A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of
such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a
professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MBChB,
BMBS), Doctor of
Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
(DO). Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor
of Philosophy, Master's degree, a physician assistant program, or
other post-secondary education.
Medical schools can also carry out medical research and operate
teaching hospitals. Around the world, criteria, structure, teaching
methodology, and nature of medical programs offered at medical schools
vary considerably. Medical schools are often highly competitive, using
standardized entrance examinations, as well as grade point average and
leadership roles, to narrow the selection criteria for candidates. In
most countries, the study of medicine is completed as an undergraduate
degree not requiring prerequisite undergraduate coursework. However,
an increasing number of places are emerging for graduate entrants who
have completed an undergraduate degree including some required
courses. In the
United States and Canada, almost all medical degrees
are second entry degrees, and require several years of previous study
at the university level.
Medical degrees are awarded to medical students after the completion
of their degree program, which typically lasts five or more years for
the undergraduate model and four years for the graduate model. Many
modern medical schools integrate clinical education with basic
sciences from the beginning of the curriculum (e.g.). More
traditional curricula are usually divided into preclinical and
clinical blocks. In preclinical sciences, students study subjects such
as biochemistry, genetics, pharmacology, pathology, anatomy,
physiology and medical microbiology, among others. Subsequent clinical
rotations usually include internal medicine, general surgery,
pediatrics, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology, among others.
Although medical schools confer upon graduates a medical degree, a
physician typically may not legally practice medicine until licensed
by the local government authority. Licensing may also require
passing a test, undergoing a criminal background check, checking
references, paying a fee, and undergoing several years of postgraduate
training. Medical schools are regulated by each country and appear in
World Directory of Medical Schools which was formed by the merger
of the AVICENNA Directory for medicine and the
Medical Education Directory.
1.4 South Africa
2.9 El Salvador
2.13 United States
3 Asia and Oceania
3.4 Hong Kong
3.16 New Zealand
3.18 People's Republic of China
Republic of China
Republic of China (Taiwan)
3.21 Saudi Arabia
3.23 South Korea
3.24 Sri Lanka
4.4 Bosnia and Herzegovina
4.7 Czech Republic
Netherlands and Belgium
4.28 United Kingdom
5 Medical students
5.2 Burnout and depression
6 See also
7 Notes and references
8 External links
List of medical schools in Africa
By 2005 there were more than 100 medical schools across Africa, most
of which had been established after 1970.
There are seven medical schools in Ghana: The
University of Ghana
Medical School in Accra, the KNUST School of Medical Sciences in
University for Development Studies School of
University of Cape Coast Medical School and the
Allied Health Sciences in Ho, Volta Region, the leading private
medical school in Ghana - the Accra College of Medicine, and Family
Health Medical School another private medical school.
Medical education lasts 6 years in all the medical schools.
Entry into these medical schools are highly competitive and it is
usually based on successful completion of the Senior High School
University of Ghana Medical School has however
introduced a graduate entry medical program to admit students with
mainly science-related degrees into a 4-year medical school program.
Students graduating from any of these medical schools get the MBChB
degree and the title "Dr". For the First 3 years Students are awarded
BSc in the field of Medical science for
University of Ghana medical
school; and Human biology for KNUST and UDS medical schools. The
University of Ghana Medical School and KNUST School of Medical
Sciences in Kumasi use the Tradition medical education model whiles
University for Development Studies School of
Medicine uses the
Problem-based learning model.
Medical graduates are then registered provisionally with the Medical
and Dental Council (MDC) of Ghana as House Officers (Interns). Upon
completion of the mandatory 2-year housemanship, these medical doctors
are permanently registered with the MDC and can practice as medical
officers (General Practitioners) anywhere in the country. The
housemanship training is done only in hospitals accredited for such
purposes by the Medical and Dental Council of Ghana
Following the permanent registration with the medical and dental
council, doctors can specialize in any of the various fields that is
organized by either the West African college of Physicians and
Surgeons or the Ghana College of
Physician and Surgeons.
Medical officers are also sometimes hired by the Ghana Health Service
to work in the Districts/
Rural areas as Primary Care Physicians.
In Kenya, medical school is a faculty of a university. Medical
education lasts for 5 years after which the student graduates with an
undergraduate (MBChB) degree. This is followed by a mandatory 12-month
full-time internship at an approved hospital after which one applies
for registration with the Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists
Board if they intend to practice medicine in the country. The first
two years of medical school cover the basic medical (preclinical)
sciences while the last four years are focused on the clinical
sciences and internship.
There are no medical school entry examinations or interviews and
admission is based on students' performance in the high school exit
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education - KCSE).
Students who took the AS Level or the
SAT can also apply but there is
a very strict quota limiting the number of students that get accepted
into public universities. This quota does not apply to private
There are four established public medical schools:
University of Nairobi
University of Nairobi (oldest, established 1967)
Moi University in Eldoret (established in the 1980s with major support
from the Indiana
University School of
Medicine - USA, and with whom
there remain significant ties)
Kenyatta University at Kahawa (established 2004)
Egerton University in Nakuru (established in 2007)
University of Agriculture and Technology
Nairobi and Moi Universities run post graduate medical training
programs that run over 3 years and lead to the award of master of
medicine, MMed, in the respective specialty.
There has been progress made by the
Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University in Karachi,
Pakistan and the
Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
Hospital (AKUH) in Nairobi
towards the establishment of a Health Sciences
University in Kenya
with an associated medical school. AKUH in Nairobi, already offers
MMed programmes. These are run over 4 years.
Completion of formal specialty training in Kenya is followed by two
years of supervised clinical work before one can apply for recognition
as a specialist, in their respective field, by the medical board.
There are several medical schools in Nigeria. Entrance into these
schools is highly competitive. Candidates graduating from high school
must attain high scores on the West African Examination Council's
(WAEC) Senior School Certificate Exam (SSCE/GCE) and high scores in
four subjects (Physics, English, Chemistry, and Biology) in the
University Matriculation Examination (UME). Students undergo rigorous
training for 6 years and culminate with a Bachelor of
Surgery (MBBS/MBChB). The undergraduate program is six
years and one year of work experience in government hospitals. After
medical school, graduates are mandated to spend one year of
housemanship (internship) and one year of community service before
they are eligible to be fully licensed by the Medical and Dental
List of medical schools in South Africa; Healthcare in South
Africa; Category:Teaching hospitals in South Africa
Related: Dental degree#South Africa
There are eight medical schools in South Africa, each under the
auspices of a public university. As the country is a former British
colony, most of the institutions follow the British-based
undergraduate method of instruction, admitting students directly from
high school into a 6 or occasionally five-year program. Some
universities such as the
University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand in
Johannesburg and the
University of Cape Town
University of Cape Town have started offering
post-graduate medical degrees that run concurrently with their
undergraduate programs. In this instance, a student having completed
an appropriate undergraduate degree with basic sciences can enter into
a four-year postgraduate program.
South African medical schools award the
MBChB degree, except the
University of the Witwatersrand, which styles its degree MBBCh. Some
universities allow students to earn an intercalated degree, completing
a BSc (Medical) with an additional year of study after the second or
third year of the MBChB. The
University of Cape Town, in particular,
has spearheaded a recent effort to increase the level of medical
research training and exposure of medical students through an
Intercalated Honours Programme, with the option to extend this to a
Following successful completion of study, all South African medical
graduates must complete a two-year internship as well as a further
year of community service in order to register with the Health
Professions Council and practice as a doctor in the country.
Specialisation is usually a five- to seven-year training process
(depending on the specialty) requiring registering as a medical
registrar attached to an academic clinical department in a large
teaching hospital with appropriate examinations. The specialist
qualification may be conferred as a Fellowship by the independent
South Africa (CMSA), following British
tradition, or as a Magisterial degree by the university (usually the M
Med, Master of Medicine, degree). The Medical schools and the CMSA
also offer Higher Diplomas in many fields. Research degrees are the
Ph.D. or M.D., depending on university.
Medical students from all over the world come to
South Africa to gain
practical experience in the country's many teaching hospitals and
rural clinics. The language of instruction is English but a few
indigenous languages are studied briefly. The
University of the Free
State has a parallel medium policy, meaning all English classes are
also presented in Afrikaans, therefore students who choose to study in
Afrikaans, do so separately from the English class.
In Sudan, medical school is a faculty of a university. Medical school
is usually 6 years, and by the end of the 6 years the students
acquires a bachelor's degree of
Medicine and Surgery. Post graduating
there is a mandatory one-year full-time internship at one of the
university or Government Teaching hospitals, then a license is issued.
During the first three years the curriculum is completed, and
throughout the next three years it is repeated with practical
training. Students with high grades are accepted for free in
Government Universities. Students who score a grade less than the
required would have to pay and must also acquire a still high grade.
Students who take foreign examinations other than the Sudanese High
School Examination are also accepted in Universities, students taking
IGCSE/SATs and other Arabian countries. All medical students who want
to be enrolled in internship program, should undergo registration
under the Sudanese Medical Council.
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In Tunisia, education is free for all Tunisian citizens and for
foreigners who have scholarships. The oldest
Medical school is a
faculty of the
University of Tunis. There are four medicine faculties
situated in the major cities of Tunis, Sfax,
Sousse and Monastir.
Admission is bound to the success and score in the baccalaureate
examination. Admission score threshold is very high, based on
competition among all applicants throughout the nation. Medical school
curriculum consists of five years. The first two years are medical
theory, containing all basic sciences related to medicine, and the
last three years consists of clinical issues related to all medical
specialties. During these last three years, the student gets the
status of "Externe". The student has to attend at the university
hospital every day, rotating around all wards. Every period is
followed by a clinical exam regarding the student's knowledge in that
particular specialty. After those five years, there are two years on
internship, in which the student is a physician but under the
supervision of the chief doctor; the student rotates over the major
and most essential specialties during period of four months each.
After that, student has the choice of either passing the residency
national exam or extending his internship for another year, after
which he gains the status of family physician. The residency program
consists of four to five years in the specialty he qualifies,
depending on his score in the national residency examination under the
rule of highest score chooses first. Whether the student chooses to be
a family doctor or a specialist, he has to make a doctorate thesis,
which he will be defending in front of a jury, after which he gains
his degree of Doctor of
Medical school in Uganda
As of April 2017[update], there are nine accredited medical
schools in Uganda. Training leading to the award of the degree of
Medicine and Bachelor of
Surgery (MBChB) lasts five years,
if there are no re-takes. After graduating, a year of internship in a
hospital designated for that purpose, under the supervision of a
specialist in that discipline is required before an unrestricted
license to practice medicine and surgery is granted by the Uganda
Medical and Dental Practitioners Council (UMDPC).
There is Postgraduate training such as the degree of Master of
Medicine (MMed) which is a three-year programme, available at Makerere
University School of
Medicine in several disciplines. Makerere
University School of Public Health, offers the degree of Master of
Public Health (MPH) following a twenty-two (22)-month period of study,
which includes field work.
Zimbabwe there are three medical schools is offering Medical
degrees. For undergrads, these are
Zimbabwe - College of
MBChB , National
University of Science and Technology
MBBS and Midlands State
MBChB . Only UZ is offering postgrad degrees in the Medical faculty.
Training lasts 5 1/2 years. The curriculum is as follows:
Part 1 (1 year) – Biochemistry, Communication Skills for Academic
Physiology and Behavioral Sciences. Professional
exams are written in the first two and failure to attain a pass in
Biochemistry warranties a repeat of first year.
Part 2 (1 year) – Communication Skills for Professional Purposes,
Anatomy, Physiology, Behavioral Sciences. Professional exams are
written at the end of second year and failure to attain a passmark in
any of the last three courses on the list warranties a repeat of the
year. Communication Skills can be carried to the next year, but the
student should pass the course before graduation.
Part 3 (1.5 years) –
Pathology (Histopathology), Medical
Microbiology, Chemical Pathology, Hematology, Forensic Pathology,
Immunology and Toxicology. A professional exam is written at the end
of the third year and the student has to pass to proceed. There are
also surgery and medicine rotations during the year. Also, the
students cover most of the basic
Pharmacology during the third stage
of the degrees.
Part 4 (1 year) – Community Medicine,
Psychiatry and Clinical
Part 5 (1 year) – Medicine, Surgery,
Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Internship is 2 years duration, with the first year spent in medicine
and surgery and the second year doing pediatrics,
anesthesia/psychiatry and obstetrics and gynecology. Thereafter one
can apply for MMED at the university which last 4–5 years depending
on specialty. Currently no subspecialist education is available.
Medical student at a laboratory at Monterrey Institute of Technology
and Higher Education, Mexico City.
List of medical schools in Argentina
Medical degree programs in Argentina typically are six years long,
with some universities opting for 7 year programs. Each one of the
3000 medical students who graduate each year in Argentina are required
before graduation to dedicate a minimum of 8 months to community
service without pay; although in some provinces (especially round the
more developed south) there are government-funded hospitals who pay
for this work. Some universities have cultural exchange programmes
that allow a medical student in their final year to serve their
community time overseas.
