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The Info List - Mecklenburg-Schwerin


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The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg
Duchy of Mecklenburg
between Schwerin
Schwerin
and Strelitz. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
remained a state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
littoral between Holstein-Glückstadt
Holstein-Glückstadt
and Duchy of Pomerania.

Contents

1 Origins 2 History 3 Aftermath 4 References

Origins[edit] The dynasty's progenitor, Niklot
Niklot
(1090–1160), was a chief of the Slavic Obotrite tribal federation, who fought against the advancing Saxons and was finally defeated in 1160 by Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
in the course of the Wendish Crusade. Niklot's son, Pribislav, submitted himself to Henry, and in 1167 came into his paternal inheritance as the first Prince of Mecklenburg. After several divisions among Pribislav's descendants, Henry II of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
(1266–1329) until 1312 acquired the lordships of Stargard and Rostock, and bequeathed the reunified Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
lands – except the County of Schwerin
Schwerin
and Werle
Werle
– to his sons, Albert II and John. After they both had received the ducal title, the former lordship of Stargard was recreated as the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Stargard for John in 1352. Albert II retained the larger western part of Mecklenburg, and after he acquired the former County of Schwerin
Schwerin
in 1358, he made Schwerin
Schwerin
his residence. In 1363 Albert's son, Duke Albert III, campaigned in Sweden, where he was crowned king one year later. In 1436, William, the last Lord of Werle, died without a male heir. Because William's son-in-law, Ulric II of Mecklenburg-Stargard, had no issue, his line became extinct upon Ulric's death in 1471. All possessions fell back to Duke Henry IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who was then the sole ruler over all of Mecklenburg. In 1520 Henry's grandsons, Henry V and Albert VII, again divided the duchy, creating the subdivision of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, which Duke Adolf Frederick I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
inherited in 1610. In a second partition of 1621, he granted Güstrow to his brother, John Albert II. Both were deposed in 1628 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, as they had supported Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
in the Thirty Years' War. Nevertheless, the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
forced their restoration three years later. When John Albert II's son, Duke Gustav Adolph, died without male heirs in 1695, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was reunited once more under Frederick William. History[edit] In June 1692, when Christian Louis I died in exile and without sons, a dispute arose about the succession to his duchy between his brother, Adolphus Frederick II, and his nephew, Frederick William. The emperor and the rulers of Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
and of Electorate of Brandenburg took part in this struggle, which was intensified three years later, when on the death of Gustav Adolph, the family ruling over Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Mecklenburg-Güstrow
became extinct. In 1701, with the endorsement of the Imperial state
Imperial state
of the Lower Saxon Circle, the Treaty of Hamburg (1701) was signed and the final division of the country was made. Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was divided between the two claimants. The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was given to Frederick William, and the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, roughly a recreation of the medieval Stargard lordship, to Adolphus Frederick II. At the same time, the principle of primogeniture was reasserted, and the right of summoning the joint Landtag
Landtag
was reserved to the ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Continued conflicts and partitions weakened the rule of the dukes and affirmed the reputation of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
as one of the most backward territories of the Empire. Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
began its existence during a series of constitutional struggles between the duke and the nobles. The heavy debt incurred by Karl Leopold, who had joined Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in a war against Kingdom of Sweden, brought matters to a crisis; Charles VI interfered, and in 1728 the imperial court of justice declared the duke incapable of governing. His brother, Christian Ludwig II, was appointed administrator of the duchy. Under this prince, who became ruler de jure in 1747, the Convention of Rostock, by which a new constitution was framed for the duchy, was signed in April 1755. By this instrument, all power was in the hands of the duke, the nobles, and the upper classes generally; the lower classes were entirely unrepresented. During the Seven Years' War, Frederick II took up a hostile attitude towards Frederick the Great, and in consequence Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia. In other ways his rule was beneficial to the country. In the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, Frederick Francis I remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar
Wismar
from Kingdom of Sweden. In 1806 the land was overrun by the First French Empire, and in 1808 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. He was the first member of the confederation to abandon Napoleon, to whose armies he had sent a contingent, and in 1813–1814 he fought against France. Aftermath[edit] With the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815, Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
received the title of Grand Duke. After the fall of the monarchies in 1918 resulting from World War I, the Grand Duchy became the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. On 1 January 1934 it was united with the neighbouring Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (both today part of the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mecklenburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1018–1020. 

v t e

Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1

Secular

Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg

Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel

Holstein

Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9

Mecklenburg

Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11

Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5

Cities

Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen

1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
States of the Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from

.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
HOME
The Info List - Mecklenburg-Schwerin


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The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg
Duchy of Mecklenburg
between Schwerin
Schwerin
and Strelitz. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
remained a state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
littoral between Holstein-Glückstadt
Holstein-Glückstadt
and Duchy of Pomerania.

