McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a
restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San
Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their
business as a hamburger stand. The first time a
Golden Arches logo was in 1953 at a location in Phoenix,
Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a
franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald
McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook,
Illinois, but has approved plans to move its global headquarters to
Chicago by 2018.
McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue,
serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries
across approximately 36,900 outlets as of 2016. Although McDonald's
is known for its hamburgers, they also sell cheeseburgers, chicken
products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes,
wraps, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a
negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the
company has added to its menu salads, fish, smoothies, and fruit. The
McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent, royalties, and
fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated
restaurants. According to a
BBC report published in 2012, McDonald's
is the world's second largest private employer (behind
1.9 million employees), 1.5 million of whom work for franchises.
2 Corporate overview
2.1 Facts and figures
2.2 Business model
2.4 Board of directors
2.5 Global operations
3.1 International menu variations
4.1 Types of restaurants
4.1.3 "Create Your Taste" restaurants
4.2 2006 redesign
4.3 Smoking ban
5 Treatment of employees
5.3 Working conditions
6 Animal welfare standards
7 Marketing and advertising
7.1 Space exploration
7.2 Children's advertising
7.3 Sports awards and honors
8.1 McHappy Day
McDonald's Monopoly donation
Company responses to criticism
9.2 Environmental record
9.3 Legal cases
9.3.3 United Kingdom
9.3.4 United States
9.4 Use of genetically modified food
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Main article: History of McDonald's
The oldest operating
McDonald's restaurant is the third one built,
opening in 1953. It is located at 10207 Lakewood Blvd. at Florence
Ave. in Downey, California (at 33°56′50″N 118°07′06″W /
33.9471°N 118.1182°W / 33.9471; -118.1182)
McDonald's logo from 1940 until 1948.
McDonald's logo from 1948 until 1953.
McDonald's logo from 1953 until 1960.
Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first
McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San
Bernardino, California (at 34°07′32″N 117°17′41″W /
34.1255°N 117.2946°W / 34.1255; -117.2946) but it was not the
McDonald's recognizable today;
Ray Kroc made changes to the brothers
business that modernized it. The brothers introduced the "Speedee
Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of
the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle
had put into practice more than two decades earlier..
The original mascot of
McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger
who was referred to as "Speedee". In 1962 the
Golden Arches replaced
Speedee as the universal mascot. The symbol, Ronald McDonald, was
introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in
advertising to target their audience of children.
Ray Kroc joined the chain in 1954 and built it into an eventually
global franchise, making it the most successful fast food corporation
in the world
On May 4, 1961,
McDonald's first filed for a U.S. trademark on the
name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In
which continues to be renewed. By September 13, 1961 McDonald's, under
the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an
overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol. But before the double arches,
McDonald's used the a single arch for the architecture of their
buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various
forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when
the company was favored a U.S. trademark.
The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman
Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955. This was in fact the ninth opened
McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed
and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc later purchased the McDonald brothers'
equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc
was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the
McDonald brothers out of the industry.
Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as
documented in Kroc's autobiography. The San Bernardino restaurant was
eventually torn down (1971, according to Juan Pollo) and the site was
sold to the
Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as
headquarters for the
Juan Pollo chain, and a
McDonald's and Route 66
museum. With the expansion of
McDonald's into many international
markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the
spread of the
American way of life. Its prominence has also made it a
frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, and
Facts and figures
McDonald's corporate logo used from 1960 until November 18, 1968.
McDonald's corporate logo used from November 18, 1968 until 2006.
McDonald's corporate logo used from 1975 until 2006. It still exists
at some restaurants.
McDonald's had sold more than 100 billion hamburgers. The
once widespread restaurant signs that boasted the number of sales,
such as this one in Harlem, were left at "99 billion" because there
was space for only two digits.
Northport, Alabama commemorates U.S. President
Ronald Reagan's visit
McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories
around the world and serve 68 million customers each day.
McDonald's operates 36,899 restaurants worldwide, employing more than
375,000 people as of the end of 2016. There are currently a
total of 5,669 company-owned locations and 31,230 franchised
locations, which includes 21,559 locations franchised to conventional
franchisees, 6,300 locations licensed to developmental licensees, and
3,371 locations licensed to foreign affiliates, primarily Japan.
