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In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation. The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
is the Old World
Old World
region where olive trees grow.[2]

Contents

1 Geography 2 Geology and paleoclimatology 3 Flora and fauna 4 Ecoregions 5 History 6 Agriculture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Geography[edit]

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The Mediterranean basin covers portions of three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa It has a varied and contrasting topography. The Mediterranean Region offers an ever-changing landscape of high mountains, rocky shores, impenetrable scrub, semi-arid steppes, coastal wetlands, sandy beaches and a myriad islands of various shapes and sizes dotted amidst the clear blue sea. Contrary to the classic sandy beach images portrayed in most tourist brochures, the Mediterranean is surprisingly hilly. Mountains can be seen from almost anywhere.[3] The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
extends into Western Asia, covering the western and southern portions of the peninsula of Turkey, excluding the temperate-climate mountains of central Turkey. It includes the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
Levant
Levant
at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, bounded on the east and south by the Syrian and Negev
Negev
deserts. The northern portion of the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of northwestern Africa
Africa
has a Mediterranean climate, separated from the Sahara
Sahara
Desert, which extends across North Africa, by the Atlas Mountains. In the eastern Mediterranean the Sahara
Sahara
extends to the southern shore of the Mediterranean, with the exception of the northern fringe of the peninsula of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in Libya, which has a dry Mediterranean climate. Europe
Europe
lies to the north, and three large Southern European peninsulas, the Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, and the Balkan Peninsula, extend into the Mediterranean-climate zone. A system of folded mountains, including the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
dividing Spain
Spain
from France, the Alps
Alps
dividing Italy
Italy
from Central Europe, the Dinaric Alps
Alps
along the eastern Adriatic, and the Balkan and Rhodope mountains of the Balkan Peninsula
Balkan Peninsula
divide the Mediterranean from the temperate climate regions of Western and Central Europe.

Köppen-Geiger-based map of the areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Based on the work of M. C. Peel, B.L. Finlayson and T.A. McMahon at the University of Melbourne. For explanation of the colors see the image file "World_Koppen_Map.png" at Wikimedia Commons.

Geology and paleoclimatology[edit] The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
was shaped by the ancient collision of the northward-moving African-Arabian continent with the stable Eurasian continent. As Africa-Arabia moved north, it closed the former Tethys Sea, which formerly separated Eurasia from the ancient super continent of Gondwana, of which Africa
Africa
was part. At about the same time, 170 mya in the Jurassic
Jurassic
period, a small Neotethys ocean basin formed shortly before the Tethys Sea
Tethys Sea
was closed at the eastern end. The collision pushed up a vast system of mountains, extending from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
in Spain
Spain
to the Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
in Iran. This episode of mountain building, known as the Alpine orogeny, occurred mostly during the Oligocene
Oligocene
(34 to 23 million years ago (mya)) and Miocene
Miocene
(23 to 5.3 mya) epochs. The Neotethys became larger during these collisions and associated folding and subduction. About 6 mya during the late Miocene, the Mediterranean was closed at its western end by drifting Africa, which caused the entire sea to evaporate. There followed several (debated) episodes of sea drawdown and re-flooding known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis, which ended when the Atlantic last re-flooded the basin at the end of the Miocene.[4] Recent research has suggested that a desiccation-flooding cycle may have repeated several times [5][6] during the last 630,000 years of the Miocene
Miocene
epoch, which could explain several events of large amounts of salt deposition. Recent studies, however, show that repeated desiccation and re-flooding is unlikely from a geodynamic point of view.[7][8] The end of the Miocene
Miocene
also marked a change in the Mediterranean Basin's climate. Fossil evidence shows that the Mediterranean Basin had a relatively humid subtropical climate with summer rainfall during the Miocene, which supported laurel forests. The shift to a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
occurred within the last 3.2–2.8 million years, during the Pliocene
Pliocene
epoch, as summer rainfall decreased. The subtropical laurel forests retreated, although they persisted on the islands of Macaronesia
Macaronesia
off the Atlantic coast of Iberia and North Africa, and the present Mediterranean vegetation evolved, dominated by coniferous trees and sclerophyllous trees and shrubs, with small, hard, waxy leaves that prevent moisture loss in the dry summers. Much of these forests and shrublands have been altered beyond recognition by thousands of years of human habitation. There are now very few relatively intact natural areas in what was once a heavily wooded region. Flora and fauna[edit] See also: the categories Environment of the Mediterranean and Plants of Mediterranean climate. Phytogeographically, the Mediterranean basin together with the nearby Atlantic coast, the Mediterranean woodlands and forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests
and Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
of North Africa, the Black Sea coast of northeastern Anatolia, the southern coast of Crimea
Crimea
between Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and Feodosiya
Feodosiya
and the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast between Anapa
Anapa
and Tuapse
Tuapse
in Russia
Russia
forms the Mediterranean Floristic Region, which belongs to the Tethyan Subkingdom of the Boreal Kingdom
Boreal Kingdom
and is enclosed between the Circumboreal, Irano-Turanian, Saharo-Arabian and Macaronesian floristic regions. The Mediterranean Region was first proposed by German botanist August Grisebach in the late 19th century. Drosophyllaceae, recently segregated from Droseraceae, is the only plant family endemic to the region. Among the endemic plant genera are:[dubious – discuss]