Upon graduation, one of the following degrees is obtained, according
to the university: Doctor of Medicine, or both Doctor of
Doctor of Surgery. Public universities usually confer both degrees,
and private universities bestow only Doctor of Medicine. In daily
practice, however, there is no substantial difference between what a
Medicine or a Doctor of
Medicine and Doctor of
allowed to do. When the degree is obtained, a record is created for
that new doctor in the index of the National Ministry of Education
(Ministerio Nacional de Educación) and the physician is given their
corresponding medical practitioner's ID, which is a number that
identifies him and his academic achievements. In addition, there is a
provincial ID, i. e. a number to identify doctors in the province they
practise medicine in.
Doctors wishing to pursue a speciality must take entrance exams at the
public/private institution of their choice that offers them. It is
easier for students in private Medical Schools to obtain a residency
in a Private Hospital, especially when the university has its own
hospital, as the university holds positions specifically for its
graduates. Speciality courses last about two to five years, depending
on the branch of medicine the physician has chosen. There is no legal
limit for the number of specialities a doctor can learn, although most
doctors choose to do one and then they sub-specialise for further job
opportunities and less overall competition, along with higher wages.
In Argentina there are public and private medical schools, however the
prestige of the public institutions is undeniable and the private
institutions do not normally appear in international rankings. A
person who can afford to attend a private university, quite expensive
for the average Argentinian, will choose that option over public
education because of the smaller groups of students in each class and
because of the lack of strictness in course evaluation. By law
entrance into public institutions is open and tuition-free to all who
have a high school diploma, and universities are expressly
forbidden from restricting access with difficult entrance exams.
Point in case, in 2016 La Universidad Nacional de la Plata was
obligated by the governing bodies to stop forcing its students to
write an entrance exam. As a result, that university experienced a
major increase in the size of its student population. When it comes to
educational quality, la Universidad de Buenos Aires, a public
university, is widely recognised as the top medical school in the
In Bolivia, all medical schools are faculties within a university and
offer a five-year M.D. equivalent. To acquire a license to exercise
medical science from the government, all students must also complete 1
year and 3 months of internship. This consists of 3 months each of
surgery, internal medicine, gynecology, pediatrics and public health.
At least one of the internships must be done in a rural area of the
country. After getting the degree and license, a doctor may take a
post-graduate residency in order to acquire a specialty.
The Brazilian medical schools follow the European model of a six-year
curriculum, divided into three cycles of two years each. The first
two years are called basic cycle (ciclo básico). During this time
students are instructed in the basic sciences (anatomy, physiology,
pharmacology, immunology etc.) with activities integrated with the
medical specialties, allowing the student an overview of the practical
application of such content. After its completion, the students
advance to the clinical cycle (ciclo clinico). At this stage contacts
with patients intensify and work with tests and diagnostics, putting
into practice what was learned in the first two years. The last two
are called cycle internship (ciclo do internato). In this last step
the students focus on clinical practice, through training in teaching
hospitals and clinics. The teaching of this last step respecting an
axis of increasing complexity, enabling students to make decisions and
participate effectively in form and operative care under the direct
supervision of faculty and qualified to act as teaching aids
physicians. The performance of the internal develops redemption of
ethical and humanistic dimensions of care, causing the student to
recognize the values and principles that guide the physician-patient
After six years of training, students graduate and are awarded the
title of physician (Médico) allowing them to register with the
Regional Council of
Medicine (Conselho Regional de Medicina). The
recent graduate will be able to exercise the medical profession as a
general practitioner and may apply to undertake postgraduate training.
In 2012, the Regional Council of
Medicine of São Paulo (Conselho
Regional de Medicina do Estado de São Paulo) established that
physicians who graduate from this year must pass a test to obtain
professional registration. Passing the exam, however, is not linked to
obtaining registration. It required only the presence of the candidate
and the test performance. Already at the national level, pending in
the Senate a bill creating the National Proficiency Examination in
Medicine (Exame Nacional de Proficiência em Medicina), which would
make the race a prerequisite for the exercise of profession.
Physicians who want to join a specialization program must undergo a
new selection examination considered as competitive as that required
to join a medical school. Works in health institutions under the
guidance of medical professionals with high ethical and professional
qualification. The specialization programs are divided into two
categories: direct access and prerequisite. The specialties with
direct access are those in which the doctor can enroll without having
any prior expertise. Any physicians can apply to examinations for
these specialties, regardless of time of training or prior experience.
To apply to proprietary pre-requisite, the doctor should have already
completed a specialty prior. The programs may range from 2 to 6. In
Brazil are currently recognized by the Federal Council of Medicine,
the Brazilian Medical Association and the National Commission of
Medical Residency 53 residency programs. Fully complied with, gives
the title of resident physician specialist.
Toronto Faculty of Medicine
Medical school in Canada
List of medical schools in Canada
In 2013, the
Association of American Medical Colleges
Association of American Medical Colleges lists 17
accredited MD-granting medical schools in Canada.
In Canada, a medical school is a faculty or school of a university
that offers a three- or four-year Doctor of
Medicine (M.D. or
M.D.C.M.) degree. Generally, medical students begin their studies
after receiving a bachelor's degree in another field, often one of the
biological sciences. However, admittance can still be granted during
third and fourth year. Minimum requirements for admission vary by
region from two to four years of post-secondary study. The Association
of Faculties of
Canada publishes a detailed AFMC.ca, guide
to admission requirements of Canadian faculties of medicine on a
Admission offers are made by individual medical schools, generally on
the basis of a personal statement, undergraduate record (GPA), scores
Medical College Admission Test
Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and interviews.
Volunteer work is often an important criterion considered by admission
committees. All four medical schools in
Quebec and two
University of Ottawa, Northern
Ontario School of Medicine) do not
require the MCAT. McMaster requires that the
MCAT be written, though
they only look for particular scores (6 or better) on the verbal
reasoning portion of the test.
The first half of the medical curriculum is dedicated mostly to
teaching the basic sciences relevant to medicine. Teaching methods can
include traditional lectures, problem-based learning, laboratory
sessions, simulated patient sessions, and limited clinical
experiences. The remainder of medical school is spent in clerkship.
Clinical clerks participate in the day-to-day management of patients.
They are supervised and taught during this clinical experience by
residents and fully licensed staff physicians.
Students enter into the Canadian Resident Matching Service, commonly
abbreviated as CaRMS in the fall of their final year. Students rank
their preferences of hospitals and specialties. A computerized
matching system determines placement for residency positions. 'Match
Day' usually occurs in March, a few months before graduation. The
length of post-graduate training varies with choice of specialty.
During the final year of medical school, students complete part 1 of
the Medical Council of
Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE). Upon
completion of the final year of medical school, students are awarded
the degree of M.D. Students then begin training in the residency
program designated to them by CaRMS. Part 2 of the MCCQE, an Objective
Structured Clinical Examination, is taken following completion of
twelve months of residency training. After both parts of the MCCQE are
successfully completed, the resident becomes a Licentiate of the
Medical Council of Canada. However, in order to practice
independently, the resident must complete the residency program and
take a board examination pertinent to his or her intended scope of
practice. In the final year of residency training, residents take an
exam administered by either the College of Family Physicians of Canada
or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, depending
on whether they are seeking certification in family medicine or
List of medical schools in the Caribbean
In 2011, the
International Medical Education Directory listed 59
current medical schools in the Caribbean. 54 grant the MD degree, 3
MBBS degree, and 2 grant either the MD or
30 of the medical schools in the Caribbean are regional, which train
students to practice in the country or region where the school is
located. The remaining 29 Caribbean medical schools are known as
offshore schools, which primarily train students from the United
Canada who intend to return home for residency and clinical
practice after graduation. At most offshore schools, basic
sciences are completed in the Caribbean while clinical clerkships are
completed at teaching hospitals in the United States.
Several agencies may also accredit Caribbean medical schools, as
listed in the
FAIMER Directory of Organizations that
Recognize/Accredit Medical Schools (DORA). 25 of the 29 regional
medical schools in the Caribbean are accredited, while 14 of the 30
offshore medical schools are accredited.
Curaçao currently (2015), has 5 medical schools and one other medical
university under construction. The majority are located within the
city of Willemstad. All six medical schools on the island of Curaçao,
only provide education in Basic Medical Science (BMS) which goes
towards the degree of Medical Doctor or Doctor of
Presently, none of the medical schools offer other degrees; such as
PhD (2016). All students after completing their medical
school's Basic Medical Science program in Curaçao; will then have to
apply to either take USMLE Step Exams, The Canadian or UK Board Exams.
A large percentage of these medical students who attend these medical
Curaçao are either from North America, Africa, Europe or
In Chile, there are 21 medical schools. Principal medical schools are
Pontificia Universidad Católica de
Chile in Santiago, Universidad de
Universidad de Concepción
Universidad de Concepción and Universidad de Santiago de
Chile. The pre-grade studies are distributed in 7 years, where the
last 2 are the internship, that include at least surgery, internal
medicine, gynecology and pediatrics. After getting the degree of
Medicine (General Medicine) the M.D. must pass a
medicine knowledge exam called National Unic Exam of Medical Knowledge
(EUNACOM "Examen Único Nacional de Conocimientos de Medicina" in
Spanish) and can take a direct specialty or work before in primary
attention in order to gain access to a residency.
In Colombia, there are 50 medical schools listed in the World
Directory of Medical Schools, 27 of which have active programs and are
currently registered and accredited as high-quality programs by the
Colombian Ministry of Education. The main medical programs are offered
by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Pontificia Universidad
Javeriana, Universidad del Rosario, Universidad El Bosque, Universidad
de los Andes, Universidad del Valle, Universidad de Antioquia, and
Universidad de la Sabana. Most programs require between 6–7 years of
study, and all offer a Doctor of
Medicine (MD) degree. In some cases
the school also allows for a second degree to be studied for at the
same time (this is chosen by the student, though most students end up
needing to do alternate semesters between their degrees, and mostly in
careers like microbiology or biomedical engineering). For example, the
Universidad de los Andes has a program whereby the medical student
could graduate with both an MD and a Master of Business Administration
(MBA) degree, or an MD and a master's degree in public health.
Admission to medical school varies with the school, but is usually
dependent on a combination of a general application to the university,
an entrance exam, a personal statement or interview, and secondary
(high) school performance mostly as reflected on the ICFES score (the
grade received on the state exam in the final year of secondary/high
In most medical programs, the first two years deal with basic
scientific courses (cellular and molecular biology, chemistry, organic
chemistry, mathematics, and physics), and the core medical sciences
(anatomy, embryology, histology, physiology, and biochemistry). The
following year may change in how it is organized in different schools,
but is usually organ system-based pathophysiology and therapeutics
(general and systems pathology, pharmacology, microbiology,
parasitology, immunology, and medical genetics are also taught in this
block). In the first two years, the programs also usually begin the
courses in the epidemiology track (which may or may not include
biostatistics), a clinical skills track (semiology and the clinical
examination), a social medicine/public health track, and a medical
ethics and communication skills track. Modes of training vary, but are
usually based on lectures, simulations, standardized-patient sessions,
problem-based learning sessions, seminars, and observational clinical
experiences. By year three, most schools have begun the non-elective,
clinical-rotation block with accompanying academic courses (these
include but are not limited to internal medicine, pediatrics, general
surgery, anaesthesiology, orthopaedics, gynaecology and obstetrics,
emergency medicine, neurology, psychiatry, oncology, urology, physical
medicine and rehabilitation, ophthalmology, and otorhinolaryngology).
Elective rotations are usually introduced in the fourth or fifth year,
though as in the case of the non-elective rotations, the hospitals the
medical students may be placed in or apply to for a given rotation
depend entirely on the medical schools. This is important in terms of
the medical training, given the particular distinction of patients,
pathologies, procedures, and skills seen and learned in private vs.
public hospitals in Colombia. Most schools, however, have placements
in both types of hospitals for many specialties.
The final year of medical school in
Colombia is referred to as the
internship year ("internado"). The internship year is usually divided
into two semesters. The first semester is made up of obligatory
rotations that every student does though in different orders, and the
medical intern serves in 5-7 different specialties, typically
including internal medicine, paediatrics, general surgery,
anaesthesiology, orthopaedics, gynaecology and obstetrics, and
emergency medicine. The extent of the responsibilities of the intern
varies with the hospital, as does the level of supervision and
teaching, but generally, medical interns in
Colombia extensively take,
write, and review clinical histories, answer and discuss referrals
with their seniors, do daily progress notes for the patients under
their charge, participate in the service rounds, present and discuss
patients at rounds, serve shifts, assist in surgical procedures, and
assist in general administrative tasks. Sometimes, they are charged
with ordering diagnostic testing, but, under Colombian law they cannot
prescribe medication as they are not graduate physicians. This, of
course, are to be completed in addition to their academic
responsibilities. The second semester is made up of elective
rotations, which can be at home or abroad, in the form of clerkships
or observerships. A final graduation requirement is to sit a
standardized exam, the State Exam for Quality in Higher Education
("Examen de Estado de Calidad de la Educación Superior" or ECAES,
also known as SABER PRO) specific to medicine, which tests, for
example, knowledge in public health and primary care.