Focusing on its core brand,
McDonald's began divesting itself of other
chains it had acquired during the 1990s. The company owned a majority
Chipotle Mexican Grill
Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's
fully divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until
December 2003, it also owned Donatos Pizza, and it owned a small share
Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007,
Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners.
McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25
consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend
Aristocrats. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the
first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for
the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the
entirety of 1997.
In the United States, it is reported that drive-throughs account for
70 percent of sales.
McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in
United States in 2015, which was 59 more than what they planned to
open. This move was also the first time
McDonald's had a net
decrease in the number of locations in the
United States since
The company currently owns all the land, which is valued at an
estimated $16 to $18 billion, on which its restaurants are
situated. The company earns a significant portion of
its revenue from rental payments from franchisees. These rent payments
rose 26 percent between 2010 and 2015, accounting for one-fifth of the
company's total revenue at the end of the period. In recent times,
there have been calls to spin off the company's US holdings into a
potential real estate investment trust, but the company announced at
its investor conference on November 10, 2015, that this would not
happen. The CEO,
Steve Easterbrook discussed that pursuing the REIT
option would pose too large a risk to the company's business
McDonald's logo painted on the tail of a
Douglas MD-83 in 1999.
The United Kingdom and Ireland business model is different from the
U.S, in that fewer than 30 percent of restaurants are franchised, with
the majority under the ownership of the company.
McDonald's trains its
franchisees and management at
Hamburger University in Oak Brook,
Illinois. In other countries,
McDonald's restaurants are
operated by joint ventures of
McDonald's Corporation and other, local
entities or governments.
Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation by
Eric Schlosser (2001), nearly one in
eight workers in the U.S. have at some time been employed by
McDonald's. Employees are encouraged by
McDonald's Corp. to maintain
their health by singing along to their favorite songs in order to
relieve stress, attending church services in order to have a lower
blood pressure, and taking two vacations annually in order to reduce
risk for myocardial infarction.
Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation also states that
McDonald's is the largest private operator of playgrounds in the U.S.,
as well as the single largest purchaser of beef, pork, potatoes, and
apples. The selection of meats
McDonald's uses varies to some extent
based on the culture of the host country.
McDonald's Plaza, located in Oak Brook, Illinois, is the headquarters
McDonald's headquarters complex,
McDonald's Plaza, is located in
Oak Brook, Illinois. It sits on the site of the former headquarters
and stabling area of Paul Butler, the founder of Oak Brook.
McDonald's moved into the Oak Brook facility from an office within the
Chicago Loop in 1971.
On June 13, 2016,
McDonald's confirmed plans to move its global
Chicago's West Loop
Chicago's West Loop neighborhood in the Near West
Side. The 608,000-square-foot structure will be built on the former
Harpo Productions (where the
Oprah Winfrey Show and several
other Harpo productions taped) and open in early 2018.
Board of directors
As of November 2014, the board of directors had the following
Andrew J. McKenna, chairman
Susan E. Arnold, operating executive of Global
Consumer & Retail
Group of The Carlyle Group
Robert A. Eckert, operating partner of Friedman Fleischer & Lowe
Enrique Hernandez Jr., president and CEO of Inter-Con Security
Jeanne P. Jackson, president of product and merchandising for Nike,
Richard H. Lenny, operating partner of Friedman Fleischer & Lowe
Walter E. Massey, president of the School of the Art Institute of
Cary D. McMillan, CEO of True Partners Consulting LLC
Sheila A. Penrose, non-executive chairman of Jones Lang LaSalle
John W. Rogers Jr, chairman and CEO of Ariel Investments
Roger W. Stone, chairman and CEO of KapStone Paper and Packaging
Don Thompson, president and CEO
Miles D. White, chairman and CEO of Abbott Laboratories
On March 1, 2015, after being chief brand officer of
its former head in the UK and northern Europe, Steve Easterbrook
became CEO, succeeding Don Thompson, who stepped down on January 28,
List of countries with McDonald's restaurants
List of countries with McDonald's restaurants and
International availability of
McDonald's restaurants, showing their first year with
its first restaurant
McDonald's on Nathan Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
McDonald's has become emblematic of globalization, sometimes referred
to as the "McDonaldization" of society.
