Engineering is the discipline that applies engineering,
physics, and materials science principles to design, analyze,
manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest
and broadest of the engineering disciplines.
The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core
areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials
science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these
core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided
design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product life
cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants,
industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems,
transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices,
weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the
design, production, and operation of machinery.
Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial
Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can
be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th
century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical
engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate
advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in
such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also
overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil
engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering,
chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering
disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in
the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics,
transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modeling
of biological systems.
W16 engine of the Bugatti Veyron. Mechanical engineers design engines,
power plants, other machines...
...structures, and vehicles of all sizes.
2.2 License and regulation
3 Job duties
4 Salaries and workforce statistics
5 Modern tools
Mechatronics and robotics
6.3 Structural analysis
Thermodynamics and thermo-science
Design and drafting
7 Areas of research
7.1 Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
Friction stir welding
Friction stir welding (FSW)
7.6 Finite element analysis
7.8 Computational fluid dynamics
7.9 Acoustical engineering
8 Related fields
9 See also
10 Notes and references
11 Further reading
12 External links
The application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives
of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the
Archimedes (287–212 BC) influenced mechanics in the Western
tradition and Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first
steam engine (Aeolipile). In China,
Zhang Heng (78–139 AD)
improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, and Ma Jun
(200–265 AD) invented a chariot with differential gears. The
medieval Chinese horologist and engineer
Su Song (1020–1101 AD)
incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower
two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval
European clocks. He also invented the world's first known endless
power-transmitting chain drive.
Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age (7th to 15th century), Muslim inventors
made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology.
Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of
Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical
designs. He is also considered to be the inventor of such mechanical
devices which now form the very basic of mechanisms, such as the
crankshaft and camshaft.
During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of
mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton
Newton's Laws of Motion
Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the
mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his
works for years, but he was finally persuaded to do so by his
colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is also credited with creating
Calculus during this time period.
During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools
were developed in England, Germany, and Scotland. This allowed
mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within
engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the
engines to power them. The first British professional society of
mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first
such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the
European continent, Johann von Zimmermann (1820–1901) founded the
first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz,
Germany in 1848.
In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional
engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers
(1852) and the
American Institute of Mining Engineers (1871). The
first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education
were the United States
Military Academy in 1817, an institution now
Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has
historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and
Archimedes' screw was operated by hand and could efficiently raise
water, as the animated red ball demonstrates.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities
worldwide; in Ireland, Brazil, Philippines, Pakistan, China, Greece,
Turkey, North America, South Asia, Nepal, India, Dominican Republic,
Iran and the United Kingdom, mechanical engineering programs typically
take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of
Engineering (B.Eng. or B.E.), Bachelor of
Science (B.Sc. or B.S.),
Engineering (B.Sc.Eng.), Bachelor of Technology
(B.Tech.), Bachelor of Mechanical
Engineering (B.M.E.), or Bachelor of
Science (B.A.Sc.) degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical
engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most of South America, where
neither B.Sc. nor B.Tech. programs have been adopted, the formal name
for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", and the course work is based
on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on
five years of education, and training, but in order to qualify as an
Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In
Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the
requirement of a 'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a 'Diploma'
is awarded rather than a B.Sc.
In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor
Engineering (Mechanical) or similar nomenclature although there
are an increasing number of specialisations. The degree takes four
years of full-time study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering
Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by
Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington
Accord. Before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at
least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm.
Similar systems are also present in South Africa and are overseen by
Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA).
In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering
programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for
Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards
among universities. The ABET web site lists 302 accredited mechanical
engineering programs as of 11 March 2014. Mechanical engineering
programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering
Accreditation Board (CEAB), and most other countries offering
engineering degrees have similar accreditation societies.
In India, to become an engineer, one needs to have an engineering
degree like a B.Tech or B.E, have a diploma in engineering, or by
completing a course in an engineering trade like fitter from the
Industrial Training Institute
Industrial Training Institute (ITIs) to receive a "ITI Trade
Certificate" and also pass the All India Trade Test (AITT) with an
engineering trade conducted by the National Council of Vocational
Training (NCVT) by which one is awarded a "National Trade
Certificate". A similar system is used in Nepal.
Some mechanical engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such
as a Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Master of Science,
Engineering Management (M.Eng.Mgt. or M.E.M.), a Doctor of
Philosophy in engineering (Eng.D. or Ph.D.) or an engineer's degree.
The master's and engineer's degrees may or may not include research.
