
in Turkey, due to the population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
and the Greek genocide. There are several extant Greek-Turkish border disputes, most notably taking place at Imia/Kardak
Imia/Kardak
and Cyprus. Relations between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
improved after the Greek aid sent after the 1999 İzmit earthquake
1999 İzmit earthquake
and the Turkish aid sent after the 1999 Athens
Athens
earthquake. The nationalist Golden Dawn party, which has had a recent surge in electoral support, supports the Megali Idea.[13] Regions involved in the "Megali Idea"[edit] Regions and claims vary in significance. Usually only regions with a modern Greek presence were attested in official contexts.

Thrace
Thrace

Western Thrace
Thrace
Eastern Thrace, most notably the city of Constantinople/ Istanbul
Istanbul
Areas of historical Greek presence in Northern Thrace
Thrace

Asia Minor
Asia Minor

Ionia, most notably the city of Smyrna/ Izmir
Izmir
Pontus (Pontic Greeks) Cappadocia
Cappadocia
(Cappadocian Greeks) Other areas of historical Greek presence in Asia Minor, most notably the regions around the Propontis
Propontis
and on the western Anatolian coast. Regions not already mentioned include Aeolis, Doris, Troad, Bithynia, Mysia
Mysia
and the strategic straits Hellespont
Hellespont
and Bosphorus
Bosphorus
More extravagant claims include the former territories of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, which roughly denotes the lands between contemporary Greece
Greece
and the upper Euphrates
Euphrates

Cyprus
Cyprus
Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands

Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
Imbros
Imbros
and Tenedos
Tenedos

Macedonia

Macedonia Historical region of Pelagonia
Pelagonia

Epirus
Epirus

Southern Epirus
Epirus
Northern Epirus
Epirus

Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands

Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
Sazan Island
Sazan Island

Crete
Crete
Thessaly
Thessaly
Central Greece
Greece
Peloponnese
Peloponnese

See also[edit]

Greece
Greece
portal

Magna Graecia Greek diaspora Northern Epirus Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus Greece
Greece
during World War I Occupation of Constantinople Zone of Smyrna Republic of Pontus Greek genocide Georgios Grivas Foreign relations of Greece Greek Plan

References[edit]

^ Mateos, Natalia Ribas. The Mediterranean in the Age of Globalization: Migration, Welfare & Borders. Transaction Publishers.  ^ "Introduction: Greece" ^ a b History of Greece
Greece
Encyclopædia Britannica Online ^ D. Bolukbasi and D. Bölükbaşı, Turkey
Turkey
And Greece: The Aegean Disputes, Routledge Cavendish 2004 ^ Koliopoulos, John S.; Veremis, Thanos (2007). Greece: The Modern Sequel. C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd.  ^ Honing, Matthias; Vogl, Ulrik; Moliner, Olivier (eds.). Standard Languages and Multilingualism in European History. John Benjamins. p. 163.  ^ Zacharia, Katerina (ed.). Hellenisms: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity. Ashgate Publishing. p. 240.  ^ Smith M., Ionian Vision, (1999), p. 2 ^ André Billy, La Grèce, Arthaud, 1937, p. 188. ^ R. Clogg, op. Cit, p. 118. ^ K. Svolopoulos, Greek Foreign Policy 1945–1981. Cit, p. 134. ^ R. Clogg, op. Cit, p. 153. ^ Μιχαλολιάκος: Του χρόνου στην Κωνσταντινούπολη, στην Σμύρνη, στην Τραπεζούντα…. Stochos
Stochos
(in Greek). 31 December 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013. 

v t e

Megali Idea

Background

Fall of Constantinople Ottoman Greece Greek War of Independence

Annexations

Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
(1864) Thessaly
Thessaly
(1881) Crete
Crete
(1912) Epirus
Epirus
(1912) Macedonia (1912) North Aegean islands
North Aegean islands
(1912) Western Thrace
Thrace
(1919) Dodecanese
Dodecanese
(1947)

Temporary acquisitions

Eastern Thrace
Thrace
(1920–23) Imbros
Imbros
and Tenedos
Tenedos
(1912–13, 1920–23) Northern Epirus
Epirus
(1912–16, 1940–41) Smyrna
Smyrna
Zone (1919–22 as dependency)

Other areas

Western Asia Minor
Asia Minor
( Sanjak of Balıkesir
Balıkesir
and part of Sanjak of Bursa from Hüdavendigâr Vilayet, Aidin Vilayet
Aidin Vilayet
excluding Denizli
Denizli
Sanjak, also Troad
Troad
region from Vilayet of the Archipelago, Asian parts of Constantinople
Constantinople
Vilayet and Mediterranean coast from Kastellorizo
Kastellorizo
to Antalya) Constantinople Cyprus Eastern Rumelia Pelagonia
Pelagonia
(Monastiri region) Gevgeli Sazan Island Pontus Cappadocia/Karaman

Ideas

Greek nationalism Hellenization Enosis

People/Organizations

Ioannis Kolettis Aristotelis Valaoritis Ethniki Etaireia Macedonian Committee Dimitrios Kalapothakis Pavlos Melas Kostis Palamas Penelope Delta Ion Dragoumis Eleftherios Venizelos Themistoklis Sofoulis Georgios Christakis-Zografos Theodoros Pangalos Northern Epirus
Epirus
Liberation Front EOKA Georgios Grivas