After graduation, the physician is required to register with the
Colombian Ministry of Health, in order to complete a year of
obligatory social service ("servicio social obligatorio"), after which
they qualify for a professional license to practice general medicine
and apply for a medical residency within Colombia. If, however, the
student wishes to practice general medicine abroad or continue onto
their postgraduate studies, for example, they can independently begin
the appropriate application/equivalency process, without doing their
obligatory social service. In this case they would not be licensed to
practise medicine in
Colombia and if they wish to do so, will have to
register with the Ministry of Health. N.B. If the graduate physician
gets accepted immediately into a residency within
Colombia in internal
medicine, paediatrics, family medicine, gynecology and obstetrics,
general surgery or anaesthesiology, they are allowed to complete a
6-month-long social service after their residency.
In contrast with most countries, residencies in
Colombia are NOT paid
positions, since one applies for the program through the university
offering the post, which requires a tuition. However, on 9th May,
2017, legislation was formally introduced in Congress that would seek
to regulate payment for medical residents, regulate their tuitions,
and advocate for their vacation time and working hours. As in other
countries, length of residency training depends upon the specialty
chosen, and, following its completion, the physician may choose to
apply for a fellowship (subspecialty) at home or abroad depending on
the availability of their desired training programs, or practice in
The Universidad de El Salvador (
University of El Salvador) has a
program of 8 years for students who want to study medicine. The first
six years are organized in a two semesters fashion, the seventh year
is used for a rotating internship through the mayor specialty areas in
a 10-week periods fashion (psychiatry and public health share a
period) and the eighth year is designated for Social service in
locations approved by the Ministry of Health (usually as attending
physician in Community Health Centers or non-profit organizations).
The graduates receive the degree of MD and must register in the Public
Health Superior Council(CSSP) to get the medical license and a
registered national number that allows them to prescribe barbiturates
and other controlled drugs. In order to attend further studies
(Surgery, Internal medicine, G/OB, Pediatrics, Psychiatry), the
students in the year of Social service or graduates of any Salvadorian
university must apply independently for the residency to the hospital
of choice; the preliminary selection process is based on the results
of clinical knowledge tests, followed by psychiatric evaluations and
interviews with the hospital medical and administrative staff. The
basic residencies mentioned above commonly last 3 years; at the last
trimester of the third year, the residents can apply to the position
of Chief of residents (1 year) or follow further studies as resident
(3 years) of a specialty (for example:orthopedic surgery, urology,
neurology, endocrinology...). No further studies are offered to the
date; therefore, specialist looking for training or practice in a
specific area (For example: a neurosurgeon looking for specialty in
endovascular neurosurgery, spine surgery or pediatric neurosurgery)
must attend studies in other countries and apply for such positions
In Guyana the medical school is accredited by the National
Accreditation Council of Guyana. The medical program ranges from 4
years to 6 years. Students are taught the basic sciences aspect of the
program within the first 2 years of medical school. In the clinical
sciences program, students are introduced to the hospital setting
where they gain hands on training from the qualifying physicians and
staff at the various teaching hospitals across Guyana.
Texila American University
American International School of Medicine
University of Guyana
Students graduating from the
University of Guyana
University of Guyana are not required to
sit a board exams before practicing medicine in Guyana. Students
graduating from the American International School of
Medicine sit the
USMLE, PLAB or CAMC exams.
Medical schools in
Haiti conduct training in French. The universities
offering medical training in
Haiti are the Université Notre Dame
d'Haïti, Université Quisqueya, Université d'Etat d'Haïti and
The Université Notre Dame d'Haïti (UNDH) is a private Catholic
university established by the Episcopal Conference of Haiti. According
to the UNDH website, "the UNDH is not just about academic degrees, it
is mainly the formation of a new type of Haiti, which includes in its
culture and moral values of the Gospel, essential for serious and
honest people that the country needs today."
The other two private schools offering medical degrees are Université
Quisqueya and Université Lumière. The Université d'Etat d'Haïti is
a public school.
Attending medical school in
Haiti may be less expensive than attending
medical universities located in other parts of the world, but the
impact of the country's political unrest should be considered, as it
affects the safety of both visitors and Haitians.
Duration of basic medical degree course, including practical training:
Title of degree awarded: Docteur en Médecine (Doctor of Medicine)
Medical registration/license to practice: Registration is obligatory
with the Ministère de la Santé publique et de la Population, Palais
des Ministères, Port-au-Prince. The license to practice medicine is
granted to medical graduates who have completed 1 year of social
service. Those who have qualified abroad must have their degree
validated by the Faculty of
Medicine in Haiti. Foreigners require
special authorization to practice.
The system of
Medical education in Panama usually takes students from
high school directly into Medical School for a 6-year course,
typically with a two years internship.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January
Harvard Medical School
Medical school in the United States
List of medical schools in the United States
In 2012, the
Association of American Medical Colleges
Association of American Medical Colleges and American
Association of Colleges of Osteopathic
Medicine listed 141 accredited
M.D.-granting and 30 accredited D.O.-granting medical schools
in the United States.
The Doctor of
Medicine (MD) and Doctor of Osteopathic
are graded to be equivalent to a Professional Doctorate.
Admission to medical school in the
United States is based mainly on a
MCAT score, admissions essay, interview, clinical work
experience, and volunteering activities, along with research and
leadership roles in an applicant's history. While obtaining an
undergraduate degree is not an explicit requirement for a few medical
schools, virtually all admitted students have earned at least a
bachelor's degree. A few medical schools offer pre-admittance to
students directly from high school by linking a joint 3-year
accelerated undergraduate degree and a standard 4-year medical degree
with certain undergraduate universities, sometimes referred to as a
"7-year program", where the student receives a bachelor's degree after
their first year in medical school.
As undergraduates, students must complete a series of prerequisites,
consisting of biology, physics, and chemistry (general chemistry and
organic). Many medical schools have additional requirements including
calculus, genetics, statistics, biochemistry, English, and/or
humanities classes. In addition to meeting the pre-medical
requirements, medical school applicants must take and report their
scores on the MCAT, a standardized test that measures a student's
knowledge of the sciences and the English language. Some students
apply for medical school following their third year of undergraduate
education while others pursue advanced degrees or other careers prior
to applying to medical school.
In the nineteenth century, there were over four hundred medical
schools in the United States. By 1910, the number was reduced to one
hundred and forty-eight medical schools and by 1930 the number totaled
only seventy-six. Many early medical schools were criticized for not
sufficiently preparing their students for medical professions, leading
to the creation of the
American Medical Association
American Medical Association in 1847 for the
purpose of self-regulation of the profession. Abraham Flexner (who in
1910 released the
Flexner report with the Carnegie Foundation), the
Rockefeller Foundation, and the AMA are credited with laying the
groundwork for what is now known as the modern medical curriculum.
The restriction of the supply of physicians that resulted from the
Flexner Report has been criticized by classical economists as one of
the principal factors in the increased prices relative to quality
observed in medicine over the past 100 years.
The standard U.S. medical school curriculum is four years long.
Traditionally, the first two years are composed mainly of classroom
basic science education, while the final two years primarily include
rotations in clinical settings where students learn patient care
firsthand. Today, clinical education is spread across all four years
with the final year containing the most clinical rotation time. The
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) of the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has published mandatory
rules, obliging on all inpatient and outpatient teaching settings,
laying down the guidelines for what medical students in the United
States may do, if they have not completed a clerkship or
sub-internship. These rules apply to when they are in the clinical
setting in school, not when they are, for example, helping staff
events or in other non-formal educational settings, even if they are
helping provide certain clinical services along with nurses and the
supervising physicians- for example, certain basic screening
procedures. In the formal clinical setting in school, they can only
assist with certain patient evaluation and management tasks, after the
vital signs, chief complaint and the history of present illness have
been discerned, but prior to the physical examination: reviewing the
patient's signs and symptoms in each body system, and then reviewing
the patient's personal medical, genetic, family,
educational/occupational, and psychosocial history. The student's
supervising physician (or another physician with supervisory
privileges if the original doctor is no longer available, for some
reason) must be in the room during the student's work, and must
conduct this same assessment of the patient before performing the
actual physical examination, and after finishing and conferring with
the student, will review his or her notes and opinion, editing or
correcting them if necessary, and will also have his or her own
professional notes; both must then sign and date and I.D. the
student's notes and the medical record. They may observe, but not
perform, physical examinations, surgeries, endoscopic or laparoscopic
procedures, radiological or nuclear medicine procedures, oncology
sessions, and obstetrics. The patient must give consent for their
presence and participation in his or her care, even at a teaching
facility. Depending on the time they have completed in school, their
familiarity with the area of medicine and the procedure, and the
presence of their supervisor, and any others needed, in the room or
nearby, they may be allowed to conduct certain very minor tests
associated with the physical examination, such as simple venipuncture
blood draws, and electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms, for
learning and experience purposes, especially when there is no intern
or resident available.
Upon successful completion of medical school, students are granted the
title of Doctor of
Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
(D.O.). Residency training, which is a supervised training period of
three to seven years (usually incorporating the 1st year
internship)typically completed for specific areas of specialty.
Physicians who sub-specialize or who desire more supervised experience
may complete a fellowship, which is an additional one to four years of
supervised training in their area of expertise.
Upon completion of medical school in the United States, students
transition into residency programs through the National Resident Match
Program (NRMP). Each year, approximately 16,000 US medical school
students participate in the residency match. An additional 18,000
independent applicants—former graduates of U.S. medical schools,
U.S. osteopathic medical schools, U.S. podiatry students, Canadian
students, and graduates of foreign medical schools—compete for the
approximately 25,000 available residency positions.
Unlike those in many other countries, US medical students typically
finance their education with personal debt. In 1992, the average debt
of a medical doctor after residency was $25,000. For the class of
2009, the average debt of a medical student is $157,990 and 25.1% of
students had debt in excess of $200,000 (prior to residency). For
the past decade the cost of attendance has increased 5-6% each year
(roughly 1.6 to 2.1 times inflation).
Licensing of medical doctors in the
United States is coordinated at
the state level. Most states require that prospective licensees
complete the following requirements:
Graduation from an accredited medical school granting the degree of
D.O. or M.D.
United States and
Canada schools must be accredited by the American
Association of Colleges of Osteopathic
Medicine or the Liaison
Committee on Medical Education.
Foreign medical school graduates generally must complete some training
within the United States.
Satisfactory completion of at least one year of an AOA- or
United States Medical Licensing Examination or the
Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE,
COMLEX, or simply "the boards"). USMLE and COMLEX both consist of four
Step or Level I is taken at the end of the second year of medical
school and tests students' mastery of the basic sciences as they apply
to clinical medicine.
Step II Clinical Knowledge (CK) or Level II Cognitive Evaluation (CE)
is taken during the fourth year of medical school and tests students'
mastery of the management of ill patients.
Step II Clinical Skills (CS) or Level II Performance Evaluation (PE)
is taken during the fourth year of medical school and tests students'
mastery of clinical skills using a series of standardized patient
Step or Level III is taken after the first year of a residency program
and tests physicians' ability to independently manage the care of
University of Montevideo
University of Montevideo in Uruguay is the oldest in Latin
America, being public and free, co-governed by students, graduates and
teachers. The progress of medical and biological sciences in the
nineteenth century, the impact of the work of Claude Bernard
(1813–1878), Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902) Robert Koch (1843–1910),
Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) and all the splendor of French medical
schools, Vienna, Berlin and Edinburgh, was a stimulus for the creation
of a medical school in the country. The basic medical school program
lasts seven years. There is also a second medical school in the
country, it is private and located in Punta del Este, Maldonado.
These are the universities with a medical school in Venezuela:
University of Venezuela.
University of the Andes (Venezuela).
University of Zulia.
University of Carabobo.
Universidad de Oriente.
Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado.
Universidad Nacional Experimental Francisco de Miranda.
Universidad Nacional Experimental de Los Llanos Centrales Rómulo
University of Venezuela.
Asia and Oceania
Medical education in Australia
Historically, Australian medical schools have followed the British
tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of
Surgery (MBBS) to its graduates whilst reserving the title
of Doctor of
Medicine (MD) for their research training degree,
analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the
majority of Australian
MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since
the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework
(AQF) they remained categorised as Level 7 Bachelor degrees together
with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9
Master's (Extended) degrees which permits the use of the term 'Doctor'
in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs.
As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their
MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous
nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD,
universities have also renamed their previous medical research
University of Melbourne
University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the
MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, and has renamed its research
degree to Doctor of Medical Science (DMedSc).
See also: List of medical colleges in Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, admission to medical colleges is organized by the
Governing Body of
University of Dhaka. A single admission test is held
for government and private colleges. Due to the highly competitive
nature of these exams, the total number of applicants across the
country is around 78 times the number of students accepted.[citation
needed] Admission is based on the entrance examination, as well as
students' individual academic records.
The entrance examination consists carries a time limit of one hour.
100 marks are allocated based on objective questions, in which the
mark allocation is distributed between a variety of subjects. Biology
questions carry 30 marks,
Chemistry carries 25,
Physics carries 20,
English carries 15, and general knowledge carries 10.
Additionally, students' previous SSC (Secondary School Certificate)
and HSC (Higher Secondary School Certificate) scores each carry up to
100 marks towards the overall examination result.
English students prepare themselves for the admission exam ahead of
time. This is because as the
A-Level exams do not cover parts
Bangladesh syllabus.
