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A Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures. In addition to the Mediterranean Basin, the climate is also found in most of California
California
in the United States, in parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa, sections of Western and Central Asia, and in Central Chile. Outside the Mediterranean Basin, the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually located geographically on the western coasts of continental masses, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles, and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, a Mediterranean climate is a combination of the three climates with winters somewhat mimicking winters in oceanic climates and summers imitating dry seasons in semi-arid and arid climates. Additionally, Mediterranean climates tend to be wetter poleward and drier towards the equator. The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa
South Africa
and the Chilean scrubland in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called “Mediterranean trinity” has traditionally developed: wheat, vine and olive.

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Köppen climate classification 3 Precipitation 4 Temperature 5 Mediterranean biome

5.1 Natural vegetation

6 Hot-summer Mediterranean climate 7 Warm-summer Mediterranean climate 8 Cold-summer Mediterranean climate 9 References 10 External links

Characteristics[edit] The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is characterised by dry summers and mild, rainy winters. They are located on the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
zones are typically associated with the five large subtropical high-pressure belts of the oceans: the Azores
Azores
High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, South Pacific High, and Indian Ocean
Ocean
High. These high-pressure belts, called anticyclones, rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Anticyclones
Anticyclones
cause air in the surrounding atmosphere to diverge and descend, sinking the air in opposing directions until there are no clouds present; leaving clear skies. Climatological high-pressure anticyclones migrate by latitude according to the direct angle of the Sun, shifting northward in the summer and toward the equator in the winter. These semi-permanent high-pressure belts play a major role in the formation of the world's subtropical and tropical deserts as well as the rainless summers associated with the Mediterranean climate. The Azores High
Azores High
(also known as the Bermuda High), is associated with the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
found in the Mediterranean Basin, the Sahara Desert, and Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
(as well as that of the Azores, Canary Islands, and other eastern Atlantic islands). The South Atlantic High is similarly associated with the Namib Desert
Namib Desert
and Kalahari Desert, and the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
of the western part of South Africa. The North Pacific High is related to the North American deserts: the Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert, and maintains the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
found in California. The South Pacific High
South Pacific High
correlates to the Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
and Central Chile's climate, while the Indian Ocean
Ocean
High controls southwestern Australia's climate.[1] Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, Istanbul, Izmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome
Rome
and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Lisbon, Casablanca, Cape Town, Adelaide, Perth, Santiago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Tashkent
Tashkent
and Dushanbe. Köppen climate classification[edit] Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates (classified as Csa) and "cool dry-summer climates (classified as Csb) are often referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group (in this case temperate climates). Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F), but below 18 °C (64 °F), in their coolest months. The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern ("s" represents dry summers). Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm (1.2 in) of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, however, use a 40 mm (1.6 in) level.[2][3] The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C (72 °F), while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C (72 °F). Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates (Csa, Csb) usually occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas normally not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, and parts of New Zealand.[4] Additional highland areas in the subtropics also meet Cs requirements, though they, too, are not normally associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, and the eastern part of the Azores Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C (50 °F) or higher (subtropical), and the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm (35 in). Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do or Oceanic climate, and many Csc zones in the Köppen system become Eo or Subpolar oceanic climate, with the only classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations are included in the Mediterranean type climate. Precipitation[edit]

“ It [Chile] has six, months of winter, no more, and in them, except when there is a quarter moon, when it rains one or two days, all the other days have such beautiful suns... ”

—  Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
are dominated by subtropical high-pressure, with dry sinking air capping a surface marine layer of varying humidity and making rainfall unlikely. In many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months, due to the great loss of ultraviolet radiation from the sun at night. In winter, Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
zones come into contact with the westerlies and associated periodic storms can reach into the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
zones. Since the high-pressure is no longer there to deflect storms away from these regions, thunderstorms and heavy rain become possible. As a result, areas with this climate receive almost all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, and may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation usually decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture usually increases; the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
in Southern Europe
Europe
has more rain. The rainfall also tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean (the Levant) and in Southern California
California
the summer is nearly or completely dry and the dry season most severe. In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate. Temperature[edit]

Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
distribution in the Americas

The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters and very warm summers. However winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters, Lisbon and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall almost unknown, whereas Tashkent
Tashkent
has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens
Athens
experiences rather high temperatures in that season (48 °C (118 °F) has been measured in nearby Eleusis). In contrast, San Francisco
San Francisco
has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C (70 °F) due to the continuous upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the coast. The coast of California
California
also produces regular summer fog, due to cool, moist ocean air coming into contact with high-pressure. Because most regions with a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
are near large bodies of water, temperatures are generally moderate with a comparatively small range of temperatures between the winter low and summer high (although the daily range of temperature during the summer is large due to dry and clear conditions, except along the immediate coasts). Temperatures during winter only occasionally fall below the freezing point and snow is generally seldom seen. In the summer, the temperatures range from mild to very hot, depending on distance from a large body of water, elevation, and latitude. Even in the warmest locations with a Mediterranean-type climate, however, temperatures usually do not reach the highest readings found in adjacent desert regions because of cooling from water bodies, although strong winds from inland desert regions can sometimes boost summer temperatures, quickly increasing the risk of wildfires. As in every climatologic domain, the highland locations of the Mediterranean domain can present cooler temperatures in winter than the lowland areas, temperatures which can sometimes prohibit the growth of typical Mediterranean plants. Some Spanish authors opt to use the term "Continental Mediterranean climate" for some regions with lower temperature in winter than the coastal areas[5] (direct translation from Clima Mediterráneo Continentalizado), but most climate classifications (including Köppen's Cs zones) show no distinction. Additionally, the temperature and rainfall pattern for a Csa or even a Csb climate can exist as a microclimate in some high-altitude locations adjacent to a rare tropical As (tropical savanna climate with dry summers, typically in a rainshadow region). These have a favourable climate with mild wet winters and fairly warm, dry summers. Mediterranean biome[edit] The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
biome is closely associated with Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
zones, as are unique freshwater communities. Particularly distinctive of the climate are sclerophyll shrublands, called maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, chaparral in California, matorral in Chile, fynbos in South Africa, and mallee and kwongan shrublands in Australia. Aquatic communities in Mediterranean climate regions are adapted to a yearly cycle in which abiotic (environmental) controls of stream populations and community structure dominate during floods, biotic components (e.g. competition and predation) controls become increasingly important as the discharge declines, and environmental controls regain dominance as environmental conditions become very harsh (i.e. hot and dry); as a result, these communities are well suited to recover from droughts, floods, and fires.[6] Aquatic organisms in these regions show distinct long-term patterns in structure and function,[7] and are also highly sensitive to the effects of climate change.[8][9] Natural vegetation[edit] The native vegetation of Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
lands must be adapted to survive long, hot summer droughts and prolonged wet periods in winter. Mediterranean vegetation examples include the following:[10]

Evergreen trees: such as bay laurel, pine, cypress, and oak Deciduous trees: such as sycamore, oak, and buckeyes Fruit trees such as olive, figs, walnuts and grapes Shrubs: rosemary, Erica, Banksia, and chamise Sub-shrubs: such as lavender, Halimium, and sagebrush Grasses: grassland types, Themeda triandra, bunchgrasses; sedges, and rushes Herbs: such as Achillea, Dietes, Helichrysum
Helichrysum
and Penstemon

Much native vegetation in Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
area valleys have been cleared for agriculture. In places such as the Sacramento Valley
Sacramento Valley
and Oxnard Plain
Oxnard Plain
in California, draining marshes and estuaries combined with supplemental irrigation has led to a century of intensive agriculture. Much of the Overberg
Overberg
in the southern Cape of South Africa, once covered with renosterveld, has likewise been largely converted to agriculture, mainly wheat. In hillside and mountainous areas, away from urban sprawl, ecosystems and habitats of native vegetation are more sustained. The fynbos vegetation in the South-western Cape in South Africa
South Africa
is famed for its high floral diversity, and includes such plant types as members of the Restionaceae, Ericas (Heaths) and Proteas. Representatives of the Proteaceae
Proteaceae
also grow in Australia, such as Banksias. The palette of California
California
native plants is also renowned for its species and cultivar diversity. Hot-summer Mediterranean climate[edit]

