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MediaFLO
MediaFLO
was a technology developed by Qualcomm
Qualcomm
for transmitting audio, video and data to portable devices such as mobile phones and personal televisions, used for mobile television. In the United States, the service powered by this technology was branded as FLO TV. Broadcast
Broadcast
data transmitted via MediaFLO
MediaFLO
includes live, real time audio and video streams, as well as scheduled video and audio clips and shows. The technology could also carry Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
datacast application data, such as stock market quotes, sports scores, and weather reports.[1] In October 2010, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
announced it was suspending new sales of the service to consumers.[2][3] In December 2010, AT&T announced that it will purchase Qualcomm's FCC licenses in the 700 MHz band.[4] FLO TV discontinued service on March 27, 2011.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Technology 3 Commercial roll-out

3.1 USA: FLO TV 3.2 Trials

4 Devices 5 End of service 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Overview[edit] The "FLO" in MediaFLO
MediaFLO
stood for Forward Link Only,[5] meaning that the data transmission path is one way, from the tower to the device. The MediaFLO
MediaFLO
system transmitted data on a frequency separate from the frequencies used by current mobile telephone networks. In the United States, the MediaFLO
MediaFLO
system used frequency spectrum 716-722 MHz, which had previously been allocated to UHF TV channel 55.[6][7] FLO was standardized within ETSI
ETSI
as TS 102 589,[8] and has components standardized within the Telecommunications Industry Association
Telecommunications Industry Association
(TIA 1099, 1102, 1103, 1104, 1120, 1130, 1132, 1146 and 1178.) MediaFLO
MediaFLO
was a competitor to the Korean T-DMB, the Japanese 1seg
1seg
and the European DVB-H
DVB-H
standards. Qualcomm
Qualcomm
conducted MediaFLO
MediaFLO
technical trials internationally, with the intention of forming partnerships with existing multi-channel content providers and service operators, but has since discontinued development. Technology[edit]

MediaFLO
MediaFLO
logo

The protocol was developed because of the inherent spectral inefficiency of unicasting high-rate full-motion video to multiple subscribers. Additionally, traditional analog television and over-the-air terrestrial digital television signals (DVB-T) were difficult to implement on mobile devices, due mostly to issues of power consumption. ATSC, used only by the United States
United States
and its neighbors, also has difficulty even with fixed reception due to multipath, and mobile ATSC-M/H
ATSC-M/H
(which is free-to-air from individual TV stations) was not finalized until 2008. In addition, the transmission need not convey as high a resolution as would be needed for a larger display. MediaFLO
MediaFLO
streams are only 200-250 kbit/s, which would be insufficient for a larger screen size.[9] In the now defunct United States
United States
implementation, FLO was transmitted by a network of high-power broadcast transmitters operating at effective radiated powers as high as 50 kilowatts. This allowed for a coverage area of a transmitter to be as large as 30 to 40 kilometres (19 to 25 mi).[9] The activation of many of these transmitters were delayed due to the official end of analog TV broadcasting on channel 55 being delayed.[10] Immediately following the transition, the FLO network was expanded to several new markets, and coverage was enhanced in some existing ones.[11] The transmission was an encrypted OFDM set of QAM
QAM
signals sent on a 5.55 MHz channel from 716-722 MHz (former UHF TV channel 55). The band was auctioned-off by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and known as the "Lower 700 MHz Block D".[12] Qualcomm
Qualcomm
also bought, in a later auction, the use of former analog UHF TV channel 56 (722-728 MHz) in Boston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia and San Francisco for additional services. However, this is owned by Manifest Wireless
Wireless
(a subsidiary of Dish Network's Frontier Wireless) in most other media markets, where ATSC-M/H
ATSC-M/H
signals were on air. All of the transmitters sent the same signal and used the same frequency, forming a single-frequency network. This allowed the mobile to decode the signal from more than one transmitter in the same way that it might if it was a multipath-delayed version from the same transmitter.[9] All stations used callsign WPZA237, but each has an identifier indicating its group and number. For example, one station in the metro Atlanta media market was ATL-006, while another was ATL-014. Some other operational parameters of MediaFLO
MediaFLO
are as follows:

Parameter Value

Total number of QAM
QAM
sub-carriers 4096

Number of guard sub-carriers 96

Number of pilot sub-carriers 500

Multicast Logical Channels (MLC) 1-7

Modulations used QPSK
QPSK
(4 symbol constellations), 16 QAM
QAM
(16 symbols)

Spacing between sub-carriers 1.355 kHz (5.55 MHz / 4096 sub-carriers)

Modulated symbol (chip) duration 0.18 μs (1/5.55 MHz)

[9] All of the bearer (data) traffic occurred within an MLC using the 3500 non-overhead subcarriers. The protocol also contemplates a certain amount of inter-symbol time spacing, to allow for the effects of multi-path transmission and reception.