The undergraduate program consists of five years study, followed by a
one-year internship. The degrees granted are Bachelor of
Surgery (M.B.B.S.). Further postgraduate qualifications
may be obtained in the form of Diplomas or Degrees (MS or MD), M.Phil
and FCPS (Fellowship of the College of Physicians and Surgeons).
University of Dhaka
University of Dhaka launched[when?] a new BSc in "
Imaging Technology," offering 30 students the opportunity to
contribute towards their entrance exam grade. For students who have
passed the HSC, this course contributes towards 25% of the mark. The
course contributes up to 75% for Diploma-holding students. The
duration of the course is four years (plus 12 weeks for project
submission). The course covers a variety of topics, including
behavioural science, radiological ethics, imaging physics and general
After 6 years of general medical education (a foundation year + 5
years), all students will graduate with Bachelor of Medical Sciences
This degree does not allow graduates to work independently as
Physician, but it is possible for those who wish to continue to
master's degrees in other fields relating to medical sciences such as
Public Health, Epidemiology, Biomedical Science, Nutrition...
Medical graduates, who wish to be fully qualified as physicians or
specialists must follow the rule as below:
General Practitioner's (GP) course is of 8 years (BMedSc + 2-year
internship). Clinical rotation in the internship is modulated within 4
main disciplines (general medicine, surgery, gynecology,
pediatrics).The medical degree awarded is Doctor of
(equivalent to master's degree).
After graduating with BMedSc; any students, who wishes to enter
Resodency Training Programs, are required to sit for a rigorous and
Entrance Exam. The duration of residency programs lasts from 3 to 4
years after BMedSc (BMedSc + 3– 4 years of specialization). Once the
graduates, after successfully defense their practicum thesis, are
officially awarded the Degree of Specialized Doctor (MD-with
All Medical graduates must complete
Thesis Defense and pass the
National Exit Exam
to become either GPs or Medical or Surgical Specialists.
Li Ka Shing Faculty of
Medicine held by
HKU is among the oldest
western medicine schools in Far East.
Medical education in Hong Kong
Hong Kong has only two comprehensive medical faculties, the Li Ka
Shing Faculty of Medicine,
University of Hong Kong and the Faculty of
University of Hong Kong, and they are also the sole
two institutes offering medical and pharmacy programs. Other
healthcare discipline programs (like nursing) are dispersed among some
other universities which do not host a medical faculty.
Prospective medical students enter either one of the two faculties of
medicine available (held by The
University of Hong Kong and The
University of Hong Kong) from high schools. The medical
program consists of 5 years for those who take the traditional Hong
Kong's Advanced Level Examination (HKALE) for admission, or 6 years
for those who take the new syllabus Hong Kong's
Diploma of Secondary
School Education Examination (HKDSE). International students who take
examinations other the two mentioned will be assessed by the schools
to decide if they will take the 5-year program or the 6-year one.
The competition of entering the medical undergraduate programs is
cut-throat as the number of intake each year is very limited with a
quota of 210 from each school (420 in total) and candidates need to
attain an excellent examination result and good performance in
interview. The schools put a great emphasis on students' languages
(both Chinese and English) and communication skills as they need to
communicate with other health care professionals and patients or their
family in the future.
During their studies at the medical schools, students need to
accumulate enough clinical practicing hours in addition before their
The education leads to a degree of Bachelor of medicine and Bachelor
of surgery (M.B., B.S. by
HKU or M.B., Ch.B. by CUHK). After a 5- or
6-year degree, one year of internship follows in order to be eligible
to practice in Hong Kong.
CUHK provide a prestigious bachelor of pharmacy course
that is popular among local and overseas students. Students of most
other health care disciplines have a study duration of 4 years, except
nursing programs which require 5 years.
Medical college in India
See also: List of medical Colleges in India
Tirunelveli Medical College, Tamil Nadu, India
In India, admission to medical colleges is organized both by the
central government CBSE as well as the state governments through tests
known as entrance examination. Students who have successfully
completed their 10+2 (Physics,
Biology Marks are
considered and PCB is mandatory) education (higher secondary school)
can appear for the tests the same year.
India Pre Medical/Dental Test for filling up of 15% of total
MBBS seats in India, conducted by CBSE (Central Board for Secondary
Education) in the month of April/May intakes about only 2,500 students
out of a total applicants of over 600,000. The Supreme Court Of
India has mandated the necessity of entrance examination based upon
multiple choice questions and negative marking for wrong answers with
subsequent merit over 50% for selection into
MBBS as well as higher
medical education. The entrance exams are highly competitive.
The graduate program consists of three professionals consisting of 9
semesters, followed by one-year internship (rotating housemanship).
The degree granted is Bachelor of
Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
(M.B.B.S.) of five years and six months.
The graduate degree of
MBBS is divided into 3 professionals, with each
professional ending with a professional exam conducted by the
university (a single university may have up to dozens of medical
colleges offering various graduate/post-graduate/post-doctoral
degrees). After clearing this the student moves into the next
professional. Each professional exam consists of a theory exam and a
practical exam conducted not only by the same college but also
external examiners. The exams are tough and many students are unable
to clear them, thereby prolonging their degree time. The first
professional is for 1 year and includes preclinical subjects, anatomy,
physiology and biochemistry. The second professional is for 1 and a
half year and has subjects pathology, pharmacology, microbiology
(including immunology) and forensic medicine. Clinical exposure starts
in the second professional. The third professional is divided into two
parts. Part 1 consists of ophthalmology, ENT, and PSM (preventive and
social medicine) and part 2 consists of general-medicine[including
dermatology, psychiatry as short subjects], general surgery [including
radiology, anaesthesiology and orthopaedics as short subjects] and
pediatrics and gynaecology and obstetrics . This is followed by
one-year of compulsory internship (rotatory house-surgeonship). After
internship, the degree of
MBBS is awarded by the respective
university. Some states have made rural service compulsory for a
certain period of time after MBBS.
Selection for higher medical education is through entrance
examinations as mandated by the Supreme Court Of India. Further
postgraduate qualifications may be obtained as
of two years residency or
Doctoral Degree (MS: Master of Surgery, or
MD) of three years of residency under the aegis of the Medical Council
of India. 50% of all MD/MS seats in
India are filled up through
India Post-Graduate Medical Entrance Examination conducted by
India Institute Of Medical Sciences) under the supervision
of the Directorate General Of Health Services. Theses/Dissertations
are mandatory to be submitted and cleared by university along with
examinations(written and clinicals) to obtain MD/MS degree. Further
sub-speciality post-doctoral qualification (DM - Doctorate of
MCh - Magister of Chirurgery) of three years of residency
followed by university examinations may also be obtained.
PG (post-graduate) qualification is equivalent to M.D./M.S.,
consisting of two/three-years residency after MBBS. A PG diploma may
also be obtained through the National Board of Examinations (NBE),
which also offers three-years residency for sub-specialisation. All
degrees by NBE are called DNB (Diplomate of National Board). DNB's are
awarded only after clearance of theses/dissertations and examinations.
DNBs equivalent to DM/
MCh have to clear examinations mandatorily.
List of medical schools in Indonesia
A group of Indonesian medical students of Trisakti
with an obstetric mannequin.
In Indonesia, high school graduates who want to enroll to public
medical schools must have their names enlisted by their high school
faculty in the "SNMPTN Undangan" program, arranged by Directorate
General of Higher Education, Ministry of National Education. Depending
on the high school accreditation, only the class' top 10%-15% will be
considered for admissions. Fewer places are available through entrance
exam conducted autonomously by each university. These exams are highly
competitive for medicine, especially in prestigious institutions such
Indonesia in Jakarta, Airlangga
Surabaya, and Gadjah Mada
University in Yogyakarta. For private
medical school, almost all places are offered through independently
run admission tests.
The standard Indonesian medical school curriculum is six years long.
The four years undergraduate program is composed mainly of classroom
education, continued with the last two years in professional program
primarily includes rotations in clinical settings where students learn
patient care firsthand. If they pass undergraduate program they will
have "S.Ked" (Bachelor of Medicine) in their title and if they
finished the professional program and pass the national examination
arranged by IDI (Indonesian Medical Association) they will become
general physician and receive "dr. (doctor)".
Upon graduation, a physician planning to become a specialist in
specific field of medicine must complete a residency, which is a
supervised training with period of three to four years. A physician
who sub-specializes or who desires more supervised experience may
complete a fellowship, which is an additional one to three years of
supervised training in his/her area of expertise
List of medical schools in Iran
General medicine education in Iran takes 7 to 7.5 years. Students
enter the university after high school. Students study basic medical
science (such as anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, histology,
biophysics, embryology, etc.) for 2.5 years. At the end of this period
they should pass a "basic science" exam. Those who passed the exam
will move on to study physiopathology of different organs in the next
1.5 years. The organ-based learning approach emphasizes critical
thinking and clinical application. In the next period of education
students enter clinics and educational hospitals for two years. During
this period, they will also learn practical skills such as history
taking and physical examination. Students should then pass the
"pre-internship" exam to enter the last 1.5 years of education in
which medical students function as interns. During this period,
medical students participate in all aspects of medical care of the
patients and they take night calls. At the end of these 7.5 years
students are awarded an M.D degree. M.D doctors can continue their
educations through residency and fellowship.
List of medical schools in Israel
There are five university medical schools in Israel: the
Haifa, Ben Gurion
University in Be'er Sheva, Tel Aviv University, the
University in Jerusalem and the
Medical school of the Bar-Ilan
University in Ramat Gan. These all follow the European 6-year model
University which has a four-year program similar to
the US system.
Technion Medical School, Ben Gurion University, and Tel Aviv
University Sackler Faculty of Medicine offer 4-year MD programs
for American Bachelor's graduates who have taken the MCAT, interested
in completing rigorous medical education in Israel before returning to
the US or Canada.
The entrance requirements of the various schools of medicine are very
strict. Israeli students require a high school Baccalaureate average
above 100 and psychometric examination grade over 700. The demand for
medical education is strong and growing and there is a lack of doctors
The degree of Doctor of
Medicine (MD) is legally considered to be
equivalent to a
Masters degree within the Israeli Educational System
List of medical schools in Japan
In Japan, medical schools are faculties of universities and thus they
are undergraduate programs that generally last for six years.
Admission is based on an exam taken at the end of high school and an
entrance exam at the university itself, which is the most competitive.
Medical students study Liberal Arts and Science for the first 1–2
years, which include Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, and Foreign
Languages together with 2 years long Basic
Physiology, Pharmacology, Immunology), Clinical Medicine, Public
Forensics for the next two years.
Medical students train in the
Hospital for the last two
years. Clinical training is a part of the curriculum. Upon completion
of the graduation examination, students are awarded an M.D. Medical
graduates are titled as Doctor, as are
Ph.D. holders. The University
does have an MD/
PhD program that enables Doctors of
Medicine to become
Ph.D. holders, as well.
At the end,
Medical students take the National Medical License
examination and, if they pass it, become a
Physician and register in
the record in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The scope of
this exam encompasses every aspect of medicine.
The Bachelor of
Surgery (MBBS) degree is awarded in
Jordan after completion of six years comprising three years of medical
sciences and three clinical years. Currently, four state supported
universities include a medical school and grant the degree, which are:
University of Science and Technology in Irbid
Jordan in Amman
University in Al Karak
University in Zarqa
Medical education in Jordan
In Kyrgyzstan, the Government university Kyrgyz State Medical Academy
offers 6 years duration undergraduate (bachelor's degree) program
whereas the other institutions mostly private such as the
International School of
Medicine at the International
Kyrgyzstan offers a five-year medical program, with a
requisite for English knowledge, that is recognized by the World
Health Organization, the General Medical Council, and UNESCO. The
medical school is also partnered with the
University of South Florida
School of Medicine, the
University of Heidelberg (Germany), the
University (Russia), and the
University of Sharjah
Other medical schools located in Kyrgyzstan include the 5 years
MBBS undergraduate degree program at International
University of Science and Business or Mezhdunarodnyy Universitet Nauki
i Biznesa, Kyrgyzstan others are the Asian Medical Institute,
Kyrgyzstan and the Medical Institute, Osh State University and
In Lebanon, there are two programs of medical education followed: the
American system (4 years) and the European system (6 years). Programs
are offered in English and French. Admission requirements to the
American system requires a candidate to complete a bachelor's degree
along with specific pre-medical courses during the undergraduate
years, and writing the
MCAT examination. European programs usually
requires a candidate to complete 1 year of general science followed by
a selection exam by the end of the year.
Schools following the American system (M.D. degree) are:
University of Beirut: located in
Beirut and is the oldest
medical school in Lebanon. Training will take place at the American
Beirut Medical center (AUBMC) in Beirut.
University (LAU): LAU
Medical school is located in
Byblos and has a 10-year affiliation with Partners Harvard Medical
International. Training will take place at the
center - Rizk
Hospital (UMC-RH) located in Beirut. It is also
affiliated with Clemenceau Medical Center and Rafik Hariri University
University of Balamand: located in Koura, north Lebanon. Training will
take place at the Saint George
University Medical center in Beirut.
The language of instruction in all three is English.