Tetraclinis Rupicapnos Ceratocapnos Soleirolia Ortegia Bolanthus Lycocarpus Ionopsidium Bivonaea Euzomodendron Hutera Vella Boleum Didesmus Morisia Guiraoa Malope Drosophyllum Ceratonia Chronanthus Anagyris Callicotome Spartium Hymenocarpus Biserrula Argania Petagnia Lagoecia Putoria Fedia Tremastelma Bellardia Lafuentea Rosmarinus Argantoniella Preslia Gyrocarion Dorystoechas Coridothymus Trachelium Santolina Cladanthus Staehelina Leuzea Andryala Rothmaleria Chionodoxa Hermodactylus Triplachne Helicodiceros Chamaerops Aphyllanthes Petromarula

The genera Aubrieta, Sesamoides, Cynara, Dracunculus, Arisarum
Arisarum
and Biarum
Biarum
are nearly endemic. Among the endemic species prominent in the Mediterranean vegetation are the Aleppo pine, stone pine, Mediterranean cypress, bay laurel, Oriental sweetgum, holm oak, kermes oak, strawberry tree, Greek strawberry tree, mastic, terebinth, common myrtle, oleander, Acanthus mollis
Acanthus mollis
and Vitex agnus-castus. Moreover, many plant taxa are shared with one of the four neighboring floristic regions only. According to different versions of Armen Takhtajan's delineation, the Mediterranean Region is further subdivided into seven to nine floristic provinces: Southwestern Mediterranean (or Southern Moroccan and Southwestern Mediterranean), Ibero-Balearian (or Iberian and Balearian), Liguro-Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, East Mediterranean, South Mediterranean and Crimeo-Novorossiysk.[9] The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
is the largest of the world's five Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
regions. It is home to a number of plant communities, which vary with rainfall, elevation, latitude, and soils.

Scrublands occur in the driest areas, especially areas near the seacoast where wind and salt spray are frequent. Low, soft-leaved scrublands around the Mediterranean are known as garrigar in Catalan, garrigue in French, phrygana in Greek, tomillares in Spanish, and batha in Hebrew. Shrublands are dense thickets of evergreen sclerophyll shrubs and small trees, and are the most common plant community around the Mediterranean. Mediterranean shrublands are known as màquia in Catalan, macchia in Italian, maquis in French, and "matorral" in Spanish. In some places shrublands are the mature vegetation type, and in other places the result of degradation of former forest or woodland by logging or overgrazing, or disturbance by major fires. Savannas and grasslands occur around the Mediterranean, usually dominated by annual grasses. Woodlands are usually dominated by oak and pine, mixed with other sclerophyll and coniferous trees. Forests are distinct from woodlands in having a closed canopy, and occur in the areas of highest rainfall and in riparian zones along rivers and streams where they receive summer water. Mediterranean forests are generally composed of evergreen trees, predominantly oak and pine. At higher elevations Mediterranean forests transition to mixed broadleaf and tall conifer forests similar to temperate zone forests.

The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
is home to considerable biodiversity, including 22,500 endemic vascular plant species. Conservation International designates the region as a biodiversity hotspot, because of its rich biodiversity and its threatened status. The Mediterranean Basin has an area of 2,085,292 km2, of which only 98,009 km2 remains undisturbed. Endangered mammals of the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
include the Mediterranean monk seal, the Barbary macaque, and the Iberian lynx. Ecoregions[edit]

Aegean and Western Turkey
Turkey
sclerophyllous and mixed forests (Greece, Turkey) Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests (Turkey) Canary Islands
Canary Islands
dry woodlands and forests (Spain) Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests (France) Crete Mediterranean forests (Greece) Cyprus
Cyprus
Mediterranean forests (Cyprus) Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests (Lebanon, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria, Turkey) Iberian conifer forests (Portugal, Spain) Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests (Portugal, Spain) Illyrian deciduous forests
Illyrian deciduous forests
(Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Slovenia) Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests (France, Italy) Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets (Morocco, Canary Islands
Canary Islands
(Spain)) Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
(Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) Mediterranean woodlands and forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests
(Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) Northeastern Spain
Spain
and Southern France
France
Mediterranean forests (France, Spain) Northwest Iberian montane forests (Portugal, Spain) Pindus Mountains mixed forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests
(Albania, Greece, Macedonia) South Apennine mixed montane forests (Italy) Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands (Spain) Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests (Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey) Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests (France, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain) Tyrrhenian- Adriatic
Adriatic
sclerophyllous and mixed forests (Croatia, France, Italy, Malta)