Events

Epirus
Epirus
Revolt of 1854 Cretan Revolt (1866–1869) Cretan Revolt (1878) Epirus
Epirus
Revolt of 1878 1878 Greek Macedonian rebellion Macedonian Struggle Greco-Turkish War (1897) Theriso revolt Balkan Wars Himara revolt of 1912 Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus Provisional Government of National Defence National Defence Army Corps Greece
Greece
in WWI Occupation of Constantinople Greek landing at Smyrna Republic of Pontus Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922) 1931 Cyprus
Cyprus
Revolt Greece
Greece
in WWII Greco-Italian War Cyprus
Cyprus
Emergency 1974 Cypriot coup d'état

Treaties

Treaty of London (1864) Treaty of Berlin (1878) Convention of Constantinople
Constantinople
(1881) Treaty of Constantinople
Constantinople
(1897) Greek-Serbian Alliance of 1913 Treaty of London (1913) Treaty of Bucharest (1913) Treaty of Athens
Athens
(1913) Protocol of Corfu (1914) Venizelos–Tittoni agreement (1919) Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
(1919) Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
(1920) Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
(1923) Treaty of Paris (1947)

v t e

Greek nationalism

Ideology

Modern Greek Enlightenment Megali Idea Hellenization Venizelism Metaxism Enosis

Organizations

Filiki Eteria Ethniki Etaireia Hellenic Macedonian Committee National Youth Organisation National Republican Greek League EOKA EOKA
EOKA
B

Political Parties

Nationalist Party New Party Liberal Party Freethinkers' Party Politically Independent Alignment Greek Rally National Party of Greece 4th of August Party National Alignment Party of Hellenism National Political Union Hellenic Front Front Line Patriotic Alliance National Front (Greece) Popular Orthodox Rally Golden Dawn National Unity Association

People

Adamantios Korais Rigas Feraios Alexander Ypsilantis Athanasios Diakos Dionysios Solomos Ioannis Kolettis Constantine Paparrigopoulos Alexandros Koumoundouros Theodoros Diligiannis Charilaos Trikoupis Kostis Palamas Pavlos Melas Ion Dragoumis Eleftherios Venizelos Alexandros Papanastasiou Nikolaos Plastiras Ioannis Metaxas Angelos Sikelianos Alexandros Papagos Napoleon Zervas Georgios Grivas Georgios Papadopoulos Dimitrios Ioannidis

Historical events

Greco-Persian Wars Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty Greek War of Independence Cretan Revolt (1866–69) Greco-Turkish War (1897) Macedonian Struggle Balkan Wars Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus National Schism Greco-Turkish war (1919-1922) 4th of August Regime Greek Resistance Cypriot intercommunal violence Greek military junta of 1967–74 1974 Cypriot coup d'état 1990 Komotini events

Policies

Geographical name changes Greek language
Greek language
question Macedonia naming dispute

v t e

Irredentism

Africa

Congo Comoros Madagascar Mauritania Mauritius Morocco

Free Zone

Somalia South Africa

Asia

Armenia

Artsakh

Azerbaijan Bengal

United Bengal Greater Bangladesh

Cambodia China

Nine-Dash Line

Georgia Kashmir Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan Iranian Kurdistan Turkish Kurdistan Syrian Kurdistan

Korea

Tsushima

India Indonesia Iran

Iranian peoples

Iraq

Kuwait Assyrian homeland

Israel Japan Lebanon Mongolia Nepal Philippines Syria

Hatay

Timor Turkey

Cyprus Turkic peoples

Yemen

Europe

Albania

Kosovo Macedonia

Austria Bulgaria Belarus Croatia

Bosnia

Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France

Wallonia

Germany

Germanic

Greece

Cyprus

Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy

Corsica Dalmatia Istria Malta Nice Savoy Switzerland

Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania

Moldova

Russia

East Slavic peoples Crimea

Serbia

Kosovo Republika Srpska

Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Americas

Argentina Bolivia Canada Guatemala Mexico United States Suriname Venezuela

Oceania

Australia Nelsonia Papua New Guinea Samoa Vanuatu

Related concepts: Border changes
Border changes
· Partitionism · Reunification · Revanchism
Revanchism
· Rump state

v t e

Pan-nationalist concepts

Ideas

Pan-Africanism Pan-Americanism Pan-Arabism Pan-Asianism Berberism Pan-Celticism Czechoslovakism Pan-Germanism Pan-Germanicism Pan-European nationalism Panhispanism Pan-Iberism Pan-Indianism Pan-Iranism Pan-Latinism Pan-Mongolism Pan-Oceanianism Scandinavism Pan-Serbism Pan-Slavism Turanism Pan-Turkism Yugoslavism

Territorial concepts

Greater Albania Greater Bulgaria Greater Catalonia Greater China Greater Croatia Greater Finland Greater Hungary Greater Iran Greater Israel Greater Italy Greater Mexico Greater Morocco Greater Nepal Greater Netherlands Greater Norway Greater Portugal Greater Romania Greater Serbia Greater Somalia Greater Spain Greater Syria Greater Ukraine Greater Yugoslavia Greek Megali Idea Kurdistan Occitania Tamazgha Turkish Misak-ı Millî United Armenia United Ireland United Macedoni

.