The Economist newspaper uses
Big Mac Index": the comparison of a Big Mac's cost in various
world currencies can be used to informally judge these currencies'
purchasing power parity. Switzerland has the most expensive
Big Mac in
the world as of July 2015, while the country with the least expensive
Big Mac is India (albeit for a Maharaja Mac—the next
Big Mac is Hong Kong).
McDonald's, Paulista Avenue, São Paulo, Brazil
Thomas Friedman once said that no country with a
McDonald's had gone
to war with another. However, the "
Golden Arches Theory of
Conflict Prevention" is not strictly true. Exceptions are the 1989
United States invasion of Panama, NATO's bombing of Serbia in 1999,
the 2006 Lebanon War, and the 2008 South Ossetia war. McDonald's
suspended operations in its corporate-owned stores in Crimea after
Russia annexed the region in 2014. On August 20, 2014, as tensions
United States and Russia strained over events in Ukraine,
and the resultant U.S. sanctions, the Russian government temporarily
shut down four
McDonald's outlets in Moscow, citing sanitary concerns.
The company has operated in Russia since 1990 and at August 2014 had
438 stores across the country. On August 23, 2014, Russian Deputy
Arkady Dvorkovich ruled out any government move to ban
McDonald's and dismissed the notion that the temporary closures had
anything to do with the sanctions.
McDonald's, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Chennai, India
Some observers have suggested that the company should be given credit
for increasing the standard of service in markets that it enters. A
group of anthropologists in a study entitled
Golden Arches East
looked at the impact
McDonald's had on
East Asia and Hong Kong, in
particular. When it opened in
Hong Kong in 1975,
McDonald's was the
first restaurant to consistently offer clean restrooms, driving
customers to demand the same of other restaurants and institutions.
McDonald's has taken to partnering up with Sinopec, the second largest
oil company in the People's Republic of China, as it takes advantage
of the country's growing use of personal vehicles by opening numerous
McDonald's has opened a McDonald's
McCafé on the underground premises of the French fine
arts museum, The Louvre.
The company stated it would open vegetarian-only restaurants in India
by mid-2013. Foreign restaurants are banned in Bermuda, with the
exception of KFC, which was present before the current law was passed.
Therefore, there are no
McDonald's in Bermuda.[unreliable source?]
On January 9, 2017, 80% of the franchise rights in the mainland China
Hong Kong were sold for US$2.080 billion to a consortium of
CITIC Limited (for 32%) and private equity funds managed by CITIC
Capital (for 20%) and Carlyle (for 20%), which
CITIC Limited and CITIC
Capital would also formed a joint venture to own the stake.
Main article: List of
A typical "eat-in"
McDonald's meal as sold in Hong Kong, consisting of
French fries, a soft drink, and a "main product" - in this case, a
Chicken Fillet. Condiments are supplied in small packets; such
a packet of tomato ketchup is seen in the foreground.
McDonald's predominantly sells hamburgers, various types of chicken,
chicken sandwiches, French fries, soft drinks, breakfast items, and
desserts. In most markets,
McDonald's offers salads and vegetarian
items, wraps and other localized fare. On a seasonal basis, McDonald's
McRib sandwich. Some speculate the seasonality of the McRib
adds to its appeal.
Products are offered as either "eat-in" (where the customer opts to
eat in the restaurant) or "take-out" (where the customer opts to take
the food for consumption off the premises). "Eat-in" meals are
provided on a plastic tray with a paper insert on the floor of the
tray. "Take-out" meals are usually delivered with the contents
enclosed in a distinctive McDonald's-branded brown paper bag. In both
cases, the individual items are wrapped or boxed as appropriate.
Steve Easterbrook became CEO of the company,
streamlined the menu which in the
United States contained nearly 200
items. The company has also looked to introduce healthier options, and
removed high-fructose corn syrup from hamburger buns. The company has
also removed artificial preservatives from
replacing chicken skin, safflower oil and citric acid found in Chicken
McNuggets with pea starch, rice starch and powdered lemon juice.