History[edit] Main article: History of the Mediterranean region Neanderthals inhabited western Asia
Asia
and the non-glaciated portions of Europe
Europe
starting about 230,000 years ago. Modern humans moved into western Asia
Asia
from Africa
Africa
less than 100,000 years ago. Modern humans, known as Cro-Magnons, moved into Europe
Europe
approximately 50-40,000 years ago. The most recent glacial period, the Wisconsin glaciation, reached its maximum extent approximately 21,000 years ago, and ended approximately 12,000 years ago. A warm period, known as the Holocene climatic optimum, followed the ice age. Food crops, including wheat, chickpeas, and olives, along with sheep and goats, were domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean in the 9th millennium BCE, which allowed for the establishment of agricultural settlements. Near Eastern crops spread to southeastern Europe
Europe
in the 7th millennium BCE. Poppy and oats were domesticated in Europe
Europe
from the 6th to the 3rd millennium BCE. Agricultural settlements spread around the Mediterranean Basin. Megaliths were constructed in Europe from 4500 – 1500 BCE. A strengthening of the summer monsoon 9000–7000 years ago increased rainfall across the Sahara, which became a grassland, with lakes, rivers, and wetlands. After a period of climatic instability, the Sahara
Sahara
settled into a desert state by the 4th millennium BCE. Agriculture[edit] Wheat
Wheat
is the dominant grain grown around the Mediterranean Basin. Pulses and vegetables are also grown. The characteristic tree crop is the olive. Figs are another important fruit tree, and citrus, especially lemons, are grown where irrigation is present. Grapes are an important vine crop, grown for fruit and to make wine. Rice
Rice
and summer vegetables are grown in irrigated areas. See also[edit]

Mediterranean portal

Life zones of the Mediterranean region Mediterranean climate Mediterranean wine climate Mediterranean Sea Mistrals Ottoman Empire Roman Empire Zanclean flood

References[edit]

^ Oteros Jose (2014) Modelización del ciclo fenológico reproductor del olivo (Tesis Doctoral). Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, España Link ^ Ad Hoc Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean City: Dispersing a Compact Tradition?, p. 61, at Google Books ^ "Natura 2000 in the Mediterranean Region" (PDF). European Commission of the European Union. Retrieved August 6, 2015.  ^ W. Krijgsman; A. R. Fortuinb; F. J. Hilgenc; F. J. Sierrod (2001). " Astrochronology for the Messinian Sorbas basin
Sorbas basin
(SE Spain) and orbital (precessional) forcing for evaporite cyclicity". Sedimentary Geology. 140: 43–60. Bibcode:2001SedG..140...43K. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(00)00171-8.  ^ Gargani J., Rigollet C. (2007). " Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
level variations during the Messinian Salinity Crisis". Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (L10405): L10405. Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3410405G. doi:10.1029/2007GL029885.  ^ Gargani J.; Moretti I.; Letouzey J. (2008). "Evaporite accumulation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis : The Suez Rift Case". Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (2): L02401. Bibcode:2008GeoRL..35.2401G. doi:10.1029/2007gl032494.  ^ Govers, R. (2009). Choking the Mediterranean to dehydration: The Messinian salinity crisis Geology, 37 (2), 167–170 doi:10.1130/G25141A.1 Link Archived 2015-01-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Garcia-Castellanos, D., A. Villaseñor, 2011. Messinian salinity crisis regulated by competing tectonics and erosion at the Gibraltar Arc. Nature, 2011-12-15 pdf here Link ^ Тахтаджян А. Л., Флористические деления суши и океана. Древнесредиземноморское подцарство Archived 2008-06-16 at the Wayback Machine..

Further reading[edit]

Attenborough, David 1987. The First Eden: the Mediterranean World
World
and Man. Little Brown and Company, Boston. Dallman, Peter F. 1998. Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. California Native Plant Society, University of California Press, Berkeley, California. Suc, J-P. (1984). "Origin and evolution of the Mediterranean vegetation and climate in Europe". Nature. 307 (5950): 429–432. Bibcode:1984Natur.307..429S. doi:10.1038/307429a0.  Wagner, Horst-Günter, Mittelmeerraum, Geography, History, Economy, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2011, 230 p., ISBN 978-3-534-23179-9.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Basin.

Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
biodiversity hotspot (Conservation International) Are wildfires a disaster in the Mediterranean basin? – A review MedTrees: Trees and large shrubs of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Regions of the world

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

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Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

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North

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East

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Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice
Rice
Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Floristic regions of the world

Holarctic Kingdom

Circumboreal Eastern Asiatic North American Atlantic Rocky Mountain Macaronesian Mediterranean Saharo-Arabian Irano-Turanian Madrean

Paleotropical Kingdom

Guineo-Congolian Usambara-Zululand Sudano-Zambezian Karoo-Namib St. Helena and Ascension Madagascan Indian Indochinese Malesian Fijian Polynesian Hawaiian Neocaledonian Australian

Neotropical Kingdom

Caribbean Guayana Highlands Amazonian Brazilian Andean

South African Kingdom

Cape

Australian Kingdom

Northeast Southwest Central Australian or Eremaean

Antarctic
Antarctic
Kingdom

Fernandezian Chile-Patagonian South Subantarctic Islands Neozeylandic

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240341

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