Contents

1 Origins 2 History 3 Aftermath 4 References

Origins[edit] The dynasty's progenitor, Niklot
Niklot
(1090–1160), was a chief of the Slavic Obotrite tribal federation, who fought against the advancing Saxons and was finally defeated in 1160 by Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
in the course of the Wendish Crusade. Niklot's son, Pribislav, submitted himself to Henry, and in 1167 came into his paternal inheritance as the first Prince of Mecklenburg. After several divisions among Pribislav's descendants, Henry II of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
(1266–1329) until 1312 acquired the lordships of Stargard and Rostock, and bequeathed the reunified Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
lands – except the County of Schwerin
Schwerin
and Werle
Werle
– to his sons, Albert II and John. After they both had received the ducal title, the former lordship of Stargard was recreated as the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Stargard for John in 1352. Albert II retained the larger western part of Mecklenburg, and after he acquired the former County of Schwerin
Schwerin
in 1358, he made Schwerin
Schwerin
his residence. In 1363 Albert's son, Duke Albert III, campaigned in Sweden, where he was crowned king one year later. In 1436, William, the last Lord of Werle, died without a male heir. Because William's son-in-law, Ulric II of Mecklenburg-Stargard, had no issue, his line became extinct upon Ulric's death in 1471. All possessions fell back to Duke Henry IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who was then the sole ruler over all of Mecklenburg. In 1520 Henry's grandsons, Henry V and Albert VII, again divided the duchy, creating the subdivision of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, which Duke Adolf Frederick I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
inherited in 1610. In a second partition of 1621, he granted Güstrow to his brother, John Albert II. Both were deposed in 1628 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, as they had supported Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
in the Thirty Years' War. Nevertheless, the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
forced their restoration three years later. When John Albert II's son, Duke Gustav Adolph, died without male heirs in 1695, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was reunited once more under Frederick William. History[edit] In June 1692, when Christian Louis I died in exile and without sons, a dispute arose about the succession to his duchy between his brother, Adolphus Frederick II, and his nephew, Frederick William. The emperor and the rulers of Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
and of Electorate of Brandenburg took part in this struggle, which was intensified three years later, when on the death of Gustav Adolph, the family ruling over Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Mecklenburg-Güstrow
became extinct. In 1701, with the endorsement of the Imperial state
Imperial state
of the Lower Saxon Circle, the Treaty of Hamburg (1701) was signed and the final division of the country was made. Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was divided between the two claimants. The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was given to Frederick William, and the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, roughly a recreation of the medieval Stargard lordship, to Adolphus Frederick II. At the same time, the principle of primogeniture was reasserted, and the right of summoning the joint Landtag
Landtag
was reserved to the ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Continued conflicts and partitions weakened the rule of the dukes and affirmed the reputation of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
as one of the most backward territories of the Empire. Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
began its existence during a series of constitutional struggles between the duke and the nobles. The heavy debt incurred by Karl Leopold, who had joined Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in a war against Kingdom of Sweden, brought matters to a crisis; Charles VI interfered, and in 1728 the imperial court of justice declared the duke incapable of governing. His brother, Christian Ludwig II, was appointed administrator of the duchy. Under this prince, who became ruler de jure in 1747, the Convention of Rostock, by which a new constitution was framed for the duchy, was signed in April 1755. By this instrument, all power was in the hands of the duke, the nobles, and the upper classes generally; the lower classes were entirely unrepresented. During the Seven Years' War, Frederick II took up a hostile attitude towards Frederick the Great, and in consequence Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia. In other ways his rule was beneficial to the country. In the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, Frederick Francis I remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar
Wismar
from Kingdom of Sweden. In 1806 the land was overrun by the First French Empire, and in 1808 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. He was the first member of the confederation to abandon Napoleon, to whose armies he had sent a contingent, and in 1813–1814 he fought against France. Aftermath[edit] With the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815, Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
received the title of Grand Duke. After the fall of the monarchies in 1918 resulting from World War I, the Grand Duchy became the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. On 1 January 1934 it was united with the neighbouring Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (both today part of the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mecklenburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1018–1020. 

v t e

Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1

Secular

Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg

Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel

Holstein

Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9

Mecklenburg

Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11

Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5

Cities

Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen

1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
States of the Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from

.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
HOME
The Info List - Mecklenburg-Schwerin


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The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg
Duchy of Mecklenburg
between Schwerin
Schwerin
and Strelitz. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
remained a state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
littoral between Holstein-Glückstadt
Holstein-Glückstadt
and Duchy of Pomerania.