International menu variations
McDonald's products (international)
McDonald's Ebi Feast meal sold at branches in Singapore, November
McDonald's is known for tailoring its menus in different markets
to cater to local tastes
Restaurants in several countries, particularly in Asia, serve soup.
This local deviation from the standard menu is a characteristic for
which the chain is particularly known, and one which is employed
either to abide by regional food taboos (such as the religious
prohibition of beef consumption in India) or to make available foods
with which the regional market is more familiar (such as the sale of
McRice in Indonesia, or Ebi (prawn) Burger in Singapore and Japan).
In Germany and some other Western European countries,
beer. In New Zealand,
McDonald's sells meat pies, after the local
affiliate partially relaunched the
Georgie Pie fast food chain it
bought out in 1996.
United States and Canada, after limited trials on a regional
McDonald's began offering in 2015 and 2017,
respectively, a partial breakfast menu during all hours its
restaurants are open. Eggs cannot be cooked at the same time on the
same equipment as hamburgers due to different temperature
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the
United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or
create a new article, as appropriate. (November 2015) (Learn how and
when to remove this template message)
Types of restaurants
Counter service in a
McDonald's restaurant in Dukhan, Qatar
McDonald's restaurants offer both counter service and
drive-through service, with indoor and sometimes outdoor seating.
Drive-Thru, Auto-Mac, Pay and Drive, or "McDrive" as it is known in
many countries, often has separate stations for placing, paying for,
and picking up orders, though the latter two steps are frequently
combined; it was first introduced in Arizona in 1975, following
the lead of other fast-food chains. The first such restaurant in
Britain opened at Fallowfield,
Manchester in 1986.
In some countries, "McDrive" locations near highways offer no counter
service or seating. In contrast, locations in high-density city
neighborhoods often omit drive-through service. There are also a
few locations, located mostly in downtown districts, that offer a
"Walk-Thru" service in place of Drive-Thru.
Main article: McCafé
McCafé is a café-style accompaniment to
McDonald's restaurants and
is a concept created by
McDonald's Australia (also known, and
marketed, as "Macca's" in Australia), starting with
1993. As of 2016, most
McDonald's in Australia have McCafés
located within the existing
McDonald's restaurant. In Tasmania, there
are McCafés in every restaurant, with the rest of the states quickly
following suit. After upgrading to the new
McCafé look and feel,
some Australian restaurants have noticed up to a 60 percent increase
in sales. At the end of 2003, there were over 600 McCafés worldwide.
"Create Your Taste" restaurants
McDonald's tried a new gourmet burger
service/restaurant concept based on other gourmet restaurants such as
Shake Shack and Grill'd. It was rolled out for the first time in
Australia during the early months of 2015 and expanded to China, Hong
Kong, Singapore, Arabia and New Zealand, with ongoing trials in the US
market. In dedicated "Create Your Taste" (CYT) kiosks, customers could
choose all ingredients including type of bun and meat along with
optional extras. In late 2015 the Australian CYT service introduced
After a person had ordered,
McDonald's advised that wait times were
between 10–15 minutes. When the food was ready, trained crew
('hosts') brought the food to the customer's table. Instead of
McDonald's usual cardboard and plastic packaging, CYT food was
presented on wooden boards, fries in wire baskets and salads in china
bowls with metal cutlery. A higher price applied.
In November 2016, Create Your Taste was replaced by a "Signature
Crafted Recipes" program designed to be more efficient and less
Some locations are connected to gas stations/convenience stores,
while others called McExpress have limited seating and/or menu or may
be located in a shopping mall. Other
McDonald's are located in Walmart
stores. McStop is a location targeted at truckers and travelers which
may have services found at truck stops.
In Sweden, customers who order a happy meal can use the meal's
container for a pair of happy goggles. The company created a game
for the goggles known as "Slope Stars."
McDonald's predicts happy
goggles will continue in other countries. In the Netherlands,
McDonald's has introduced McTrax that doubles as a recording studio;
it reacts to touch. They can create their own beats with a synth
and tweak sounds with special effects.