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy includes a significant research component and
is often viewed as the entry point to academia. The Engineer's
degree exists at a few institutions at an intermediate level between
the master's degree and the doctorate.
Standards set by each country's accreditation society are intended to
provide uniformity in fundamental subject material, promote competence
among graduating engineers, and to maintain confidence in the
engineering profession as a whole.
Engineering programs in the U.S.,
for example, are required by ABET to show that their students can
"work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems
areas." The specific courses required to graduate, however, may
differ from program to program. Universities and Institutes of
technology will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or
split a subject into multiple classes, depending on the faculty
available and the university's major area(s) of research.
The fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering usually include:
Mathematics (in particular, calculus, differential equations, and
Basic physical sciences (including physics and chemistry)
Statics and dynamics
Strength of materials
Strength of materials and solid mechanics
Materials Engineering, Composites
Thermodynamics, heat transfer, energy conversion, and HVAC
Fuels, combustion, Internal combustion engine
Fluid mechanics (including fluid statics and fluid dynamics)
Machine design (including kinematics and dynamics)
Instrumentation and measurement
Manufacturing engineering, technology, or processes
Vibration, control theory and control engineering
Hydraulics, and pneumatics
Mechatronics, and robotics
Engineering design and product design
Drafting, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing
Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to
apply basic concepts from chemistry, physics, chemical engineering,
civil engineering, and electrical engineering. All mechanical
engineering programs include multiple semesters of mathematical
classes including calculus, and advanced mathematical concepts
including differential equations, partial differential equations,
linear algebra, abstract algebra, and differential geometry, among
In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many
mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and
classes, such as control systems, robotics, transport and logistics,
cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics,
vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist
for these subjects.
Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of
research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving
experience. In the United States it is common for mechanical
engineering students to complete one or more internships while
studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university.
Cooperative education is another option. Future work skills
research puts demand on study components that feed student's
creativity and innovation.
License and regulation
Engineers may seek license by a state, provincial, or national
government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers
possess the necessary technical knowledge, real-world experience, and
knowledge of the local legal system to practice engineering at a
professional level. Once certified, the engineer is given the title of
Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada, Japan, South
Korea, Bangladesh and South Africa),
Chartered Engineer (in the United
Kingdom, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer
Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the
European Union), or
Professional Engineer in
Philippines and Pakistan.
In the U.S., to become a licensed
Professional Engineer (PE), an
engineer must pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering)
exam, work a minimum of 4 years as an
Engineering Intern (EI) or
Engineer-in-Training (EIT), and pass the "Principles and Practice" or
PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional Engineer) exams. The
requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the National
Council of Examiners for
Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), a composed
of engineering and land surveying licensing boards representing all
U.S. states and territories.
In the UK, current graduates require a
BEng plus an appropriate
master's degree or an integrated
MEng degree, a minimum of 4 years
post graduate on the job competency development, and a peer reviewed
project report in the candidates specialty area in order to become a
Chartered Mechanical Engineer (CEng, MIMechE) through the Institution
of Mechanical Engineers. CEng MIMechE can also be obtained via an
examination route administered by the City and Guilds of London
In most developed countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the
design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be
approved by a professional engineer or a chartered engineer. "Only a
licensed engineer, for instance, may prepare, sign, seal and submit
engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or
to seal engineering work for public and private clients." This
requirement can be written into state and provincial legislation, such
as in the Canadian provinces, for example the Ontario or Quebec's
In other countries, such as Australia, and the UK, no such legislation
exists; however, practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of
ethics independent of legislation, that they expect all members to
abide by or risk expulsion.
Further information: FE Exam, Professional Engineer, Incorporated
Engineer, and Washington Accord
Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, build, and test
mechanical and thermal devices, including tools, engines, and
Mechanical engineers typically do the following:
Analyze problems to see how mechanical and thermal devices might help
solve the problem.
Design or redesign mechanical and thermal devices using analysis and
Develop and test prototypes of devices they design.
Analyze the test results and change the design as needed.
Oversee the manufacturing process for the device.
Mechanical engineers design and oversee the manufacturing of many
products ranging from medical devices to new batteries. They also
design power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal
combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines as well as power-using
machines, such as refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.
Like other engineers, mechanical engineers use computers to help
create and analyze designs, run simulations and test how a machine is
likely to work.