Parameter Value

Total OFDM symbol interval (TS) 833.33 μs

Bearer Data traffic (TU) 738.02 μs

Window interval (TWGI) 3.06 μs

Cyclic Prefix (TFGI) 92.25 μs

[9] There is a window time TWGI included both before and after each OFDM symbol. However, since this window is shared between each two consecutive symbols, TS = TU + TWGI + TFGI. Commercial roll-out[edit] USA: FLO TV[edit] In the U.S., all FLO television providers offered a set of 14 basic channels:

2.FLO (6 am to 10 pm) — Original made-for-mobile reports and concerts; added in early 2010 Adult Swim
Adult Swim
(10 pm to 6 am) ABC Mobile CBS Mobile — Containing a mixture of sports and other CBS content CNBC Comedy Central ESPN
ESPN
Mobile TV
Mobile TV
— Frequently simulcasting live sporting events from their family of networks Fox Mobile Fox News Channel MTV
MTV
Mobile MSNBC NBC 2Go — A mix of MSNBC, NBC, CNBC, and Bravo networks [1] Disney Channel Nickelodeon

Adult Swim
Adult Swim
time-shares with 2.FLO, as it does on cable TV with Cartoon Network. Additionally, the "FLO Preview Channel" was a free-to-view barker channel, available without subscription.[13] For conditional access, Verizon Wireless
Wireless
utilized its EVDO
EVDO
network to authenticate mobile handsets and provide the decryption keys necessary to decode the programming. Because of this, users who block data use to prevent unauthorized charge were also blocked from viewing any channels, including the preview channel. There were 16 TV channels broadcast for Verizon.[14] The additional Verizon channels include:

MTV
MTV
Tr3́s TLC

There were 16 TV channels broadcast for AT&T:[15] The additional AT&T channels are:

CNN Live Mobile* Crackle — showing a variety of movies*

The standalone FLO TV Personal Television and FLO TV Automotive products also included CNN Live Mobile and Crackle. Trials[edit] Some trials were underway in Japan, Hong Kong and Taïwan, with no commitment for a commercial phase. In France, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
tried unsuccessfully to convince TDF to choose MediaFLO
MediaFLO
technology. Devices[edit] Devices including MediaFLO
MediaFLO
were first introduced by LG and Samsung
Samsung
at CES 2006 in Las Vegas. On December 1, 2005 Verizon Wireless
Wireless
and Qualcomm
Qualcomm
announced partnership for the launch of the MediaFLO
MediaFLO
network, and Verizon launched the service commercially as part of its VCAST offering on March 1, 2007, marketing the MediaFLO-specific technology/service as "VCAST TV".[16] A similar announcement was made by AT&T Mobility in February 2007.[17] AT&T Mobility launched their MediaFLO
MediaFLO
service on May 4, 2008.[18] The first non-phone TV-only devices were released in late 2009.[19] FLO TV was first offered on certain wireless phones offered by Verizon Wireless
Wireless
and AT&T Wireless. In November 2009 FLO TV introduced the FLO TV Personal Television mobile device (model PTV-350). End of service[edit] On July 21, 2010, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
CEO Paul Jacobs said the company planned to either sell its MediaFLO
MediaFLO
business or its spectrum, or to find a partner.[20] The company had predicted the total cost to launch the service would be $800 million, including the $683 million the San Diego Union-Tribune says Qualcomm
Qualcomm
paid for the spectrum. At the time, the service covered as many as 68 million people, but many analysts confirmed that the project was losing money. On October 5, 2010, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
signaled the end of the FloTV service by declaring that there would be no further sales of devices to consumers. Qualcomm
Qualcomm
indicated the service would be up and running through at least Spring 2011 but could be turned off at any point thereafter.[21] The company said that the MediaFLO
MediaFLO
spectrum could be used for electronic magazines or newspapers, though such services could be offered alongside the existing broadcast channels. Qualcomm had even reached out to software developers for possible solutions.[22] On December 20, 2010, AT&T announced that it would purchase Qualcomm's FCC licenses in the 700 MHz band and that FLO TV service would be shut down on March 27, 2011. Qualcomm
Qualcomm
received $1.93 billion. Despite spending $132 million in the previous quarter on bolstering FLO TV, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
still made a profit on the sale, as it had originally paid $38 million for the former channel 55 and $558 million for the former channel 56.[23] See also[edit]