Schools following the European system (
MBBS degree) are:
Lebanese University: languages of instruction are French and English.
Training will take place at the Rafik Hariri
located in Beirut.
Saint Joseph University: language of instruction is French. Training
will take place in
Hôtel-Dieu de France hospital located in Beirut.
Beirut Arab University: language of instruction is English. Training
will take place at Hammoud
Hospital UMC located in
Sidon and Rafik
Hospital located in Beirut.
University of Kaslik: Located in Jounieh, languages of
instruction are French and English. Training will take place at the
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Notre Dame des Secours located in
List of medical schools in Malaysia
In Malaysia, getting into medical school is regarded as difficult, due
to high fees and a rigorous selection process. Some
new medical schools do offer a foundation in medicine course before
admission into a full-time medical programme. Most government, and
some private medical schools offer M.D., and others mostly offer MBBS
List of medical schools in Myanmar
Panorama view of Lanmadaw Campus
There are *five medical institutions - UM 1, UM 2, DSMA, UM Mdy, and
UM Mgy - in Myanmar.
(Now,there are six universities in total. UMTG,
University of Medicine
Taunggyi - launched since 2015)
edited by #mm_ymb
Myanmar medical schools are government-funded and require Myanmar
citizenship for eligibility. No private medical school exists at this
moment. In Myanmar, admission to medical colleges is organized under
the Department of Health Science, which is the branch of Ministry of
Health of Myanmar.
(Now, we have been using as "Ministry of Health and Sport" and it is
official usage) edited by #mm_ymb
A student can join one of the Five(*Now six) medical universities of
Myanmar if he gets the highest scores in the science combination of
the matriculation examination. This exam is highly competitive.
Entrance is solely based on this examination and academic records have
very minor consequences on an application. The undergraduate program
is five years plus one year for work experience in government
hospitals. After medical school,
Myanmar medical graduates are under
contract to spend one year of internship and three years of tenure in
rural areas before they are eligible for most residency positions. The
degree granted is Bachelor of
Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
(M.B.B.S.). Further postgraduate qualifications may be obtained as a
Degree (M.Med. Sc) and (Dr.Med.Sc).
List of medical schools in Nepal
In Nepal, medical studies start at undergraduate level. As of
2016[update], there are twenty institutions recognised by the Nepal
Medical Council. There are four main medical bodies in
University (own college: Institute of
affiliated colleges: National Medical College, Janaki Medical College,
Universal College of Medical Sciences, Gandaki Medical College,
Chitwan Medical College, Kist Medical College,
Nepal Army Institute of
University (own college: Kathmandu
University School of
Medical Sciences (KUSMS), Affiliated colleges: Manipal College of
Medical Sciences, Kathmandu Medical College,
Nepal Medical College,
Nepalgunj Medical College, College of Medical Sciences, Nobel Medical
College, Lumbini Medical College, Birat Medical College, Devdaha
B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences.
Patan Academy of Health Sciences
List of medical schools in New Zealand
Auckland School of Medicine
Otago School of Medicine
New Zealand medical programs are undergraduate-entry programs of six
years duration. Students are considered for acceptance only after a
year of undergraduate basic sciences or, as alternative, following the
completion of a bachelor's degree. There are two main medical schools
in New Zealand: the
University of Auckland and the
Otago. Each of these has subsidiary medical schools such as Otago's
Wellington School of
Medicine and Health Sciences and Auckland's
Waikato Clinical School.
The first year of the medical degree is the basic sciences year, which
comprises study in chemistry, biology, physics, and biochemistry as
well as population health and behavioural sciences. The following two
years are spent studying human organ systems and pathological
processes in more detail as well as professional and communication
development. Toward the end of the third year, students begin direct
contact with patients in hospital settings.
The clinical years begin fully at the beginning of year 4, where
students rotate through various areas of general clinical medicine
with rotation times varying from between two and six weeks. Year 5
continues this pattern, focusing more on specialized areas of medicine
and surgery. Final medical school exams (exit exams) are actually held
at the end of year 5, which is different from most other countries,
where final exams are held near the very end of the medical degree.
Final exams must be passed before the student is allowed to enter year
The final year (Year 6) of medical school is known as the "Trainee
Intern" year, wherein a student is known as a "Trainee Intern"
(commonly referred to in the hospitals as a "T.I."). Trainee interns
repeat most rotations undertaken in years 4 and 5 but at a higher
level of involvement and responsibility for patient care. Trainee
interns receive a stipend grant from the New Zealand government (not
applicable for international students). At the current time, this is
$NZ 26,756/year (about $US 18,500). Trainee interns have
responsibility under supervision for the care of about one-third the
patient workload of a junior doctor. However, all prescriptions and
most other orders (e.g., radiology requests and charting of IV fluids)
made by trainee interns must be countersigned by a registered doctor.
New Zealand medical schools currently award the degrees of Bachelor of
Medicine and Bachelor of
Upon completion of the 6th year, students go on to become "House
Officers," also known as "House Surgeons" for 1–2 years where they
rotate through specialities in the first year and then begin to narrow
down to what they'd like to do for speciality training in the second
year. After 2 years of house officer work they apply to get into a
training scheme and start to train towards the speciality.
Medical school in Pakistan
King Edward Medical University, fourth oldest medical school in South
Pakistan a medical school is more often referred to as a medical
college. A medical college is affiliated with a university as a
department. There are however several medical universities and medical
institutes with their own medical colleges. All medical colleges and
universities are regulated by the respective provincial department of
health. They however have to be recognized after meeting a set
criteria by a central regulatory authority called
Pakistan Medical and
Dental Council (PMDC) in Islamabad. There are almost equal number of
government and private medical colleges and universities, with their
number exceeding 50. Admission to a government medical college is
highly competitive. Entrance into the medical colleges is based on
merit under the guidelines of PMDC. Both the academic performance at
the college (high school, grades 11-12) level and an entrance test
MCAT are taken into consideration for the eligibility to enter
most of the medical colleges. After successfully completing five years
of academic and clinical training in the medical college and
affiliated teaching hospitals the graduates are awarded a Bachelor of
Medicine and Bachelor of
Surgery (MBBS) degree. The graduates are then
eligible to apply for a medical license from the PMDC. A house job of
one-year duration is mandatory in a teaching hospital after completing
five years of academic and clinical training in the medical college.
People's Republic of China
List of medical schools in the People's Republic of China
Medical education is normally a five-year Bachelor degree, including
one-year internship (or clinical rotation, during which students are
actively involved in patient care) before the final degree is awarded.
Clinical specialization usually involves a two- or three-year Master
degree. Acceptance is based on the national entrance examination used
for all universities. There are a few colleges that teach in English
and accept foreign medical students. Some of those universities have
increased their course duration to 6 years.
The degree conferred is known as Bachelor of Clinical
List of medical schools in the Philippines and Medical
education in the Philippines
The Dominicans, under the Spanish Government, established the oldest
medical school in the Philippines in 1871, known as the Faculty of
Surgery (at that time was one with the
Santo Tomas Faculty of Pharmacy, also considered the oldest pharmacy
school in the Philippines) of the Pontifical and Royal
Santo Tomas in Intramuros, Manila.
Medical education in the Philippines became widespread under the
American administration. The Americans, led by the insular
government's Secretary of the Interior, Dean Worcester, built the
University of the Philippines College of
Surgery in 1905.
By 1909, nursing instruction was also begun at the Philippine Normal
At present there are a number of medical schools in the Philippines,
notable examples include the
University of the Philippines College of
Medicine, Our Lady of Fatima University, Far Eastern
Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation, Saint Louis
School of Medicine, De La Salle Health Sciences Institute, University
of Santo Tomas Faculty of
Medicine and Surgery, Pamantasan ng Lungsod
ng Maynila, UERMMMC College of Medicine, St. Luke's College of
Medicine–William H. Quasha Memorial, Cebu Doctors' University, Cebu
Institute of Medicine, Mindanao State
University College of Medicine,
University College of
Medicine in Tuguegarao,
University - Matias H. Aznar Memorial College of Medicine
Inc., West Visayas State
University in Iloilo City,
University of St.
La Salle College of
Medicine in Bacolod City, Davao Medical School
Foundation in Davao City, Xavier
University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Dr.
Jose P. Rizal School of
Medicine in Cagayan de Oro, Ago medical
educational center AMEC-BCCM in Legazpi, Bicol and
Northern Philippines in Vigan.
In 2007, the Ateneo School of
Medicine and Public Health was
established. It is the first medical school in the country to offer a
double degree program leading to the degrees Doctor of
Masters in Business Administration.
Any college graduate may apply for medical school given that they
satisfy the requirements set by the institutions. There is also a test
known as the National Medical Admission Test or NMAT. Scores are given
on a percentile basis and a high ranking is a must to enter the top
medical schools in the country.
In most institutions, medical education lasts for four years. Basic
subjects are taken up in the first and second years, while clinical
sciences are studied in the second and third years. In their fourth
year, students rotate in the various hospital departments, spending up
to two months each in the fields of internal medicine, surgery,
obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics, and several weeks in the
other specialties. After this, students graduate with a Doctorate in
Medicine and apply for postgraduate internship (PGI) in an accredited
hospital of their choice. After PGI, the student is eligible to take
the Medical Licensure Examination. Passing the examinations confers
the right to practice medicine as well as to apply in a Residency
Republic of China
Republic of China (Taiwan)
List of medical schools in Taiwan
The medical education in the
Republic of China
Republic of China (Taiwan) is usually 7
years (6-year learning plus 1-year internship) in duration, starting
right after high schools. The first 2 years in the 7-year system is
composed of basic sciences and liberal art courses. Doctor-patient
classes are emphasized, and most schools require compulsory amounts of
volunteer hours. Clinical sciences are compressed into a two-year
program in the 3rd and 4th years. The duration of clerkships and
internships varies from school to school, but all of them end at the
7th grade. Taiwan's medical education began in 1897 and is over 100
years old now. Students graduate with a Doctor of
degree. Starting from the year 2013, incoming students will have a 6+2
year curriculum, in which the first 6 years are oriented similarly as
before and the last two years are Post Graduate Years; this change
aims to increase primary care capabilities of medical school
List of medical schools in Saudi Arabia
In Saudi Arabia medical education is free for all Saudi citizens. A
medical student must pass an entrance examination and complete a
1-year pre-medical course containing some basic medical subjects
including: Biology, Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physics,
Medical Biostatistics, and English for medical uses. Passing this year
is commonly considered as the most challenging. It offers an MBBS
(Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) degree. after one
pre-medical course, five medical years and one training year. By 2010,
there are 24 medical schools in KSA- 21 nonprofit and three private
medical schools the last college opened was Sulaiman AlRajhi Colleges
with its partnership with Maastricht in the Netherlands.
Currently, there are 3 medical schools in Singapore. 2 of them offers
undergraduate (5 years degree) and the other offers postgraduate (4
List of medical schools in South Korea
Currently, there are 41 medical schools in South Korea. Medical
programs in South Korea used to be direct-entry programs such as in
the UK, taking six years to complete. However, most universities were
going through a transition from direct-entry to a 4+4 year system,
such as those found in the
United States and Canada. Recently,
about half of the universities are converting back to six years
direct-entry program by 2015, and almost all of the universities are
converting it back by 2017.
List of medical schools in Sri Lanka
There are eight medical schools in Sri Lanka that teach evidence based
(sometimes called "western") medicine. The oldest medical school is
the Faculty of Medicine,
University of Colombo, established as Ceylon
Medical School in 1870. There are medical faculties in Peradeniya,
Kelaniya, Sri Jayawardanepura, Galle, Batticaloa, Jaffna and Rajarata
Kelaniya Medical Faculty initially started as the North Colombo
Medical College (NCMC), a private medical institution. It was one of
the earliest private higher educational institutions (1980). Heavy
resistance by the medical professionals, university students and other
professionals led to its nationalization and to its renaming as the
Kelaniya Medical Faculty.
Faculty of Health-Care Sciences is the faculty that offers MBBS
together with other para-medical courses. It is an entity of the
University - Sri Lanka.
The Open International
University for Complementary Medicines(OIUCM),
World Health Organization
World Health Organization teaches various field of
Medicines and related program of Environmental Sciences.
  despite having basic problems of training programme.
Postgraduate Institute of
Medicine (PGIM) is the only institution that
provides specialist training of medical doctors.
The Institute of Indigenous
Medicine of the
University of Colombo, the
Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurvedhic
Medicine Institute of the
University of Kelaniya and the Faculty of
Siddha Medicine, University
of Jaffna teach Ayurvedha/
List of medical schools in Thailand
The first medical school in Thailand was established back in 1890 at
Siriraj Hospital, which is now become Faculty of
Hospital, Mahidol University. Currently, there are
26[better source needed] medical programs offered
nationwide. Most of the Thai medical schools are government-funded and
require Thai citizenship for eligibility. Two private medical schools
exist at the moment. Some Thais choose to attend private medical
schools or attend a medical school in a foreign country due to
relatively few openings and extremely competitive entrance examination
scores required for enrollment in public medical schools.