Contents

1 Origins 2 History 3 Aftermath 4 References

Origins[edit] The dynasty's progenitor, Niklot
Niklot
(1090–1160), was a chief of the Slavic Obotrite tribal federation, who fought against the advancing Saxons and was finally defeated in 1160 by Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
in the course of the Wendish Crusade. Niklot's son, Pribislav, submitted himself to Henry, and in 1167 came into his paternal inheritance as the first Prince of Mecklenburg. After several divisions among Pribislav's descendants, Henry II of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
(1266–1329) until 1312 acquired the lordships of Stargard and Rostock, and bequeathed the reunified Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
lands – except the County of Schwerin
Schwerin
and Werle
Werle
– to his sons, Albert II and John. After they both had received the ducal title, the former lordship of Stargard was recreated as the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Stargard for John in 1352. Albert II retained the larger western part of Mecklenburg, and after he acquired the former County of Schwerin
Schwerin
in 1358, he made Schwerin
Schwerin
his residence. In 1363 Albert's son, Duke Albert III, campaigned in Sweden, where he was crowned king one year later. In 1436, William, the last Lord of Werle, died without a male heir. Because William's son-in-law, Ulric II of Mecklenburg-Stargard, had no issue, his line became extinct upon Ulric's death in 1471. All possessions fell back to Duke Henry IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who was then the sole ruler over all of Mecklenburg. In 1520 Henry's grandsons, Henry V and Albert VII, again divided the duchy, creating the subdivision of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, which Duke Adolf Frederick I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
inherited in 1610. In a second partition of 1621, he granted Güstrow to his brother, John Albert II. Both were deposed in 1628 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, as they had supported Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
in the Thirty Years' War. Nevertheless, the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
forced their restoration three years later. When John Albert II's son, Duke Gustav Adolph, died without male heirs in 1695, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was reunited once more under Frederick William. History[edit] In June 1692, when Christian Louis I died in exile and without sons, a dispute arose about the succession to his duchy between his brother, Adolphus Frederick II, and his nephew, Frederick William. The emperor and the rulers of Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
and of Electorate of Brandenburg took part in this struggle, which was intensified three years later, when on the death of Gustav Adolph, the family ruling over Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Mecklenburg-Güstrow
became extinct. In 1701, with the endorsement of the Imperial state
Imperial state
of the Lower Saxon Circle, the Treaty of Hamburg (1701) was signed and the final division of the country was made. Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was divided between the two claimants. The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was given to Frederick William, and the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, roughly a recreation of the medieval Stargard lordship, to Adolphus Frederick II. At the same time, the principle of primogeniture was reasserted, and the right of summoning the joint Landtag
Landtag
was reserved to the ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Continued conflicts and partitions weakened the rule of the dukes and affirmed the reputation of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
as one of the most backward territories of the Empire. Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
began its existence during a series of constitutional struggles between the duke and the nobles. The heavy debt incurred by Karl Leopold, who had joined Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in a war against Kingdom of Sweden, brought matters to a crisis; Charles VI interfered, and in 1728 the imperial court of justice declared the duke incapable of governing. His brother, Christian Ludwig II, was appointed administrator of the duchy. Under this prince, who became ruler de jure in 1747, the Convention of Rostock, by which a new constitution was framed for the duchy, was signed in April 1755. By this instrument, all power was in the hands of the duke, the nobles, and the upper classes generally; the lower classes were entirely unrepresented. During the Seven Years' War, Frederick II took up a hostile attitude towards Frederick the Great, and in consequence Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia. In other ways his rule was beneficial to the country. In the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, Frederick Francis I remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar
Wismar
from Kingdom of Sweden. In 1806 the land was overrun by the First French Empire, and in 1808 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. He was the first member of the confederation to abandon Napoleon, to whose armies he had sent a contingent, and in 1813–1814 he fought against France. Aftermath[edit] With the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815, Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
received the title of Grand Duke. After the fall of the monarchies in 1918 resulting from World War I, the Grand Duchy became the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. On 1 January 1934 it was united with the neighbouring Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (both today part of the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mecklenburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1018–1020. 

v t e

Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1

Secular

Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg

Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel

Holstein

Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9

Mecklenburg

Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11

Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5

Cities

Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen

1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
States of the Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from

.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
HOME
The Info List - Mecklenburg-Schwerin


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The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg
Duchy of Mecklenburg
between Schwerin
Schwerin
and Strelitz. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
remained a state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
littoral between Holstein-Glückstadt
Holstein-Glückstadt
and Duchy of Pomerania.

