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Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy. The city was settled by the Insubres
Insubres
around 600 BC, conquered by the Romans in 222 BC, and developed into a key centre of Western Christianity and capital of the Western Roman Empire. It declined under the ravages of the Gothic War, its capture by the Lombards
Lombards
in 569, and their decision to make Ticinum
Ticinum
the capital of their Kingdom of Italy. During the Principate
Principate
the population was 40,000 in 200 AD; when the city became capital of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
under emperor Maximian (r. 286-305), the population rose to 100,000 people and thus Milan became one of the largest cities in Roman Italy.[1][2][3]

Contents

1 History 2 Extant structures 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Mediolanum
Mediolanum
appears to have been founded around 600 BC by the Celtic Insubres, after whom this region of northern Italy was called Insubria. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; this Bellovesus was said to have founded Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(in the time of Tarquinius Priscus, according to this legend).[4] The Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres
Insubres
and captured the city in 222 BC; the chief of the Insubres
Insubres
submitted to Rome, giving the Romans control of the city.[5] They eventually conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province Cisalpine Gaul— " Gaul
Gaul
this side of the Alps"— and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon (Latinized as Mediolānum) meant "(settlement) in the midst of the plain".[6][7]

Ruins of the Emperor's palace 45°27′54.43″N 09°10′50.15″E / 45.4651194°N 9.1805972°E / 45.4651194; 9.1805972 in Milan. Here Constantine and Licinius
Licinius
issued the Edict of Milan.

Mediolanum
Mediolanum
was important for its location as a hub in the road network of northern Italy. Polybius
Polybius
describes the country as abounding in wine, and every kind of grain, and in fine wool. Herds of swine, both for public and private supply, were bred in its forests, and the people were well known for their generosity.[8] During the Augustan age Mediolanum
Mediolanum
was famous for its schools; it possessed a theater and an amphitheatre (129.5 X 109.3 m[9]). A large stone wall encircled the city in Caesar's time, and later was expanded in the late third century AD, by Maximian. Mediolanum
Mediolanum
was made the seat of the prefect of Liguria ( Praefectus
Praefectus
Liguriae) by Hadrian and Constantine made it the seat of the vicar of Italy ( Vicarius
Vicarius
Italiae). In the third century Mediolanum
Mediolanum
possessed a mint,[10] a horreum and imperial mausoleum. In 259, Roman legions under the command of Emperor Gallienus
Gallienus
soundly defeated the Alemanni
Alemanni
in the Battle of Mediolanum.

Arcadius
Arcadius
solidus, from the Mediolanum
Mediolanum
mint, c 395-408.

In 286 Diocletian
Diocletian
moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
from Rome to Mediolanum. He chose to reside at Nicomedia
Nicomedia
in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian
Maximian
at Milan. Maximian
Maximian
built several gigantic monuments, the large circus (470 x 85 metres), the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian
Maximian
increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall (about 4.5 km long) encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers; one that was included in the convent of San Maurizio Maggiore
San Maurizio Maggiore
remains 16,60 m high.

Arena games: ivory cup depicting staged hunts and chariot races, found in Milan, 4th-5th century.

It was from Milan
Milan
that the Emperor Constantine
Emperor Constantine
issued the Edict of Milan
Milan
in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of the Empire. Constantine was in Milan
Milan
to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. There were Christian communities in Mediolanum, which contributed its share of martyrs during the persecutions,[11] but the first bishop of Milan
Milan
who has a firm historical presence is Merocles, who was at the Council of Rome of 313. In the mid-fourth century, the Arian controversy
Arian controversy
divided the Christians of Mediolanum; Constantius supported Arian bishops and at times there were rival bishops. Auxentius of Milan
Milan
(died 374) was a respected Arian theologian. At the time of the bishop St. Ambrose
Ambrose
(bishop 374-397), who quelled the Arians, and emperor Theodosius I, Mediolanum
Mediolanum
reached the height of its ancient power.[12]

Roman columns in front of basilica di San Lorenzo.