Salaries and workforce statistics
The total number of engineers employed in the U.S. in 2015 was roughly
1.6 million. Of these, 278,340 were mechanical engineers (17.28%), the
largest discipline by size. In 2012, the median annual income of
mechanical engineers in the U.S. workforce was $80,580. The median
income was highest when working for the government ($92,030), and
lowest in education ($57,090). In 2014, the total number of
mechanical engineering jobs was projected to grow 5% over the next
decade. As of 2009, the average starting salary was $58,800 with a
An oblique view of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons
Many mechanical engineering companies, especially those in
industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided
engineering (CAE) programs into their existing design and analysis
processes, including 2D and 3D solid modeling computer-aided design
(CAD). This method has many benefits, including easier and more
exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual
assemblies of parts, and the ease of use in designing mating
interfaces and tolerances.
Other CAE programs commonly used by mechanical engineers include
product lifecycle management (PLM) tools and analysis tools used to
perform complex simulations. Analysis tools may be used to predict
product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and
manufacturability. These tools include finite element analysis (FEA),
computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and computer-aided manufacturing
Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply
iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets
cost, performance, and other constraints. No physical prototype need
be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or
thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few. In
addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical
phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity,
complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows.
As mechanical engineering begins to merge with other disciplines, as
seen in mechatronics, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is
being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the
iterative design process. MDO tools wrap around existing CAE
processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the
analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated
optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore possible
designs, often finding better, innovative solutions to difficult
multidisciplinary design problems.
The field of mechanical engineering can be thought of as a collection
of many mechanical engineering science disciplines. Several of these
subdisciplines which are typically taught at the undergraduate level
are listed below, with a brief explanation and the most common
application of each. Some of these subdisciplines are unique to
mechanical engineering, while others are a combination of mechanical
engineering and one or more other disciplines. Most work that a
mechanical engineer does uses skills and techniques from several of
these subdisciplines, as well as specialized subdisciplines.
Specialized subdisciplines, as used in this article, are more likely
to be the subject of graduate studies or on-the-job training than
undergraduate research. Several specialized subdisciplines are
discussed in this section.
Mohr's circle, a common tool to study stresses in a mechanical element
Main article: Mechanics
Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their
effect upon matter. Typically, engineering mechanics is used to
analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and
plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or
stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include
Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads, how forces
affect static bodies
Dynamics the study of how forces affect moving bodies. Dynamics
includes kinematics (about movement, velocity, and acceleration) and
kinetics (about forces and resulting accelerations).
Mechanics of materials, the study of how different materials deform
under various types of stress
Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces
Kinematics, the study of the motion of bodies (objects) and systems
(groups of objects), while ignoring the forces that cause the motion.
Kinematics is often used in the design and analysis of mechanisms.
Continuum mechanics, a method of applying mechanics that assumes that
objects are continuous (rather than discrete)
Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis
phases of engineering. If the engineering project were the design of a
vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle,
in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense. Dynamics
might be used when designing the car's engine, to evaluate the forces
in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles.
Mechanics of materials
might be used to choose appropriate materials for the frame and
Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system
for the vehicle (see HVAC), or to design the intake system for the
Mechatronics and robotics
Training FMS with learning robot SCORBOT-ER 4u, workbench
CNC Mill and
Mechatronics and Robotics
Mechatronics is a combination of mechanics and electronics. It is an
interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical
engineering and software engineering that is concerned with
integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid
systems. In this way, machines can be automated through the use of
electric motors, servo-mechanisms, and other electrical systems in
conjunction with special software. A common example of a mechatronics
system is a CD-ROM drive. Mechanical systems open and close the drive,
spin the CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data
on the CD and converts it to bits. Integrated software controls the
process and communicates the contents of the CD to the computer.
Robotics is the application of mechatronics to create robots, which
are often used in industry to perform tasks that are dangerous,
unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size,
but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To
create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics (to determine
the robot's range of motion) and mechanics (to determine the stresses
within the robot).
Robots are used extensively in industrial engineering. They allow
businesses to save money on labor, perform tasks that are either too
dangerous or too precise for humans to perform them economically, and
to ensure better quality. Many companies employ assembly lines of
robots, especially in Automotive Industries and some factories are so
robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots
have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other
fields. Robots are also sold for various residential applications,
from recreation to domestic applications.