The Thai medical education is a six-year system, consisting of 1 year
in basic-science, 2 years in pre-clinical training, and 3 years for
clinical training. Upon graduation, all medical students must pass
national medical licensing examinations and a university-based
comprehensive test. After medical school, newly graduated doctors are
under contract to spend a year of internship and 2 years of tenure in
rural areas before they are eligible for any other residency positions
or specialized training, mostly in locations outside Bangkok.
Students will receive Doctor of
Medicine (MD) degree at the end of the
process. This degree is equivalent to a master's degree in Thailand.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008)
List of medical schools in Albania
There are four Medical Schools (Fakultete te Mjeksise) in Albania:
University of Tirana Faculty of Medicine
University Faculty of Medicine
University Faculty of Medicine
Zonja e Keshillit te Mire
These medical schools are usually affiliated with regional hospitals.
The course of study lasts 6 years. Students are conferred degree
Medicine (M.D.) upon graduation.
University of Vienna
University Vienna, Medical School
University of Graz
University of Innsbruck
Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg
The Faculty of
Medicine at the Johannes Kepler
University of Health Sciences (Karl Landsteiner
Privatuniversität für Gesundheitswissenschaften), Krems
List of medical schools in Belarus
There are 4 Medical Schools (Medical Universities) in Belarus:
Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (belarusian:
Беларускі дзяржаўны медыцынскі
ўніверсітэт; Russian: Белорусский
университет) - which contains the famous Bosef Institute
for AIDS Research.
Gomel State Medical
University (belarusian: Гомельскі
дзяржаўны медыцынскі ўніверсітэт;
Russian: Гомельский государственный
Grodno State Medical
University (belarusian: Гродненскі
дзяржаўны медыцынскі ўніверсітэт;
Russian: Гродненский государственный
Vitebsk State Order of Peoples' Friendship Medical University
(belarusian: Віцебскі дзяржаўны медыцынскі
ўніверсітэт; Russian: Витебский
государственный ордена Дружбы
народов медицинский университет)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
List of medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina
There are five Medical Schools (Medicinski Fakultet) in Bosnia and
University of Banja Luka School of Medicine
University of Sarajevo Medical School
University of Tuzla Medical School
University of East Sarajevo Medical School (Foca)
University of Mostar Medical School
These medical schools are usually affiliated with regional hospitals.
The course of study lasts 6 years or 12 semesters. Students are
conferred degree Doctor of
Medicine (M.D.) upon graduation.
Entry to BH Medical Schools are very competitive due to limited places
imposed by the government quota. Students are required to complete
Secondary School Leaving
Gymnasium (school) or
Medicinska skola matura/svedocanstvo/svjedodzba).
Entrance examination is usually held in June/July. Combined score of
Diploma assessment (on scale 1-5, with 2 minimum
passing grade and 5 maximum grade) and entrance examination is taken
into consideration. Usually, 5 in Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, and
Physics are required for entry to medicine.
Course structure is more traditional and divided in pre-clinical (year
1-3) /clinical part (year 3-6) and subject-based.
Practical examinations are held throughout the degree (Anatomy,
Physiology practicals etc.). Dissection is
part of all medical curricula in Bosnian and Herz. Medical Schools.
List of medical schools in Bulgaria
In Bulgaria, a medical school is a type of college or a faculty of a
university. The medium of instruction is officially in Bulgarian. A
six- to one-year course in Bulgarian language is required prior to
admittance to the medical program. For European candidates, an exam in
Chemistry in Bulgarian is also required. While a number of
Bulgarian medical schools have now started offering medical programmes
in English, Bulgarian is still required during the clinical
Students join medical school after completing high-school. Admission
offers are made by individual medical schools. Bulgarian applicants
have to pass entrance examinations in the subjects of
Chemistry. The competitive result of every candidate is the based on
their marks these exams plus their secondary-school certificate marks
in the same subjects. Those applicants with the highest results
achieved are classified for admission.
The course of study is offered as a six-year program. The first 2
years are pre-clinical, the next 3 years are clinical training and the
sixth year is the internship year, during which students work under
supervision at the hospitals. During the sixth year, students have to
appear for 'state exams' in the 5 major subjects of Internal Medicine,
Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Social Medicine, and Pediatrics.
Upon successful completion of the six years of study and the state
exams the degree of 'Physician' is conferred.
For specialization, graduates have to appear for written tests and
interviews to obtain a place in a specialization program. For
specialization in general medicine, general practice lasts three
years, cardiology lasts four years, internal medicine lasts five
years, and general surgery lasts five years.
List of medical schools in Croatia
In Croatia, there are four out of seven universities that offer a
medical degree, the
University of Zagreb (offers medical studies in
University of Rijeka,
University of Split (also offers
medical studies in English), and the
University of Osijek. The Medical
schools are a faculties of those four universities. Medical students
enroll into medical school after finishing secondary education,
typically after a Gymnasium, or after a four-year nursing school, or
any other high school lasting four years. During the application
process, their high school grades, and the grades of their
matriculation exam at the end of high school (Matura) and the score at
the obligatory admission exam are taken into account, and the best
students are enrolled.
The course of study lasts 6 years or 12 semesters. During the first 3
years, students are engaged in pre-clinical courses (Anatomy,
Histology, Chemistry, Physics, Cell Biology, Genetics, Physiology,
Biochemistry, Immunology, Pathologic
Physiology And Anatomy,
Pharmacology, Microbiology, etc.). Contact with patients begins at the
third year. The remaining 3 years are composed of rotations at various
departments, such as Internal Medicine, Neurology, Radiology,
Dermatology, Psychiatry, Surgery, Pediatrics,
Obstetrics, Anesthesiology, and others. During each academic year,
students also enroll into two or three elective courses. After each
rotation, the students take a total of about 60 exams. In the end, the
students must pass a final multiple-choice exam comprising questions
about clinical courses, after which they finally gain an MD, and the
title of Doctor of Medicine, which they put after their name. Now the
doctors must complete a one-year, supervised, paid internship in a
hospital of their choice, after which they take the state (license)
examination, which is an eight-part oral examination containing the
eight most important clinical branches. After that, the doctors are
eligible to practice medicine as general practitioners. Residencies
are offered at various hospitals throughout Croatia, and at numerous
Medical study in Czech Republic has a long tradition dating from the
14th century, with the first medical school starting at the First
Faculty of Medicine, Charles
University in Prague in 1348, making it
the 11th oldest in the world and highly prestigious. Students from all
over the world are attracted to study medicine in Czech Republic
because of the high standards of education provided. Most Czech
Universities offer a 6-year General
Medicine program in Czech and in
English separately for international students.
The admission to medical studies in Czech Republic is based on the
performance in high school diploma (Biology,
Chemistry and Physics),
English proficiency and performance in the entrance exams. Entrance
examination is conducted at the university and by some representative
offices abroad. The entrance exams are competitive due to students
from all over the world fighting to secure a place. After the entrance
exams, successful candidates are further scrutinised by conducting
Most of the international students studying medicine in the Czech
Republic originate from USA, Canada, UK, Norway, Sweden, Germany,
Israel, Malaysia and the Middle East.
Most faculties of
Medicine in Czech Republic have been approved by the
U.S. Department of Education for participation in Federal Student
Financial Aid Programs and is listed in the Directory of Postsecondary
Institutions published by the U.S. Department of Education. The
qualifications are also approved in
Canada by the Canadian Ministry of
Education and Training, and in the UK by the General Medical Council.
Most medical schools are globally recognised and carry a good
There are nine public government owned medical schools in the Czech
First Faculty of Medicine, Charles
University in Prague
Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles
University in Prague
Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles
University in Prague
Medicine in Plzeň, Charles
University in Prague
Medicine in Hradec Králové, Charles
University in Prague
Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University
Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký
Faculty of Medicine,
University of Ostrava
There is one military medical school, Faculty of Military Health
University of Defence.
List of medical schools in Denmark
In Denmark, basic medical education is given in four universities:
University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University,
University of Southern
Denmark and Aalborg University. The duration of basic medical
education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Candidate
Medicine (M.D.) after swearing the
Hippocratic Oath upon
Medical school is usually followed by a year residency called clinical
basic education (Danish: Klinisk basisuddannelse or just KBU) which
upon completion grants the right to practices medicine without
List of medical schools in Finland
In Finland, basic medical education is given in five universities:
Helsinki, Kuopio, Oulu, Tampere and Turku. Admission is regulated by
an entrance examination. Studies involve an initial two-year
preclinical period of mainly theoretical courses in anatomy,
biochemistry, pharmacology etc. However, students have contact with
patients from the beginning of their studies. The preclinical period
is followed by a four-year clinical period, when students participate
in the work of various hospitals and health care centres, learning
necessary medical skills. Some Finnish universities have integrated
clinical and preclinical subjects along the six-year course, diverging
from the traditional program. A problem-based learning method is
widely used, and inclusion of clinical cases in various courses and
preclinical subjects is becoming common. All medical schools have
research programs for students who wish to undertake scientific work.
The duration of basic medical education is six years and the course
leads to the degree of Licentiate of Medicine.
Medical school in France
Medical studies in France are organized as follow:
Right after graduating from High School with a Baccalaureat, any
student can register at a university of medicine (there are about 30
of them throughout the country). At the end of first year, an internal
ranking examination takes place in each of these universities in order
to implement the numerus clausus. First year consists mainly of
theoretical classes such as biophysics and biochemistry, anatomy,
ethics or histology. Passing first year is commonly considered as
challenging and requires hard and continuous work. Each student can
only try twice. For example, the
Université René Descartes
Université René Descartes welcomes
about 2000 students in first year and only 300 after numerus clausus.
The second and third year are usually mainly quite theoretical
although the teachings are often accompanied by placements in the
field (e.g. internships as nurses or in the emergency room, depending
on the university).
During 4th, 5th and 6th years, medical students get a special status
called 'Externe' (In some universities, such as Pierre et Marie Curie,
the 'Externe' status is given starting in the 3rd year). They work as
interns every morning at the hospital plus a few night shifts a month
and study in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between 3 and 4
months and takes place in a different department. Med students get 5
weeks off a year.
At the end of sixth year, they need to pass a national ranking exam,
which will determine their specialty. Indeed, the first student gets
to choose first, then the second, etcetera. Usually students work
pretty hard during 5th and 6th years in order to train properly for
the national ranking exam. During these years, actual practice at the
hospital and some theoretical courses are meant to balance the
training. Such externs' average wage stands between 100 and 300 euros
After that ranking exams, students can start as residents in the
specialty they have been able to pick. That is the point from which
they also start getting paid.
Towards the end of the medical program, French medical students are
provided with more responsibilities and are required to defend a
thesis. At the conclusion of the thesis defense, French medical
students receive a State
Diploma of Doctor of
Medicine (MD) or
"Diplôme d'Etat de Doctorat en Medecine for general medicine. For
those who are in speciality training will also receive a
Specialized Studies (DES= Diplôme d'Etudes Specialisees) to mark
their specialties. Some students may also receive a
Specialized Complementary Studies (DESC)= Diplôme d'Etudes
List of medical schools in Germany
University of Freiburg Faculty of Medicine
In Germany, admission to medical schools is currently administered
jointly by the Stiftung für Hochschulzulassung (SfH), a centralized
federal organization, and the universities themselves. The most
important criterion for admission is the Numerus clausus, the final
GPA scored by the applicant on the
Abitur (highest secondary school
diploma). However, in light of the recent gain in influence of medical
schools in regards to applicant selection, additional criteria are
being used to select students for admission. These criteria vary among
medical faculties and the final
GPA is always a core indicator
and strongly influences admission. Admission remains highly
competitive. A very small number of slots per semester are reserved
for selected applicants which already hold a university degree
(Zweitstudium) and for medical officer candidates
The first two years of medical school consist of the so-called
pre-clinical classes. During this time, the students are instructed in
the basic sciences (e.g. physics, chemistry, biology, anatomy,
physiology, biochemistry, etc.) and must pass a federal medical exam
(Erster Abschnitt der ärztlichen Prüfung), administered nationally.
Upon completion, the students advance to the clinical stage, where
they receive three years of training and education in the clinical
subjects (e.g., internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology,
pediatrics, pharmacology, pathology, etc.). After these three years,
they have to pass the second federal medical exam (Zweiter Abschnitt
der ärztlichen Prüfung) before continuing with the sixth and final
year. The last year of medical school consists of the so-called
"practical year" (Praktisches Jahr, PJ). Students are required to
spend three four-month clerkships, two of them in a hospital (internal
medicine and surgery) as well as one elective, which can be one of the
other clinical subjects (e. g. family medicine, anesthesiology,
neurology, pediatrics, radiology etc.).