Contents

1 Origins 2 History 3 Aftermath 4 References

Origins[edit] The dynasty's progenitor, Niklot
Niklot
(1090–1160), was a chief of the Slavic Obotrite tribal federation, who fought against the advancing Saxons and was finally defeated in 1160 by Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
in the course of the Wendish Crusade. Niklot's son, Pribislav, submitted himself to Henry, and in 1167 came into his paternal inheritance as the first Prince of Mecklenburg. After several divisions among Pribislav's descendants, Henry II of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
(1266–1329) until 1312 acquired the lordships of Stargard and Rostock, and bequeathed the reunified Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
lands – except the County of Schwerin
Schwerin
and Werle
Werle
– to his sons, Albert II and John. After they both had received the ducal title, the former lordship of Stargard was recreated as the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Stargard for John in 1352. Albert II retained the larger western part of Mecklenburg, and after he acquired the former County of Schwerin
Schwerin
in 1358, he made Schwerin
Schwerin
his residence. In 1363 Albert's son, Duke Albert III, campaigned in Sweden, where he was crowned king one year later. In 1436, William, the last Lord of Werle, died without a male heir. Because William's son-in-law, Ulric II of Mecklenburg-Stargard, had no issue, his line became extinct upon Ulric's death in 1471. All possessions fell back to Duke Henry IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who was then the sole ruler over all of Mecklenburg. In 1520 Henry's grandsons, Henry V and Albert VII, again divided the duchy, creating the subdivision of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, which Duke Adolf Frederick I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
inherited in 1610. In a second partition of 1621, he granted Güstrow to his brother, John Albert II. Both were deposed in 1628 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, as they had supported Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
in the Thirty Years' War. Nevertheless, the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
forced their restoration three years later. When John Albert II's son, Duke Gustav Adolph, died without male heirs in 1695, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was reunited once more under Frederick William. History[edit] In June 1692, when Christian Louis I died in exile and without sons, a dispute arose about the succession to his duchy between his brother, Adolphus Frederick II, and his nephew, Frederick William. The emperor and the rulers of Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
and of Electorate of Brandenburg took part in this struggle, which was intensified three years later, when on the death of Gustav Adolph, the family ruling over Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Mecklenburg-Güstrow
became extinct. In 1701, with the endorsement of the Imperial state
Imperial state
of the Lower Saxon Circle, the Treaty of Hamburg (1701) was signed and the final division of the country was made. Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was divided between the two claimants. The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was given to Frederick William, and the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, roughly a recreation of the medieval Stargard lordship, to Adolphus Frederick II. At the same time, the principle of primogeniture was reasserted, and the right of summoning the joint Landtag
Landtag
was reserved to the ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Continued conflicts and partitions weakened the rule of the dukes and affirmed the reputation of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
as one of the most backward territories of the Empire. Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
began its existence during a series of constitutional struggles between the duke and the nobles. The heavy debt incurred by Karl Leopold, who had joined Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in a war against Kingdom of Sweden, brought matters to a crisis; Charles VI interfered, and in 1728 the imperial court of justice declared the duke incapable of governing. His brother, Christian Ludwig II, was appointed administrator of the duchy. Under this prince, who became ruler de jure in 1747, the Convention of Rostock, by which a new constitution was framed for the duchy, was signed in April 1755. By this instrument, all power was in the hands of the duke, the nobles, and the upper classes generally; the lower classes were entirely unrepresented. During the Seven Years' War, Frederick II took up a hostile attitude towards Frederick the Great, and in consequence Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia. In other ways his rule was beneficial to the country. In the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, Frederick Francis I remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar
Wismar
from Kingdom of Sweden. In 1806 the land was overrun by the First French Empire, and in 1808 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. He was the first member of the confederation to abandon Napoleon, to whose armies he had sent a contingent, and in 1813–1814 he fought against France. Aftermath[edit] With the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815, Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
received the title of Grand Duke. After the fall of the monarchies in 1918 resulting from World War I, the Grand Duchy became the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. On 1 January 1934 it was united with the neighbouring Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (both today part of the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mecklenburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1018–1020. 

v t e

Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1

Secular

Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg

Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel

Holstein

Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9

Mecklenburg

Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11

Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5

Cities

Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen

1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
States of the Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from

.
l> Mecklenburg-Schwerin


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The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg
Duchy of Mecklenburg
between Schwerin
Schwerin
and Strelitz. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
remained a state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
littoral between Holstein-Glückstadt
Holstein-Glückstadt
and Duchy of Pomerania.