Structural analysis and Failure analysis
Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering (and also
civil engineering) devoted to examining why and how objects fail and
to fix the objects and their performance. Structural failures occur in
two general modes: static failure, and fatigue failure. Static
structural failure occurs when, upon being loaded (having a force
applied) the object being analyzed either breaks or is deformed
plastically, depending on the criterion for failure. Fatigue failure
occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and
unloading cycles. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in
the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for
instance, will grow slightly with each cycle (propagation) until the
crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure.
Failure is not simply defined as when a part breaks, however; it is
defined as when a part does not operate as intended. Some systems,
such as the perforated top sections of some plastic bags, are designed
to break. If these systems do not break, failure analysis might be
employed to determine the cause.
Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a
failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Engineers
often use online documents and books such as those published by
ASM to aid them in determining the type of failure and possible
Structural analysis may be used in the office when designing parts, in
the field to analyze failed parts, or in laboratories where parts
might undergo controlled failure tests.
Thermodynamics and thermo-science
Main article: Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several branches of
engineering, including mechanical and chemical engineering. At its
simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and
transformation through a system. Typically, engineering thermodynamics
is concerned with changing energy from one form to another. As an
example, automotive engines convert chemical energy (enthalpy) from
the fuel into heat, and then into mechanical work that eventually
turns the wheels.
Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the
fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion.
Mechanical engineers use thermo-science to design engines and power
plants, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems,
heat exchangers, heat sinks, radiators, refrigeration, insulation, and
Design and drafting
A CAD model of a mechanical double seal
Technical drawing and CNC
Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which mechanical
engineers design products and create instructions for manufacturing
parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn
schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part,
as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other
pertinent information. A U.S. mechanical engineer or skilled worker
who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or
draftsman. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process,
but computer-aided design (CAD) programs now allow the designer to
create in three dimensions.
Instructions for manufacturing a part must be fed to the necessary
machinery, either manually, through programmed instructions, or
through the use of a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) or combined
CAD/CAM program. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture
a part using the technical drawings, but this is becoming an
increasing rarity, with the advent of computer numerically controlled
(CNC) manufacturing. Engineers primarily manually manufacture parts in
the areas of applied spray coatings, finishes, and other processes
that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine.
Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical
engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and
architecture. Three-dimensional models created using CAD software are
also commonly used in finite element analysis (FEA) and computational
fluid dynamics (CFD).
Areas of research
Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is
physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more
efficient machines and mechanical systems. Some technologies at the
cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below (see also
Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and
heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate
materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Examples of
MEMS components are the accelerometers that are used as car airbag
sensors, modern cell phones, gyroscopes for precise positioning and
microfluidic devices used in biomedical applications.
Friction stir welding
Friction stir welding (FSW)
Main article: Friction stir welding
Friction stir welding, a new type of welding, was discovered in 1991
Welding Institute (TWI). The innovative steady state
(non-fusion) welding technique joins materials previously un-weldable,
including several aluminum alloys. It plays an important role in the
future construction of airplanes, potentially replacing rivets.
Current uses of this technology to date include welding the seams of
the aluminum main Space Shuttle external tank, Orion Crew
article, Boeing Delta II and Delta IV Expendable Launch Vehicles and
the SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket, armor plating for amphibious assault
ships, and welding the wings and fuselage panels of the new Eclipse
500 aircraft from Eclipse Aviation among an increasingly growing pool
Composite cloth consisting of woven carbon fiber
Main article: Composite material
Composites or composite materials are a combination of materials which
provide different physical characteristics than either material
Composite material research within mechanical engineering
typically focuses on designing (and, subsequently, finding
applications for) stronger or more rigid materials while attempting to
reduce weight, susceptibility to corrosion, and other undesirable
factors. Carbon fiber reinforced composites, for instance, have been
used in such diverse applications as spacecraft and fishing rods.
Main article: Mechatronics
Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering,
electronic engineering, and software engineering. The purpose of this
interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automation from an
engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling
advanced hybrid systems.
Main article: Nanotechnology
At the smallest scales, mechanical engineering becomes
nanotechnology—one speculative goal of which is to create a
molecular assembler to build molecules and materials via
mechanosynthesis. For now that goal remains within exploratory
engineering. Areas of current mechanical engineering research in
nanotechnology include nanofilters, nanofilms, and
nanostructures, among others.
See also: Picotechnology
Finite element analysis
Main article: Finite element analysis
This field is not new, as the basis of Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
or Finite Element Method (FEM) dates back to 1941. But the evolution
of computers has made FEA/FEM a viable option for analysis of
structural problems. Many commercial codes such as ANSYS, NASTRAN, and
ABAQUS are widely used in industry for research and the design of
components. Some 3D modeling and CAD software packages have added FEA
modules. In the recent times, cloud simulation platforms like SimScale
are becoming more common.