A kosher Express
McDonald's outlet in the
Malha Mall in Jerusalem
This section needs expansion with: Details of other McDonald's
restaurants where special dietry requirements are catered for. You can
help by adding to it. (November 2015)
The first kosher
McDonald's was established in 1997 at the Abasto de
Buenos Aires mall in Buenos Aires, Argentina. There are also many
kosher branches in Israel.
McDonald's in Panorama City, Los Angeles, California with a
Playplace designed to promote a family-friendly image
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2014)
McDonald's playgrounds are called
McDonald's PlayPlace. Some
McDonald's in suburban areas and certain cities feature large indoor
or outdoor playgrounds. The first PlayPlace with the familiar
crawl-tube design with ball pits and slides was introduced in 1987 in
the US, with many more being constructed soon after.
McDonald's Next in Admiralty, Hong Kong
McDonald's Next use open-concept design and offer "Create Your Taste"
digital ordering. The concept store also offering free mobile device
charging and table service after 6:00 pm. The first store opened in
Hong Kong in December 2015.
Mount Pleasant, Iowa
Mount Pleasant, Iowa in June 2008; this is
an example of the "new" look of American
McDonald's introduced its "Forever Young" brand by
redesigning all of its restaurants, the first major redesign since the
The goal of the redesign is to be more like a coffee shop, similar to
Starbucks. The design includes wooden tables, faux-leather chairs, and
muted colors; the red was muted to terracotta, the yellow was shifted
to golden for a more "sunny" look, and olive and sage green were also
To create a warmer look, the restaurants have less plastic and more
brick and wood, with modern hanging lights to produce a softer glow.
Many restaurants now feature free
Wi-Fi and flat-screen TVs. Other
upgrades include double drive-thrus, flat roofs instead of the angled
red roofs, and replacing fiber glass with wood. Also, instead of the
familiar golden arches, the restaurants now feature "semi-swooshes"
(half of a golden arch), similar to the Nike swoosh.
McDonald's began banning smoking in 1994 when it banned smoking within
its 1,400 wholly owned restaurants.
Treatment of employees
A kiosk for placing orders at the Denton House
McDonald's in Long
Island, New York
McDonald's employee takes an order in the Philippines
Since the late 1990s,
McDonald's has attempted to replace employees
with electronic kiosks which would perform actions such taking orders
and accepting money. In 1999,
McDonald's first tested "E-Clerks" in
suburban Chicago, Illinois, and Wyoming, Michigan, with the devices
being able to "save money on live staffers" and attracting larger
purchase amounts than average employees.
In 2013, the
University of Oxford
University of Oxford estimated that in the succeeding
decades, there was a 92% probability of food preparation and serving
to become automated in fast food establishments. By 2016,
McDonald's "Create Your Taste" electronic kiosks were seen in some
restaurants internationally where customers could custom order meals.
As employees pushed for higher wages in the late-2010s, some believed
that fast food companies such as
McDonald's would use the devices to
cut costs for employing individuals.
On August 5, 2013,
The Guardian revealed that 90 percent of McDonald's
UK workforce are on zero hour contracts, making it possibly the
largest such private sector employer in the country. A study
released by Fast Food Forward conducted by Anzalone Liszt Grove
Research showed that approximately 84 percent of all fast food
employees working in
New York City
New York City in April 2013 had been paid less
than their legal wages by their employers.
From 2007 to 2011, fast food workers in the US drew an average of $7
billion of public assistance annually resulting from receiving low
wages. The McResource website advised employees to break their
food into smaller pieces to feel fuller, seek refunds for unopened
holiday purchases, sell possessions online for quick cash, and to
"quit complaining" as "stress hormone levels rise by 15 percent after
ten minutes of complaining." In December 2013,
down the McResource website amidst negative publicity and criticism.
McDonald's plans to continue an internal telephone help line through
which its employees can obtain advice on work and life problems.
