MEDIEVAL HEBREW was a literary and liturgical language that existed
between the 4th and 18th century. It was not commonly used as a spoken
language, but mainly in written form by rabbis , scholars and poets.
Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula ,
important work was done by grammarians in explaining the grammar and
vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew; much of this was based on the work of
the grammarians of
The need to express scientific and philosophical concepts from
Classical Greek and Medieval
Another important influence was
By late 12th and early 13th centuries the cultural center of Mediterranean Jewry was transferred from an Islamic context to Christian lands. The written Hebrew used in Northern Spain, Provence (a term for all of the South of France) and Italy was increasingly influenced by Latin, particularly in philosophical writings, and also by different vernaculars (Provençal, Italian, etc.). In Italy we witness the flourishing of a new genre, Italian-Hebrew philosophical lexicons. The Italian of these lexicons was generally written in Hebrew characters and are a useful source for the knowledge of Scholastic philosophy among Jews. One of the earliest lexicons was that by Moses b. Shlomo of Salerno, who died in the late 13th. century; it was meant to clarify terms that appear in his commentary on Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed. Moses of Salerno's glossary was edited by Giuseppe Sermoneta in 1969. There are also glossaries associated with Jewish savants who befriended Pico della Mirandola. Moses of Salerno's commentary on the Guide also contains Italian translations of technical terms, which brings the Guide's Islamic-influenced philosophical system into confrontation with 13th-century Italian scholasticism.
Hebrew was also used as a language of communication among Jews from different countries, particularly for the purpose of international trade.
Mention should also be made of the letters preserved in the Cairo
geniza, which reflect the Arabic-influenced Hebrew of medieval
Egyptian Jewry. The
* ^ A B Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Hebreeuwse taal. §1. Oud-Hebreeuws en Midden-Hebreeuws". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
* v * t * e
* Language * Alphabet * History * Transliteration to English / from English * Numerology
* Biblical (northern dialect ) * Mishnaic * Medieval * Modern
* Ashkenazi * Sephardi * Italian * Mizrahi (Syrian ) * Yemenite * Samaritan * Tiberian (extinct) * Palestinian (extinct) * Babylonian (extinct)
* Rashi * Braille * Ashuri * Cursive * Crowning * Paleo-Hebrew
* Tiberian * Babylonian * Palestinian * Samaritan
* Biblical * Modern
* Revival * Academy * Study * Ulpan * Keyboard * Hebrew / ancient / modern Israeli literature * Names * Surnames * Unicode and HTML
* v * t * e
* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Modern
* Judaeo-Iraqi * Judaeo-Moroccan * Judaeo-Tripolitanian * Judaeo-Tunisian * Judaeo-Yemeni
* Kayla / Qwara (Cushitic ) * Judaeo-Berber (Berber )
DIALECTS / ARGOTS