Other techniques such as finite difference method (FDM) and
finite-volume method (FVM) are employed to solve problems relating
heat and mass transfer, fluid flows, fluid surface interaction, etc.
In recent years meshfree methods like the smoothed particle
hydrodynamics are gaining popularity in case of solving problems
involving complex geometries, free surfaces, moving boundaries, and
adaptive refinement.
Main article: Biomechanics
Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to biological
systems, such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells.
Biomechanics also aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial
organs for humans.
Biomechanics is closely related to engineering, because it often uses
traditional engineering sciences to analyze biological systems. Some
simple applications of Newtonian mechanics and/or materials sciences
can supply correct approximations to the mechanics of many biological
Over the past decade the
Finite element method
Finite element method (FEM) has also entered
the Biomedical sector highlighting further engineering aspects of
Biomechanics. FEM has since then established itself as an alternative
to in vivo surgical assessment and gained the wide acceptance of
academia. The main advantage of Computational
Biomechanics lies in its
ability to determine the endo-anatomical response of an anatomy,
without being subject to ethical restrictions. This has led FE
modelling to the point of becoming ubiquitous in several fields of
Biomechanics while several projects have even adopted an open source
philosophy (e.g. BioSpine).
Computational fluid dynamics
Main article: Computational fluid dynamics
Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch
of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve
and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to
perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of
liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. With
high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing
research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of
complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows.
Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel
with the final validation coming in full-scale testing, e.g. flight
Main article: Acoustical engineering
Acoustical engineering is one of many other sub-disciplines of
mechanical engineering and is the application of acoustics. Acoustical
engineering is the study of
Sound and Vibration. These engineers work
effectively to reduce noise pollution in mechanical devices and in
buildings by soundproofing or removing sources of unwanted noise. The
study of acoustics can range from designing a more efficient hearing
aid, microphone, headphone, or recording studio to enhancing the sound
quality of an orchestra hall.
Acoustical engineering also deals with
the vibration of different mechanical systems.
Aerospace engineering and Automotive
engineering are sometimes grouped with mechanical engineering. A
bachelor's degree in these areas will typically have a difference of a
few specialized classes.
At Wikiversity, you can learn more and teach others about Mechanical
engineering at the Department of Mechanical engineering
Glossary of mechanical engineering
List of historic mechanical engineering landmarks
List of inventors
List of mechanical engineering topics
List of mechanical engineers
List of related journals
List of mechanical, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing
companies by revenue
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
Pi Tau Sigma (Mechanical
Engineering honor society)
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Society of Women Engineers
Society of Women Engineers (SWE)
Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) (British)
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) (British)
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI) (Germany)
Pro/Engineer (ProE CAD)
Strength of Materials/Solid Mechanics
Notes and references
^ engineering "mechanical engineering". The American Heritage
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved: 19
^ "mechanical engineering". Webster dictionary. Retrieved: 19
^ "Heron of Alexandria". Encyclopædia Britannica 2010 - Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Accessed: 9 May 2010.
^ Needham, Joseph (1986).
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4.
Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
^ Al-Jazarí. The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices:
Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya. Springer, 1973.
Engineering - Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 6 May 2008
^ R. A. Buchanan. The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 38,
No. 1 (Feb., 1985), pp. 42–60.
ASME history Archived 23 February 2011 at Wikiwix, accessed 6 May
^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07, engineering,
accessed 6 May 2008
^ "Mechanical Engineering". Retrieved 8 December 2011.
^ ABET searchable database of accredited engineering programs,
Accessed 11 March 2014.
^ Accredited engineering programs in Canada by the Canadian Council of
Professional Engineers Archived 10 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.,
Accessed 18 April 2007.
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Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Burstall, Aubrey F. (1965). A History of Mechanical Engineering. The
MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-52001-X.
Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers (11 ed.).
McGraw-Hill. 2007. ISBN 9780071428675.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mechanical engineering.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mechanical engineering
Electrical and electronics engineering
List of engineering branches
Glossaries of science and engineering
Electrical and electronics engineering
Probability and statistics
Levels of academic degree
ISCED level 5
Higher National Diploma/Diploma of Higher Education/Certificate of
ISCED level 6
ISCED level 7
ISCED level 8
Candidate of Sciences
No dominant classification
Ad eundem degree
BNF: cb119403951 (data)