Liberal thinktank the
Roosevelt Institute accuses some McDonald's
restaurants of actually paying less than the minimum wage to entry
positions due to 'rampant' wage theft. In South Korea, McDonald's
pays part-time employees $5.50 an hour and is accused of paying less
with arbitrary schedules adjustments and pay delays. In late 2015,
Anonymous aggregated data collected by
Glassdoor suggests that
McDonald's in the
United States pays entry-level employees between
$7.25 an hour and $11 an hour, with an average of $8.69 an hour. Shift
managers get paid an average of $10.34 an hour. Assistant managers get
paid an average of $11.57 an hour.
McDonald's CEO, Steve
Easterbrook, currently earns an annual salary of $1,100,000.
Fast food worker strikes
Fast food workers on strike outside of a
McDonald's in St. Paul,
McDonald's workers have on occasions decided to strike over pay, with
most of the employees on strike seeking to be paid $15.00. When
interviewed about the strikes occurring, former
McDonald's CEO Ed
Rensi stated: "It's cheaper to buy a $35,000 robotic arm than it is to
hire an employee who's inefficient making $15 an hour bagging french
fries" with Rensi explaining that increasing employee wages could
possibly take away from entry-level jobs. However, according to
Easterbrook, increasing wages and benefits for workers saw a 6%
increase in customer satisfaction when comparing 2015's first quarter
data to the first quarter of 2016, with greater returns seen as a
In September 2017, two British
McDonald's stores agreed to a strike
over zero hours contracts for staff. Picket lines were formed around
the two stores in
Crayford and Cambridge. The strike was supported by
the Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn.
In March 2015,
McDonald's workers in 19 US cities filed 28 health and
safety complaints with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health
Administration which allege that low staffing, lack of protective
gear, poor training and pressure to work fast has resulted in
injuries. The complaints also allege that, because of a lack of first
aid supplies, workers were told by management to treat burn injuries
with condiments such as mayonnaise and mustard. The Fight for $15
labor organization aided the workers in filing the complaints.
Animal welfare standards
McDonald's pledged to stop using eggs from battery cage
facilities by 2025. Since
McDonald's purchases over 2 billion eggs per
year or 4 percent of eggs produced in the United States, the switch is
expected to have a major impact on the egg industry and is part of a
general trend toward cage-free eggs driven by consumer concern over
the harsh living conditions of hens. The aviary systems from
which the new eggs will be sourced are troubled by much higher
mortality rates, as well as introducing environmental and worker
safety problems. The high hen mortality rate, which is more than
double that of battery cage systems, will require new research to
mitigate. The facilities also have higher ammonia levels due to faeces
being kicked up into the air. Producers raised concerns about the
production cost, which is expected to increase by 36 percent.
McDonald's continues to source pork from facilities that use gestation
crates, and in 2012 pledged to phase them out.
Marketing and advertising
McDonald's has for decades maintained an extensive advertising
campaign. In addition to the usual media (television, radio, and
newspaper), the company makes significant use of billboards and
signage, sponsors sporting events ranging from Little League to the
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games. Television has played a central
role in the company's advertising strategy. To date, McDonald's
has used 23 different slogans in
United States advertising, as well as
a few other slogans for select countries and regions.
McDonald's and NASA explored an advertising agreement for a planned
mission to the asteroid 449 Hamburga; however, the spacecraft was
Ronald McDonald and McDonaldland
Sports awards and honors
See also: Category:
McDonald's High School All-Americans
McDonald's is the title sponsor of the
McDonald's All-American Game,
all-star basketball games played each year for American and Canadian
boys' and girls' high school basketball graduates.
Ronald McDonald House Charities
Ronald McDonald House collection box in Framingham, Massachusetts
McHappy Day is an annual event at McDonald's, where a percentage of
the day's sales go to charity. It is the signature fundraising event
Ronald McDonald House Charities.
In 2007, it was celebrated in 17 countries: Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Brazil, Canada, the United States, Finland, France,
Guatemala, Hungary, England, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden,
Switzerland, and Uruguay.
According to the Australian McHappy Day website, McHappy Day raised
$20.4 million in 2009. The goal for 2010 was $20.8 million.
McDonald's Monopoly donation
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital received an anonymous
letter postmarked in Dallas, Texas, containing a $1 million winning
McDonald's Monopoly game piece.