  Hot-summer mediterranean climate (Csa)

This subtype of the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csa) is the most common form of the Mediterranean climate, therefore it is also known as a “typical Mediterranean climate”. As stated earlier, regions with this form of a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
experience average monthly temperatures in excess of 22.0 °C (71.6 °F) during its warmest month and an average in the coldest month between 18 and −3 °C (64 and 27 °F) or, in some applications, between 18 and 0 °C (64 and 32 °F). Also, at least four months must average above 10 °C (50 °F). Regions with this form of the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
typically experience hot, sometimes very hot and dry summers and mild, wet winters. In a number of instances, summers here can closely resemble summers seen in arid and semi-arid climates. However, high temperatures during summers are generally not quite as high as those in arid or semiarid climates due to the presence of a large body of water. All areas with this subtype have wet winters. However, some areas with a hot Mediterranean subtype can actually experience very chilly winters, with occasional snowfall. Precipitation is heavier during the colder months. However, there are a number of clear, sunny days during the wetter months. Csa climates are mainly found around the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia, southwestern South Africa, sections of Central Asia, northern sections of Iran
Iran
and Iraq, the interior of northern California
California
west of the Sierra Nevada, and inland areas of southern Oregon
Oregon
west of the Cascade Mountains. Southern California's coasts also experience hot summers due to the shielding effect of the Channel Islands. However, unshielded areas of that coastline can have warm-summer Mediterranean climates with hot-summer areas just a few miles inland.

Valencia

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    37     17 7

    36     17 8

    33     19 10

    38     21 12

    39     23 15

    22     27 19

    8     30 22

    20     30 22

    70     28 19

    77     24 15

    47     20 11

    48     17 8

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[11][12]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.5     63 45

    1.4     63 46

    1.3     66 50

    1.5     70 54

    1.5     73 59

    0.9     81 66

    0.3     86 72

    0.8     86 72

    2.8     82 66

    3     75 59

    1.9     68 52

    1.9     63 46

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Los Angeles

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    79     20 9

    97     20 10

    62     21 11

    23     23 12

    6.6     24 14

    2.3     26 16

    0.3     28 18

    1     29 18

    6.1     28 17

    17     26 15

    26     23 11

    59     20 9

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: NOAA [1]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    3.1     68 48

    3.8     69 49

    2.4     70 51

    0.9     73 53

    0.3     74 57

    0.1     78 60

    0     83 64

    0     84 64

    0.2     83 63

    0.7     78 59

    1     73 52

    2.3     68 47

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Perth

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    9.5     31 18

    13     31 18

    19     30 16

    44     26 14

    118     22 11

    177     19 9

    170     18 8

    134     19 8

    81     20 10

    52     23 11

    22     26 14

    13     29 16

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: BoM[13]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.4     87 64

    0.5     88 64

    0.8     85 62

    1.7     78 56

    4.6     72 51

    7     67 47

    6.7     65 46

    5.3     66 46

    3.2     68 49

    2.1     73 52

    0.9     79 57

    0.5     84 61

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Warm-summer Mediterranean climate[edit]

  Warm-summer mediterranean climate (Csb)

Occasionally also termed “Cool-summer Mediterranean climate”, this subtype of the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csb) is the less common form of the Mediterranean climate. Cool ocean current and upwelling are often the reason for this cooler type of Mediterranean climate. As stated earlier, regions with this subtype of the Mediterranean climate experience warm (but not hot) and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 22 °C (72 °F) during its warmest month and an average in the coldest month between 18 and −3 °C (64 and 27 °F) or, in some applications, between 18 and 0 °C (64 and 32 °F). Also, at least four months must average above 10 °C (50 °F). Winters are rainy and can be mild to chilly. In a few instances, snow can fall on these areas. Precipitation occurs in the colder seasons, but there are a number of clear sunny days even during the wetter seasons. Csb climates are found in northwestern Iberia, namely Galicia and Portugal, California, western Washington and Oregon, Canada's Vancouver Island, central Chile, parts of southern Australia, sections of southwestern South Africa
South Africa
and sections of the Atlantic coast of Morocco.