Mobile TV
Mobile TV
a term for the category of techniques DVB-H
DVB-H
(Digital Video
Video
Broadcasting
Broadcasting
- Handheld) DVB (Digital Video
Video
Broadcasting) DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) 1seg
1seg
(mobile TV system on ISDB-T) ISDB-Tmm (Terrestrial mobile multi-media) Electronic program guide

References[edit]

^ Qualcomm
Qualcomm
press release on "Live Datacasting", 05Apr2006, http://www.qualcomm.com/press/releases/2006/060405_mediaflo_usa_demonstrates.html[permanent dead link] ^ Qualcomm
Qualcomm
suspends Flo TV sales - Reuters, Oct 5 2010 ^ FLO TV Doomed By Easier, Free Alternatives Archived 2010-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. - MediaPost, Oct 5 2010 ^ https://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20101220/tc_nm/us_qualcomm_spectrum_att AT&T to buy Qualcomm's spectrum licenses for $1.93 billion ^ Origins of "FLO" name; main page, FLO Forum website ^ 01Nov2004 Qualcomm
Qualcomm
press release regarding 700 MHz spectrum usage for MediaFLO -http://www.qualcomm.com/press/releases/2004/041101_mediaflo_700mhz.html[permanent dead link] ^ Dailywireless.org- http://www.dailywireless.org/2007/01/07/verizon-launching-mediaflo/ ^ ETSI
ETSI
TS 102 589 "Forward Link Only Air Interface; Specification for Terrestrial Mobile; Multimedia Multicast," V1.1.1 (2009-02) http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/102500_102599/102589/01.01.01_60/ts_102589v010101p.pdf ^ a b c d e IEEE Transactions On Broadcasting, Vol. 53, No. 1, March 2007, http://www.qualcomm.com/common/documents/articles/FLO_physical_layer_IEEE.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2014-01-07.  ^ "FLO TV Goes National - Expands Live Mobile TV
Mobile TV
Service as DTV Transition Frees Broadband Spectrum". FLO TV. Retrieved 2010-10-04.  ^ http://wireless.fcc.gov/auctions/default.htm?job=auction_summary&id=60 FCC Auction 60 ^ View online program guide Archived 2009-02-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ MediaFLO
MediaFLO
USA - On Air Now Archived 2007-12-09 at the Wayback Machine. ^ AT&T Mobile TV[permanent dead link] ^ 01Dec2005 Qualcomm
Qualcomm
press release regarding commercial launch of MediaFLO
MediaFLO
on Verizon Wireless
Wireless
Network - http://www.qualcomm.com/press/releases/2005/051201_verizon_wireless_announce.html[permanent dead link] ^ AT&T Selects QUALCOMM’s MediaFLO
MediaFLO
USA for Mobile Entertainment Services - http://www.qualcomm.com/press/releases/2007/070212_att_selects_s.html[permanent dead link] ^ NYTimes.com via Yahoo! Finance: Mobile TV
Mobile TV
Spreading in Europe and to the U.S., May 6, 2008 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-10-19. Retrieved 2009-10-31.  ^ Hachman, Mark (July 22, 2010). " Qualcomm
Qualcomm
in Talks to Sell MediaFLO Mobile DTV Biz". PC Magazine.  ^ https://www.engadget.com/2010/10/05/flo-tv-killing-direct-to-consumer-programming-in-spring-2011-wi/ ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2010-07-28.  ^ "AT&T buys $2 billion worth of 4G spectrum from Qualcomm". News & Record. Associated Press. 2010-12-20. Archived from the original on 2011-01-03. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 

External links[edit]

FLO TV home page dead MediaFLO
MediaFLO
home page dead RabbitEars.Info MediaFL

.