Contents

1 Origins 2 History 3 Aftermath 4 References

Origins[edit] The dynasty's progenitor, Niklot
Niklot
(1090–1160), was a chief of the Slavic Obotrite tribal federation, who fought against the advancing Saxons and was finally defeated in 1160 by Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
in the course of the Wendish Crusade. Niklot's son, Pribislav, submitted himself to Henry, and in 1167 came into his paternal inheritance as the first Prince of Mecklenburg. After several divisions among Pribislav's descendants, Henry II of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
(1266–1329) until 1312 acquired the lordships of Stargard and Rostock, and bequeathed the reunified Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
lands – except the County of Schwerin
Schwerin
and Werle
Werle
– to his sons, Albert II and John. After they both had received the ducal title, the former lordship of Stargard was recreated as the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Stargard for John in 1352. Albert II retained the larger western part of Mecklenburg, and after he acquired the former County of Schwerin
Schwerin
in 1358, he made Schwerin
Schwerin
his residence. In 1363 Albert's son, Duke Albert III, campaigned in Sweden, where he was crowned king one year later. In 1436, William, the last Lord of Werle, died without a male heir. Because William's son-in-law, Ulric II of Mecklenburg-Stargard, had no issue, his line became extinct upon Ulric's death in 1471. All possessions fell back to Duke Henry IV of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who was then the sole ruler over all of Mecklenburg. In 1520 Henry's grandsons, Henry V and Albert VII, again divided the duchy, creating the subdivision of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, which Duke Adolf Frederick I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
inherited in 1610. In a second partition of 1621, he granted Güstrow to his brother, John Albert II. Both were deposed in 1628 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, as they had supported Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
in the Thirty Years' War. Nevertheless, the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
forced their restoration three years later. When John Albert II's son, Duke Gustav Adolph, died without male heirs in 1695, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was reunited once more under Frederick William. History[edit] In June 1692, when Christian Louis I died in exile and without sons, a dispute arose about the succession to his duchy between his brother, Adolphus Frederick II, and his nephew, Frederick William. The emperor and the rulers of Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
and of Electorate of Brandenburg took part in this struggle, which was intensified three years later, when on the death of Gustav Adolph, the family ruling over Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Mecklenburg-Güstrow
became extinct. In 1701, with the endorsement of the Imperial state
Imperial state
of the Lower Saxon Circle, the Treaty of Hamburg (1701) was signed and the final division of the country was made. Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
was divided between the two claimants. The Duchy of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was given to Frederick William, and the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, roughly a recreation of the medieval Stargard lordship, to Adolphus Frederick II. At the same time, the principle of primogeniture was reasserted, and the right of summoning the joint Landtag
Landtag
was reserved to the ruler of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Continued conflicts and partitions weakened the rule of the dukes and affirmed the reputation of Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
as one of the most backward territories of the Empire. Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
began its existence during a series of constitutional struggles between the duke and the nobles. The heavy debt incurred by Karl Leopold, who had joined Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in a war against Kingdom of Sweden, brought matters to a crisis; Charles VI interfered, and in 1728 the imperial court of justice declared the duke incapable of governing. His brother, Christian Ludwig II, was appointed administrator of the duchy. Under this prince, who became ruler de jure in 1747, the Convention of Rostock, by which a new constitution was framed for the duchy, was signed in April 1755. By this instrument, all power was in the hands of the duke, the nobles, and the upper classes generally; the lower classes were entirely unrepresented. During the Seven Years' War, Frederick II took up a hostile attitude towards Frederick the Great, and in consequence Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
was occupied by the Kingdom of Prussia. In other ways his rule was beneficial to the country. In the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, Frederick Francis I remained neutral, and in 1803 he regained Wismar
Wismar
from Kingdom of Sweden. In 1806 the land was overrun by the First French Empire, and in 1808 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. He was the first member of the confederation to abandon Napoleon, to whose armies he had sent a contingent, and in 1813–1814 he fought against France. Aftermath[edit] With the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815, Frederick Francis I of Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
received the title of Grand Duke. After the fall of the monarchies in 1918 resulting from World War I, the Grand Duchy became the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. On 1 January 1934 it was united with the neighbouring Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (both today part of the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mecklenburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1018–1020. 

v t e

Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1

Secular

Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg

Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel

Holstein

Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9

Mecklenburg

Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11

Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5

Cities

Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen

1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
States of the Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from

.