Porto

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    158     14 5

    140     15 6

    90     17 7

    116     18 9

    98     20 11

    46     23 14

    18     25 16

    27     25 15

    71     24 15

    138     20 12

    158     17 8

    195     15 7

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: Instituto de Meteorologia[14]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    6.2     56 41

    5.5     59 43

    3.5     62 45

    4.6     64 47

    3.8     67 52

    1.8     73 57

    0.7     77 60

    1.1     77 59

    2.8     75 59

    5.4     69 53

    6.2     62 47

    7.7     58 44

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

San Francisco

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    120     15 8

    105     16 9

    86     17 10

    32     18 10

    14     19 11

    3.3     20 12

    1     20 12

    2.3     21 13

    7.1     22 13

    30     21 13

    84     18 10

    81     15 8

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: NOAA[15]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    4.7     58 46

    4.1     61 49

    3.4     62 49

    1.3     65 50

    0.5     65 51

    0.1     68 53

    0     68 54

    0.1     69 56

    0.3     71 56

    1.2     70 55

    3.3     64 51

    3.2     59 47

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Cape Town

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    15     26 16

    17     27 16

    20     25 14

    41     23 12

    69     20 9

    93     18 8

    82     18 7

    77     18 8

    40     19 9

    30     21 11

    14     24 13

    17     25 15

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: WMO[16]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.6     79 60

    0.7     80 60

    0.8     78 58

    1.6     73 53

    2.7     69 49

    3.7     65 46

    3.2     64 45

    3     64 46

    1.6     67 48

    1.2     70 51

    0.6     74 56

    0.7     77 59

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Cold-summer Mediterranean climate[edit]

Distribution of the relatively rare cold-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen type Csc) in Washington, Oregon
Oregon
and California.

The cold-summer subtype of the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csc) is rare and predominately found at scattered high-altitude locations along the west coasts of North and South America. This type is characterized by cool summers, with fewer than four months with a mean temperature at or above 10 °C (50 °F), as well as with mild winters, with no winter month having a mean temperature below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C [27 °F]), depending on the isotherm used). Regions with this climate are influenced by the dry-summer trend that extends considerably poleward along the west coast of the Americas, as well as the moderating influences of high altitude and relative proximity to the Pacific Ocean. In North America, areas with Csc climate can be found in the Olympic, Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada ranges in Washington, Oregon
Oregon
and California. These locations are found at high altitude nearby lower altitude regions characterized by a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb) or hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csa). A rare instance of this climate occurs in the tropics, on Haleakalā
Haleakalā
Summit in Hawaii. In South America, Csc regions can be found along the Andes
Andes
in Chile and Argentina. The town of Balmaceda is one of the few towns confirmed to have this climate. Small areas with a Csc climate can also be found at high elevations in Corsica.

Balmaceda, Chile

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    28     18 7

    20     18 6

    38     16 5

    54     12 3

    93     8 1

    85     4 −2

    84     4 −3

    72     6 −1

    49     9 0

    30     13 2

    28     15 4

    32     16 6

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: DMC[17]infochile[18]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.1     64 44

    0.8     64 43

    1.5     60 40

    2.1     53 37

    3.6     46 33

    3.4     40 28

    3.3     38 27

    2.8     43 30

    1.9     49 32

    1.2     55 36

    1.1     58 40

    1.2     62 42

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Haleakala Summit, Hawaii

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    203     7 1

    91     10 2

    78     11 3

    102     11 3

    34     13 4

    9.4     15 6

    12     14 5

    28     15 6

    40     14 6

    34     14 5

    104     10 3

    119     6 0

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: The Western Regional Climate
Climate
Center[19]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    8     45 34