The city also possessed a number of basilicas, added in the late fourth century AD. These are San Simpliciano, San Nazaro, San Lorenzo and the chapel of San Vittore, located in the basilica of Sant'Ambrogio. In general, the Late Empire encouraged the development of the applied arts in Mediolanum, with ivory and silver work being common in public building projects. In the crypt of the Duomo survive ruins of the ancient church of Saint Tecla and the baptisty where St. Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
was baptized. In 402, the city was besieged by the Goths
Goths
and the Imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, it was besieged again by Attila, but the real break with its Imperial past came in 538, during the Gothic War, when Mediolanum
Mediolanum
was laid to waste by Uraia, a nephew of Witiges, King of the Goths, with great loss of life.[13] The Lombards
Lombards
took Ticinum as their capital (renaming it ‘Papia’, hence the modern Pavia), and Early Medieval Milan
Milan
was left to be governed by its archbishops. Extant structures[edit] Some of the monuments of the Roman Mediolanum
Mediolanum
still to be seen in Milan:

in the basilica of S. Ambrogio:

the Chapel of S. Vittore, with Late Antique mosaics the so‑called "Tomb of Stilicho", assembled from a Roman sarcophagus and other material. a large collection of inscriptions.

the Colonne di San Lorenzo, a colonnade in front of the church of S. Lorenzo. Roman lapidary material in the Archi di Porta Nuova. the scant remains of a large amphitheatre, now in an archaeological park dedicated to their preservation. a tower (16.6 m high) of the circus, now inside the Convento di San Maurizio Maggiore. a bit of moenia (walls) and a tower with 24 sides (Maximian, 3rd century) the church of San Lorenzo (IV-V sec.) and the San Aquilino chapel. ruins of the imperial palace. some ruins from the Baths of Hercules; further remains of ceilings and floors are in the archaeological museum. the body of St. Ambrose
Ambrose
(d. 397) and those possibly of SS. Gervasius and Protasius
Gervasius and Protasius
— or at any rate, of earlier men, found in St. Ambrose's time, are still seen in the crypt of the church of S. Ambrogio. crypt of San Giovanni in Conca a bit of the moenia and some remnants of pavements in piazza Missori and in the namesake station of Milan
Milan
Metro.

See also[edit]

Milan#History, for the medieval and modern history of Milan Walls of Milan Diocletian

Notes[edit]

^ Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 BC-AD 200, p. 182, at Google Books ^ A Companion to Latin Studies, p. 356, at Google Books ^ Northern Italy, from Alps to Florence
Florence
at Google Books ^ Livius, Ab Urbe condita
Ab Urbe condita
5.34-35.3. ^ Polybius, Histories ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (in French) (2nd ed.). Paris: Errance. pp. 221–222. ISBN 2-87772-237-6.  ^ Compare G. Quintela and V. Marco '"Celtic Elements in Northwestern Spain in Pre-Roman times" e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, 2005, referring to "a toponym, clearly in the second part of the composite Medio-lanum (=Milan), meaning 'plain' or flat area..." ^ Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898): "Gallia Cisalpina" ^ Benario, Herbert W. (1981). "Amphitheatres of the Roman World". The Classical Journal. 76 (3): 255–258. JSTOR 3297328.  Measurements as given p. 257; it was not, as is sometimes claimed, the third largest in the world after the Flavian Amphitheatre
Amphitheatre
in Rome and the vast amphitheatre in Capua. ^ Though Trajan Decius
Trajan Decius
may have struck coinage at Mediolanum, the sequence begins with Gallienus, c 258; the mint at Mediolanum, transferred to Ticinum
Ticinum
by Aurelian, ranked with Rome and Siscia (modern Sisak
Sisak
in Croatia) as one of the three great mints of the Empire. Mattingly, H. (1921). "The Mints of the Empire: Vespasian to Diocletian". Journal of Roman Studies. 11: 254–264 [p. 259]. doi:10.2307/295905.  ^ There were Milanese cults of Saints Gervasius and Protasius, St. Victor Maurus
Victor Maurus
(304), Sts. Nabor and Felix, and Sts. Nazarius and Celsus and the legendary Saint Sebastian. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister) ^ According to Procopius, the losses at Milan
Milan
amounted to 300,000 men.

References[edit]

Polybius
Polybius
(1889). Histories. London, New York: Macmillan. [1] Thurston Peck, Harry (1898). Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. New York: Harper and Brothers. [2] MacDonald Stillwell, Richard; McAlister, William L.; Holland, Marian (1976). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [3]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Milano.

Map and some original pics of Mediolanum
Mediolanum
remains

Look up Mediolanum
Mediolanum
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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