After at least six years of medical school, the students graduate with
a final federal medical exam (Dritter Abschnitt der ärztlichen
Prüfung). Graduates receive the license to practice medicine or
dentistry and the professional title of physician (Arzt) or dentist
(Zahnarzt). The academic degrees Doctor of
Medicine (Dr. med.) and
Doctor of dental
Dr. med. dent.) are awarded if the graduate
has, in addition, successfully completed a scientific study and
dissertation. It is a doctoral degree and therefore different from the
MD or DDS degrees in the U.S., which as professional degrees are
awarded after passing the final exams and do not require additional
scientific work. Many medical students opt to perform their thesis
during their studies at medical school, but only a fraction of them is
able to finish the dissertation-process during their studies. The
requirements for getting a
Dr. med. degree across the board are not as
hard as for the doctor in natural science (Dr. rer. nat.). Therefore,
many critics advocate to adopt a system similar to that of the
Anglo-Saxon countries with an MD as a professional degree and a PhD
showing additional scientific qualification. If physicians wish to
open up a doctor's office, they are required to further complete
residency in order to fulfill the federal requirements of becoming
Facharzt (specialized in a certain field of medicine like internal
medicine, surgery, pediatrics etc.). Oral and maxillofacial surgeons
must complete both studies, medicine and dentistry, then afterwards
specializing another 5 years.
There are 36 medical faculties in Germany.
There are seven medical schools in Greece. The most prominent one of
them is the
University of Athens Medical School. The rest of them are
in Patras, Thessaloniki, Ioannina, Larissa, Heraklion, and
Alexandroupoli. The duration of the studies in Greece is 6 years.
Hungary has four medical schools, in Budapest, Debrecen, Pécs and
Medical school takes six years to complete, of which the last
year is a practical year. Students receive the degree dr. med. univ.
or dr. for short, equivalent to the M.D. degree upon graduation. All
Hungarian medical schools have programs fully taught in English.
In Iceland, admission to medical school requires passing an organized
test, controlled by the
University of Iceland, which anyone with a
gymnasium degree can take. Only the top 48 scores on the exam are
granted admission each year.
Medical school in
Iceland takes 6 years
to complete. Students receive a cand.med. degree upon graduation.
Following this, Icelandic regulations require 12 months of clinical
internship before granting a full medical license. This internship
consists of internal medicine (4 months), surgery (2 months), family
medicine (3 months) and a three-month elective period. Upon receiving
a license to practice, a physician can start specialist training, in
Iceland or abroad.
List of medical schools in Ireland
There are six medical schools in Ireland. They are at Trinity College
Dublin, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland,
University College Cork,
University of Limerick and the
University of Ireland, Galway (the National
Ireland is the degree-awarding institution for all except the
University of Limerick and Trinity College). Training lasts four, five
or six years, with the last two years in the affiliated teaching
hospitals (UCD - St. Vincents
University Hospital, Mater Misericordiae
University Hospital) (Trinity - St. James's Hospital, Adelaide and
Hospital incorporating the National Children's Hospital) (UCC -
University Hospital) (RCSI - Beaumont Hospital, Connolly
Hospital, Waterford Regional Hospital).
For Programmes that are six years in length, entry is based on
secondary school qualifications. Programmes that are four years in
length require previous university degrees. The Royal College of
Surgeons in Ireland and the
University of Limerick were the first
medical institutions to offer Graduate Entry
Medicine of four years in
duration in the Ireland. This is now also offered in University
College Dublin and
University College Cork. The National
Ireland, Galway also launched a graduate entry programme in 2010.
Medical education is regulated by the Irish Medical Council, the
statutory body that is also responsible for maintaining a register of
medical practitioners. After graduation with the degrees of BM BS
Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) or MB BCh BAO
(Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus in Chirurgia, Baccalaureus in
Arte Obstetricia), a doctor is required to spend one year as an intern
under supervision before full registration is permitted. Graduates of
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland also receive the traditional
"Licenciate of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons and Physicians in
Ireland" (LRCP&SI), which was awarded before the Royal College of
Surgeons in Ireland became an Affiliate of the National
Ireland and thus was allowed grant degrees, under the Medical
Practitioners Act (1978).
In Italy, the contents of the medical school admission test is decided
each year by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research
(MIUR) and consists of eighty questions divided in five categories:
logics and "general education" ("cultura generale"), mathematics,
physics, chemistry, and biology. Results are expressed in a national
As a general rule, all state-run medical schools in the country
administer it on the same day, whereas all privately run medical
schools administer it on another day, so that a candidate may take the
test once for state-run schools and once for a private school of his
or her choice, but no more.
Some universities in
Italy provide an international degree course in
medicine taught entirely in English for both Italian and non-Italian
students. A number of these medical schools are at public
universities, and have relatively low tuition fees compared to the
English-speaking world, because the cost of the medical education is
subsidized by the state for both Italian and non-Italian students.
These public medical schools include the International Medical School
University of Milan, the
University of Pavia,
Rome "Tor Vergata", Naples Federico II, the Second
University of Naples, and the
University of Bari. These universities
require applicants to rank highly on the International Medical
Italy also has private or parochial, more expensive
English-language medical schools such as Vita-Salute San Raffaele
University and Humanitas
University in Milan, and at the Università
Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Medicine is one of the university faculties implementing numerus
clausus ("numero chiuso"): the overall number of medical students
admitted every year is constant, as each medical school is assigned a
maximum number of new admission per year by MIUR.
Medical school lasts 6 years (12 semesters). Traditionally, the first
three years are devoted to "biological" subjects (physics, chemistry,
biology, biochemistry, genetics, anatomy, physiology, immunology,
pathophysiology, microbiology, and usually
English language courses),
whereas the later three years are devoted to "clinical" subjects.
However, most schools are increasingly devoting the second semester of
the third year to clinical subjects and earlier patient contact. In
most schools, there are about 36 exams over the 6-year cycle, as well
as a number of compulsory rotations and elective activities.
At the end of the cycle, students have to discuss a final thesis
before a board of professors; the subject of this thesis may be a
review of academic literature or an experimental work, and usually
takes more than a year to complete, with most students beginning an
internato (internship) in the subject of their choice in their fifth
or sixth year. The title awarded at the end of the discussion ceremony
is that of "Dottore Magistrale", styled in English as a Doctor of
Medicine, which in accordance with the
Bologna process is comparable
with a master's degree qualification or a US MD.
After graduating, new doctors must complete a three-month, unpaid,
supervised tirocinio post-lauream ("post-degree placement") consisting
of two months in their university hospital (one month in a medical
service and one in a surgical service) as well as one month shadowing
a general practitioner. After getting a statement of successful
completion of each month from their supervisors, new doctors take the
esame di stato ("state exame") to obtain full license to practise
medicine. They will then have to register with one of the branches of
the Ordine dei Medici ("Order of Physicians"), which are based in each
of the Provinces of Italy.
Registration makes new doctors legally able to practice medicine
without supervision. They will then have to choose between various
career paths, each usually requiring a specific admission exam: most
either choose to train as general practitioner (a 3-year course run by
each Region, including both general practice and rotation at
non-university hospitals), or to enter a Scuola di Specializzazione
("specialty school") at a university hospital 4-year or 5-year course.
Lithuania has two medical schools, in Kaunas - LSMU http://lsmuni.lt/
and Vilnius. Studies are of six years, of which the last year is a
practical year. All Lithuanian medical schools have ams in English.
Since 1990, LSMU has been the Alma Mater of many international
students and 550 full-time foreign students from 42 countries (mainly
Israel, Germany, Finland, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Lebanon, Poland,
India, South Korea, Ireland and the United Kingdom) are currently
University of Health Sciences (LSMU) is the largest
university-type school in
Lithuania preparing the health specialists.
It unites the Veterinary Academy and the Medical Academy. LSMU
traditions of studies and scientific work go back to the times of the
Medicine at Vytautas Magnus Universitythat was later turned
into Kaunas Institute of Medicine.
LSMU collaborates with more than 140 European, American and Asian
universities for study and research purposes.
The university is a member of numerous international organizations,
such as the European
University Association (EUA), Association of
Schools of Public Health in The European Region (ASPHER), Association
of Medical Schools in Europe (AMSE), Association for Medical Education
in Europe (AMEE), Organisation for
PhD Education in Biomedicine and
Health Sciences in the European System (ORPHEUS), European Association
of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE), World Veterinary
Association, and more.
LSMU is also a member of the
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (WHO), where it
fulfils the role of a collaboration centre for research and training
in epidemiology, as well as for the prevention of cardiovascular and
other chronic non-communicable diseases.
The study programmes at LSMU meet university education standards
applied in EU countries.
Netherlands and Belgium
List of medical schools in
Netherlands and List of medical
schools in Belgium
Netherlands and Belgium, medical students receive 6 years of
university education prior to their graduation.
In the Netherlands, students used to receive four years of preclinical
training, followed by two years of clinical training
(co-assistentschappen, or co-schappen for short) in hospitals.
However, for a number of medical schools this has recently changed to
three years of preclinical training, followed by three years of
clinical training. At least one medical faculty, that of the Utrecht
University, clinical training already begins in the third year of
medical school. After 6 years, students graduate as basisartsen
(comparable to Doctors of Medicine). As a result of the Bologna
process, medical students in the
Netherlands now receive a bachelor's
degree after three years in medical school and a master's degree upon
graduation. Prospective students can apply for medical education
directly after finishing the highest level of secondary school, vwo;
previous undergraduate education is not a precondition for admittance.
The Belgian medical education is much more based on theoretical
knowledge than the Dutch system. In the first 3 years, which are very
theoretical and lead to a university bachelor degree, general
scientific courses are taken such as chemistry, biophysics,
physiology, biostatistics, anatomy, virology, etc. To enter the
bachelor course in Flanders, prospective students have to pass an
exam, as a result of the numerus clausus. In the French-speaking part
of Belgium, only the best students that pass the first year of the
bachelor course in medicine are admitted to the second and third year.
After the bachelor courses, students are allowed to enter the 'master
in medicine' courses, which consist of 4 years of theoretical and
clinical study. In general, the first 2 master years are very
theoretical and teach the students in human pathology, diseases,
pharmacology. The third year is a year full of internships in a wide
range of specialities in different clinics. The seventh, final year
serves as a kind of 'pre-specialization' year in which the students
are specifically trained in the specialty they wish to pursue after
medical school. This contrasts with the Dutch approach, in which
graduates are literally 'basic doctors' (basisartsen) who have yet to
decide on a specialty.
List of medical schools in Norway
Medical education in Norway begins with a six- to six-and-a-half-year
undergraduate university program. Admission requires a very high GPA
from secondary school - medicine consistently ranks as the most
difficult university programme to be admitted to in Norway.
Furthermore, certain high school subjects are required for admission
(chemistry, mathematics and physics). Upon completion, students are
awarded a candidatus/candidata medicinae (cand. med.) degree
(corresponding to e.g. and MD in the USA) and medical license. Those
completing a research programme (Forskerlinje) get this added to their
degree. Following this, it is required a minimum of 18 months of
internship (turnustjeneste) before applying on a specialist training
in Norway. The internship consist of 6 months of internal medicine, 6
months of surgery and 6 months family medicine. There are currently 43
recognized medical specialties in Norway.
See also: Schools of medicine in Poland
Universidade do Minho, Braga
Universidade do Algarve, Faro
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra
Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Covilhã
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa
Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa
Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Porto
Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, Porto
List of medical schools in Romania
In Romania, medical school is a department of a medical university,
which typically includes
Pharmacy departments as well.
The name facultate is used for departments in their universities too,
Medicine departments distinguish themselves by the length of
studies (6 years), which grants to graduates a status equivalent to
that of a Master in Science. The
Medicine departments are also marked
by reduced flexibility - in theory, a student in a regular university
can take courses from different departments, like
Geography (although it usually does not happen, majors being clearly
defined), while the medical universities do not have any extra offers
for their students, due to their specialization. Admission to medical
faculty is usually awarded by passing a Human Biology, Organic
Physics test. The program lasts 6 years, with first 2
years being preclinical and last 4 years being mostly clinical. After
these six years, one has to take the national licence exam (which
consists of mostly clinically oriented questions, but some questions
also deal with basic sciences) and has to write a thesis in any field
he/she studied. Final award is Doctor-Medic (titlu onorific)
(shortened Dr.), which is not an academic degree (similar to Germany).
All graduates have to go through residency and specialization exams
after that in order to practice, although older graduates had
different requirements and training (e.g., clinical rotations similar
to sub-internship) and might still be able to practice Family Medicine
/ General Medicine.
See also: List_of_medical_schools_in_Europe § Russia
Medical schools in Russia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award
Medicine (MD) "Physician". Russian medical authorities
reluctantly agrees with inclusion in list of international medical
FAIMER can't include medical schools without
cooperation from Russia. For example, Orel State
Institute isn't included in this list.
List of medical schools in Sweden
Medical education in Sweden begins with a five-and-a-half-year
undergraduate university program leading to the degree "Master of
Science in Medicine" (Swedish: Läkarexamen). Following this, the
National Board of Health and Welfare requires a minimum of 18 months
of clinical internship (Swedish: Allmäntjänstgöring) before
granting a medical license to be fully qualified as Medical Doctor
This internship consists of surgery (3–6 months), internal medicine
(3–6 months), psychiatry (three months) and family medicine (six
months). Upon receiving a license to practice, a physician is able to
apply for a post to start specialist training. There are currently 52
recognized medical specialties in Sweden. The specialist training has
a duration of minimum five years, which upon completion grants formal
qualification as a specialist.