    3.6     50 36

    3.1     51 37

    4     52 37

    1.4     55 39

    0.4     58 42

    0.5     58 42

    1.1     58 42

    1.6     58 42

    1.3     57 41

    4.1     51 38

    4.7     43 32

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

References[edit]

^ Akin, Wallace E. (1991). Global Patterns: Climate, Vegetation, and Soils. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8061-2309-5.  ^ Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rube, Franz (June 2006). " World
World
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 2011-02-27.  ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrology and Earth
Earth
System Sciences. 4 (2): 439–473. doi:10.5194/hessd-4-439-2007. Retrieved 2011-02-27.  ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. Retrieved 2011-02-27.  ^ "España a Través de los Mapas". www.ign.es.  ^ Gasith, A. and V.H. Resh (1999). "Streams in mediterranean Climate Regions: Abiotic Influences and Biotic Responses to Predictable Seasonal Events". Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30: 51–81. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.30.1.51.  ^ Resh, V.H.; L.A. Bêche; J.E. Lawrence; R.D. Mazor; E.P. McElravy; A.H. Purcell; S.M. Carlson (2013). "Long-term Population and Community Patterns of Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fishes in Northern California
California
Mediterranean-climate Streams". Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 719: 93–118. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1373-9. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ Lawrence, J.E.; K.B. Lunde; R.D. Mazor; L.A. Bêche; E.P. McElravy; V.H. Resh (2010). "Long-Term Macroinvertebrate Responses to Climate Change: Implications for Biological Assessment in Mediterranean- Climate
Climate
Streams". Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 29 (4): 1424–1440. doi:10.1899/09-178.1. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ Filipe, A.F.; J.E. Lawrence; N. Bonada (November 2013). "Vulnerability of Biota in Mediterranean Streams to Climate
Climate
Change: A Synthesis of Ecological Responses and Conservation Challenges". Hydrobiologia. 719: 331–351. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1244-4. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ Dallman, Peter (1998). Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. Berkeley, CA: University of California
California
Press. ISBN 9780520208094.  ^ Meteorología, Agencia Estatal de. "Valores climatológicos normales: Valencia
Valencia
- Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
- AEMET. Gobierno de España". www.aemet.es.  ^ Meteorología, Agencia Estatal de. " Valencia
Valencia
Aeropuerto: Valencia Aeropuerto - Valores extremos absolutos - Selector - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de España". www.aemet.es.  ^ " Perth
Perth
Monthly climate statistics". Australia
Australia
Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2010-08-02.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Porto, Portugal". Instituto de Meteorologia. Retrieved 2010-08-02.  ^ "Climatography of the United States
United States
No. 20 (1971–2000)" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-31.  ^ "Weather Information for Cape Town". World
World
Weather Information Service. Retrieved 2010-08-02.  ^ "Estadistica Climatologica Tomo III (pg 319-343)" (PDF). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. Retrieved January 15, 2013.  ^ "Datos climatológicos Chile
Chile
Sur". Atmosfera.cl. Archived from the original on 2012-12-09.  ^ "Seasonal Temperature
Temperature
and Precipitation Information". Western Regional Climate
Climate
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External links[edit] Media related to Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
at Wikimedia Commons

Explanation of Mediterranean Climate
Climate
(University of Wisconsin)

v t e

Climate
Climate
types under the Köppen climate classification

Class A

Tropical rainforest (Af) Tropical monsoon (Am) Tropical savanna (Aw, As)

Class B

Desert
Desert
(BWh, BWk, BWn) Semi-arid (BSh, BSk, BSn)

Class C

Humid subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) Oceanic (Cfb, Cwb, Cfc, Cwc) Mediterranean (Csa, Csb, Csc)

Class D

Humid continental (Dfa, Dwa, Dfb, Dwb, Dsa, Dsb) Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, Dwd, Dsc, Dsd)

Class E

Tundra
Tundra
(ET) Ice cap (EF) Alpine (ET, EF)

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