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Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography
Hellenistic geography
and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
in the 12th century.

Contents

1 History 2 Legacy 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 External links

History[edit] After its beginnings in the 8th century based on Hellenistic geography,[1] Islamic geography was patronized by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs of Baghdad. Various Islamic scholars contributed to its development, and the most notable include Al-Khwārizmī, Abū Zayd al-Balkhī (founder of the "Balkhi school"), and Abu Rayhan Biruni. Islamic cartographers inherited Ptolemy's Almagest
Almagest
and Geography in the 9th century. These works stimulated an interest in geography (particularly gazetteers) but were not slavishly followed.[2] Instead, Arabian and Persian cartography followed Al-Khwārizmī
Al-Khwārizmī
in adopting a rectangular projection, shifting Ptolemy's Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
several degrees eastward, and modifying many of Ptolemy's geographical coordinates. Having received Greek writings directly and without Latin intermediation, Arabian and Persian geographers made no use of European-style T-O maps.[2] Muslim scientists made many of their own contributions to geography and the earth sciences.[clarification needed] In the 11th century, the Karakhanid Turkic scholar Mahmud al-Kashgari
Mahmud al-Kashgari
was the first to draw a unique Islamic world map, [3] where he illuminated the cities and places of the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of Central and Inner Asia. He showed the lake Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
(in nowadays Kyrgyzstan) as the center of the world. Legacy[edit] These medieval developments influenced Chinese geography
Chinese geography
under the Mongol Empire.[4][additional citation(s) needed] They also provided the underpinnings of the cartographic work of the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis.[citation needed] Gallery[edit]

Al-Masudi's world map

The 15th-century Korean Kangnido
Kangnido
Map, based on a Japanese copy of a Chinese original

10th century map of the World by Ibn Hawqal.

Map from Mahmud al-Kashgari's Diwan (11th century)

Ibn al-Wardi's atlas of the world, a manuscript copied in 17th century

See also[edit]

History of geography History of cartography

Notes and references[edit]

Notes

Citations

^ Gerald R. Tibbetts, The Beginnings of a Cartographic Tradition, in: John Brian Harley, David Woodward: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, Chicago, 1992, pp. 90–107 (97-100), ISBN 0-226-31635-1 ^ a b Edson & Savage-Smith 2004, pp. 61–63. ^ Hermann A. Die älteste türkische Weltkarte (1076 η. Ch.) // Imago Mundi: Jahrbuch der Alten Kartographie. — Berlin, 1935. — Bd.l. — S. 21—28. ^ (Miya 2006; Miya 2007)

Bibliography

Alavi, S. M. Ziauddin (1965), Arab geography in the ninth and tenth centuries, Aligarh: Aligarh
Aligarh
University Press Edson, Evelyn; Savage-Smith, Emilie (2004). Savage-Smith, Emilie, ed. Medieval Views of the Cosmos. Oxford: Bodleian Library. ISBN 978-1-85124-184-2.  King, David A. (1983), "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis, 74 (4): 531–555, doi:10.1086/353360  King, David A. (2002), "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33: 237–255  King, David A. (December 2003), "14th-Century England or 9th-Century Baghdad? New Insights on the Elusive Astronomical Instrument Called Navicula de Venetiis", Centaurus, 45 (1-4): 204–226, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.2003.450117.x  King, David A. (2005), In Synchrony with the Heavens, Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-14188-X  McGrail, Sean (2004), Boats of the World, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-927186-0  Mott, Lawrence V. (May 1991), The Development of the Rudder, A.D. 100-1337: A Technological Tale, Thesis, Texas A&M University Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12410-7  Sezgin, Fuat (2000), Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums X–XII: Mathematische Geographie und Kartographie im Islam und ihr Fortleben im Abendland, Historische Darstellung, Teil 1–3 (in German), Frankfurt am Main 

External links[edit]

"How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs" by De Lacy O'Leary Islamic Geography in the Middle Ages

v t e

Geography and cartography in medieval Islam

Geographers

9th century

Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī Ya'qubi Sulaiman al-Tajir

10th century

Ibn Khordadbeh Ahmad ibn Rustah Ahmad ibn Fadlan Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Abū Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdānī Al-Masudi Istakhri Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad Ibn Hawqal Ibn al-Faqih Al-Muqaddasi Al-Ramhormuzi

11th century

Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī Abu Saʿīd Gardēzī Al-Bakri Mahmud al-Kashgari Domiyat

12th century

Al-Zuhri Muhammad al-Idrisi Abu'l Abbas al-Hijazi

13th century

Ibn Jubayr Saadi Shirazi Yaqut al-Hamawi Ibn Said al-Maghribi Ibn al-Nafis

14th century

Al-Dimashqi Abu'l-Fida Ibn al-Wardi Hamdollah Mostowfi Ibn Battuta Lin Nu

15th century

Abd-al-Razzāq Samarqandī Ghiyāth al-dīn Naqqāsh Ahmad ibn Mājid Zheng He Ma Huan Fei Xin

16th century

Sulaiman Al Mahri Piri Reis Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi Amīn Rāzī

17th century

Evliya Çelebi

Works

Book of Roads and Kingdoms (al-Bakrī) Book of Roads and Kingdoms (ibn Khordadbeh) Tabula Rogeriana Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar Mu'jam Al-Buldan Rihla The Meadows of Gold Piri Reis
Piri Reis
map

Influences

Geograp

.