See also: Healthcare in Switzerland
There are five universities granting medical degrees in Switzerland
University of Fribourg and the
ETH Zurich that provide the
bachelor but not the master in medicine) and five university
Medicine of the
University of Basel (see also University
Hospital of Basel)
Medicine of the
University of Bern (see also University
Hospital of Bern)
Medicine of the
University of Geneva (see also University
Hospital of Geneva)
Medicine of the
University of Lausanne (see
Hospital of Lausanne)
Medicine of the
University of Zürich (see also University
Hospital of Zürich)
Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology of the ETH Zurich
All high school graduates who wish to pursue further education are
required to take an MCQ exam. The exam covers most of the high school
and secondary school curricula.
A student who scores high enough gets a place in a faculty of his/her
desire. Entrance to medical schools is extremely competitive, only
very top scoring students are accepted to medical schools.
Medical education takes six years, first three years being
Pre-clinical years and the latter three being Clinical years. Right
after graduation, graduates can either work as GPs or take another
exam called TUS (Medical Specialization Examination) to do residency
in a particular department of a particular hospital.
Most of the medical schools in Turkey are state schools but the number
of private schools is on the rise. MCQ exam (YGS and LYS) scores
required to be accepted to private medical schools are lower compared
to their public counterparts. The language of instruction is, in
general, Turkish, but few universities also offer schools with English
as the language of instruction. This makes Turkey a popular place to
study medicine for students from nearby areas like the Balkans, the
Middle East, and to a lesser extent North Africa.
Medical degrees in Ukraine were offered only in institutions called
medical universities, which are separate from traditional
universities. However, some medical schools are now associated with
classical universities. These include:
Ternopil State Medical University
Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University
Kharkiv National Medical University
Dnipropetrovsk State Medical Academy
Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University
Bukovinian State Medical University
Zaporizhia State Medical University
Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy
Donetsk National Medical University
Bogomolets National Medical
University Of Ukraine
Crimea State Medical University
Luhansk State Medical University
Odessa National Medical University
National Pirogov Memorial Medical University
Medicine of V N Karazin Kharkiv National University
Medical Faculty of Sumy State University
Medical Faculty of Uzhgorod University
Medical Faculty of Dnipropetrovsk National University
Kyiv Medical Institute of non traditional Medicine
Medical school in the United Kingdom
List of medical schools in the United Kingdom
Shepherd's House, King's College London School of
Dentistry at Guy's Campus in London
Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine
comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice
spanning several levels. While the final outcomes of the
qualifications themselves typically meet the Expectations of the
descriptor for higher education qualification at level 7 (the UK
master's degree). These degrees may retain, for historical reasons,
"Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to
MBChB or MBBS.
There are currently 32 institutions that offer medical degrees in the
United Kingdom. Completion of a medical degree in the UK results
in the award of the degrees of Bachelor of
Medicine and Bachelor of
Surgery. Admission requirements to the schools varies; most insist on
solid A-Levels/Highers, a good performance in an aptitude test such as
the UKCAT, the
BMAT or the GAMSAT, and usually an interview. As of
2008 the UK has approximately 8000 places for medical students.
Methods of education range from courses that offer a problem-based
learning approach (alongside lectures etc.), and others having a more
traditional pre-clinical/clinical structure. Others combine several
approaches in an integrated approach.
Following qualification, UK doctors enter a generalised two-year,
competency-based "foundation programme", gaining full GMC (General
Medical Council) registration at the end of foundation year one, and
applying for specialist training (in medicine, surgery, general
practice etc.) after foundation year two.
Many medical schools offer intercalated degree programmes to allow
students to focus on an area of research outside their medical degree
for a year.
Some medical schools offer graduate entry programmes, which are four
years long. The name refers to the fact that students on these courses
already have a degree in another subject (i.e. they are graduates).
Due to the shorter length of the course, the timetable of these
degrees are more intense and the holidays are shorter, compared to
students on the 5-year course. In terms of entrance requirements, the
4-year degree restricts entry to those who already hold a first
degree, and have previously worked in an area of healthcare. The first
degree doesn't necessarily have to be a BSc degree (this is the
criteria for some of the medical schools), whereas other medical
schools specify that the prior degree has to be in a science subject.
Competition for this course is fierce, with students having to also
sit an entrance exam prior to being considered for an interview.
Medical schools typically admit more students into undergraduate
programmes than into graduate entry programmes.
Medical career grades of the National Health Service
Current (Modernising Medical Careers)
Foundation doctor (FY1 and FY2), 2 years
Pre-registration house officer (PRHO), 1 year
Senior house officer (SHO),
minimum 2 years; often more
general practice (GPST), 3 years
hospital speciality (SpR), minimum 6 years
GP registrar, 1 year
4 years total time in training
5 years total time in training
Consultant, minimum 8 years total time in training
Consultant, minimum 7–9 years total time in training
Training is competency based, times shown are a minimum. Training may
be extended by obtaining an Academic Clinical Fellowship for research
or by dual certification in another speciality.
Training may be extended by pursuing medical research (usually 2–3
years), usually with clinical duties as well
A medical student checking blood pressure on an awareness drive
A person accepted into a medical school and enrolled in an educational
program in medicine, with the goal of becoming a medical doctor, is
referred to as a medical student.
Medical students are generally
considered to be at the earliest stage of the medical career pathway.
In some locations they are required to be registered with a government
Medical students typically engage in both basic science and practical
clinical coursework during their tenure in medical school. Course
structure and length vary greatly among countries (see above).
Main article: Bullying in medicine
Medical students, perhaps being vulnerable because of their relatively
low status in health care settings, commonly experience verbal abuse,
humiliation and harassment (nonsexual or sexual).
on gender and race is less common.
Burnout and depression
See also: Stress in medical students
A meta-analysis in the American journal JAMA suggested depressive
symptoms in 24% to 29% of all medical students and 25% to 33% of all
resident physicians. Burnout in medical students, in addition,
seems to be associated with increased likelihood of subsequent
It has been estimated by a US study that approximately 14% of medical
students have symptoms of moderate to severe depression, and roughly
5% have suicidal thoughts at some point during training.
Internationally depression as well as distress in medical school is
widely studied and gained more attention over the years. A recent
study among German medical students at international universities
displayed the significantly higher risk of depression symptoms being
2.4 times higher than the average population. 23.5% of these German
medical students showed clinically relevant depressive symptoms.
In a South Korean study, 40% of medical students appeared to have
Medical students with more severe depression also may
be less likely to seek treatment, largely from fear that faculty
members would view them as being unable to handle their
responsibilities. Students who feel that they lack a social
support system are 10 times more likely to be depressed compared with
students that consider themselves to have good social support.
Approximately 10% experience suicidal ideation during medical
Lemon and Stone hypothesised in what has become termed the 'Lemon
Stone Hypothesis', that medical students from lower socioeconomic
backgrounds increase in prevalence during times of national economic
adversity. Their hypothesis was a formulation of Becker Maimans'
health belief model and Adaption theory. This hypothesis has to some
extent been supported by a series of surveys.
American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic
American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS)
American Association of Colleges of Podiatric
Bimaristan (historical medical schools)
Graduate Australian Medical Schools Admissions Test (GAMSAT)
[Australia, Ireland, UK]
International medical graduate
List of medical schools
Medical College Admission Test
Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) [United States, Canada]
Society of General Internal
Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT)
Notes and references
^ Brown, Menna; Barnes, Jacob; Silver, Katie; Williams, Nicholas;
Newton, Philip M. (2015). "The Educational Impact of Exposure to
Psychiatry Early in an Undergraduate Medical Curriculum".
Academic Psychiatry. 40 (2): 274–281.
^ Littlewood, S. (13 August 2005). "Early practical experience and the
social responsiveness of clinical education: systematic review". BMJ.
331 (7513): 387–391. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7513.387.
^ "Accreditation of medical education institutions. Report of a
technical meeting.Schæffergården, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–6 October
2004". WHO-WFME Task Force on Accreditation. p. 2. ISBN 92 4
159273 7. Missing or empty url= (help)
^ Accra College of Medicine, www.acm.edu.gh
^ Katz, Arieh A; Futter, Merle; Mayosi, Bongani M (9 December 2013).
"The intercalated BSc (Med) Honours/MB ChB and integrated MB ChB/PhD
tracks at the
University of Cape Town: Models for a national medical
student research training programme". South African Medical Journal.
104 (2): 111. doi:10.7196/SAMJ.7639. PMID 24893538.
Uganda Medical and Dental Practitioners Council.
Retrieved 17 April 2017.
^ Healthtraining.org Archived 2010-05-01 at the Wayback Machine., MPH
Degree Requirements at Makerere
^ Dillon, Alfredo. "Prohíben el arancel y el examen de ingreso en las
universidades". www.clarin.com (in Spanish). Retrieved
^ "QS World
University Rankings 2016". Top Universities. 2016-08-25.
^ Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme. "A brief description of medical school
curricula in Brazil" (PDF). Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved
4 June 2014.
^ CaRMS - Operations - Future Matches Archived 2007-05-19 at the
^ "Accreditation of International Medical Schools: An Update from
FAIMER and CAAM-HP" (PDF). michigan.gov. Federation of State Medical
Boards. 2009-06-18. p. 32. Retrieved 2011-09-07.
^ "Medical Schools". American Association of Medical Colleges.
Archived from the original on 12 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August
^ "U.S. Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine". AACOM. Retrieved 4 July
^ "medicine as professional doctorate" (PDF).
^ "MD as Professional Doctorate" (PDF).
^ "Educational System in the USA".
^ Ackerknecht, Erwin. A Short History of Medicine. Baltimore: The
University Press, 1982.
^ Institute for Good
Medicine at the Pennsylvania Medical Society
Goodmedicine.org Archived 2012-08-01 at Archive.is
^ AAMC.org Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Additional areas for consideration for accredited education
providers proposing implementation of a Masters Degree (Extended)
level primary medical degree" (PDF). Australian Medical Council.
Retrieved 4 July 2014.
^ "Doctor of
University of Melbourne. 15 January 2014.
Retrieved 4 July 2014.
^ Medical Council of India: Home Page
^ "About Faculty of
Medicine in the Galilee Bar-Ilan University".
Medicine.biu.ac.il. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
^ "Home Sackler Faculty of Medicine". Sacklermedicine.us.
2013-07-22. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
^ "Medical degrees in Israeli Educational System" (PDF). Archived from
the original (PDF) on 2015-08-07.
^ IUK-ISM-KG.com Archived 2010-09-05 at the Wayback Machine.
^ IUK-ISM.MEGA.kg Archived 2010-02-09 at the Wayback Machine.
University of Science and Business or Mezhdunarodnyy
Universitet Nauki i Biznesa
^ Asian Medical Institute Archived 2009-12-04 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Medical Institute, Osh State University
^ "Recognized Institution - Medical-college".
Nepal Medical Council.
Retrieved 29 June 2016.
^ "Bachelor of
Medicine and Bachelor of
Surgery - The
Auckland". www.auckland.ac.nz. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ "How the trainee intern year can ease the transition from
undergraduate education to postgraduate practice - New Zealand Medical
Journal". www.nzma.org.nz. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ "Medical Trainee Intern Grant". Tertiary Education Commission.
^ "Undergraduate study options - The
University of Auckland".
www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
^ MyTuition. "A guide to studying medicine in NZ". Retrieved
^ Medical Education in Taiwan
^ "Directory of Medical Schools in Republic of Korea". Institute for
International Medical Education. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
^ KMA.org, Korea Medical Association(KMA) website
^ Graduates from these medical schools revive Bachelor of Medicine,
Surgery degree, (MBBS), which takes a period of five to
six years plus a residency period of one year for full registration.
Due to the limited intake a large number of students go abroad to
study medicine, these include commonwealth countries, as well as in
recent years Bangladesh, Russia and China. However private medical
schools are in the process of being established at present with the
South Asian Institute of Technology and
Establishment of private medical schools have been opposed by the
section of medical practitioners together with extremist student
groups who does not willing to widening the access to medical
education for the reasons best known to them. The total university
undergraduate population in Sri Lanka is less than 27,000, of which
few hundred students are admitted to the local medical faculties,
annually. Thousands who qualifies for higher education have no other
option, but to go abroad for higher studies, including for medicine.
Annually Sri Lankan parents are spending over 1bn USD to provide
education to their children overseas. A well established system to
regulate both private and public universities including the medical
faculties is required to ensure the quality and relevance of the
higher education system and thereby to enable both the public and
private institutions to compete for excellence, as in the case of many
other countries. This would be "the option" available for the
authorities to consider, if Sri Lanka is aspiring to become a regional
hub for education and a knowledge exporting country. The Higher
Education Minister and the
University Grants Commission (UGC) were
criticized by the Government Medical Officers' Association (GMOA) for
offering degree awarding status to the South Asian Institute of
Technology (SAITM), while turning blind eye to three other medical
degree awarding institutions, recently established by the state; i.e.
Rajarata, Eastern and the Defense university (Fee levying), whose
quality and standers are certainly not above or in par with to that of
SITAM. The dabble standards adopted by the relevant authorities are
detrimental to the founding principles of the free education of this
country to provide equal access to education to all. It should be
noted the fact that "education is not a privilege of a few, but a
right of all" who want to have access to education at all levels.
^ "GMOA Claims SAITM Is Sub-Standard The Sunday Leader".
Thesundayleader.lk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-23.
List of medical schools in Thailand
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