McDonald's officials came to the
hospital, accompanied by a representative from the accounting firm
Arthur Andersen, who examined the card under a jeweler's eyepiece,
handled it with plastic gloves, and verified it as a winner.
Although game rules prohibited the transfer of prizes, McDonald's
waived the rule and made the annual $50,000 annuity payments for the
full 20-year period through 2014, even after learning that the piece
was sent by an individual involved in an embezzlement scheme intended
to defraud McDonald's.
See also: McRefugee
McRefugees are poor people in Hong Kong, Japan, and China who use
McDonald's 24-hour restaurants as a temporary hostel. One in five of
Hong Kong's population lives below the poverty line. The rise of
McRefugees was first documented by photographer Suraj Katra in
A PETA activist dressed as a chicken confronts the manager of the
McDonald's over the company's animal welfare standards
In 1990, activists from a small group known as
London Greenpeace (no
connection to the international group Greenpeace) distributed leaflets
entitled What's wrong with McDonald's?, criticizing its environmental,
health, and labor record. The corporation wrote to the group demanding
they desist and apologize, and, when two of the activists refused to
back down, sued them for libel in one of the longest cases in British
civil law. A documentary film of the McLibel Trial has been shown in
In the late 1980s, Phil Sokolof, a millionaire businessman who had
suffered a heart attack at the age of 43, took out full-page newspaper
ads in New York, Chicago, and other large cities accusing McDonald's
menu of being a threat to American health, and asking them to stop
using beef tallow to cook their french fries.
Despite the objections of McDonald's, the term "McJob" was added to
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary in 2003. The term was
defined as "a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides
little opportunity for advancement".
In 2001, Eric Schlosser's book
Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation included criticism of
the business practices of McDonald's. Among the critiques were
McDonald's (along with other companies within the
fast food industry) uses its political influence to increase its
profits at the expense of people's health and the social conditions of
its workers. The book also brought into question McDonald's
advertisement techniques in which it targets children. While the book
did mention other fast-food chains, it focused primarily on
In 2002, vegetarian groups, largely
Hindu and Buddhist, successfully
McDonald's for misrepresenting its
French fries as vegetarian,
when they contained beef broth.
Morgan Spurlock's 2004 documentary film
Super Size Me
Super Size Me claimed that
McDonald's food was contributing to the increase of obesity in society
and that the company was failing to provide nutritional information
about its food for its customers. Six weeks after the film premiered,
McDonald's announced that it was eliminating the super size option,
and was creating the adult Happy Meal.
McDonald's Video Game
In 2006, an unsanctioned
McDonald's Video Game
McDonald's Video Game by Italian group
Molleindustria was released online. It is parody of the business
practices of the corporate giant, taking the guise of a tycoon style
business simulation game. In the game, the player plays the role of a
McDonald's CEO, choosing whether or not to use controversial practices
like genetically altered cow feed, plowing over rainforests, and
corrupting public officials.
McDonald's issued a statement distancing
itself from the game.
In January 2014, it was reported that
McDonald's was accused of having
used a series of tax maneuvers to avoid taxes in France. The company
confirmed that tax authorities had visited
headquarters in Paris but insisted that it had not done anything
wrong, saying, "
McDonald's firmly denies the accusation made by
L'Express according to which
McDonald's supposedly hid part of its
revenue from taxes in France."
Company responses to criticism
Discreet shopfront in historic Stratford-upon-Avon
In response to public pressure,
McDonald's has sought to include more
healthy choices in its menu and has introduced a new slogan to its
recruitment posters: "Not bad for a McJob". The word McJob, first
attested in the mid-1980s and later popularized by Canadian
Douglas Coupland in his book Generation X, has become a buzz
word for low-paid, unskilled work with few prospects or benefits and
McDonald's disputes this definition of McJob. In
2007, the company launched an advertising campaign with the slogan
"Would you like a career with that?" on Irish television, asserting
that its jobs have good prospects.
In an effort to respond to growing consumer awareness of food
provenance, the fast-food chain changed its supplier of both coffee
beans and milk. UK chief executive
Steve Easterbrook said: "British
consumers are increasingly interested in the quality, sourcing, and
ethics of the food and drink they buy". In a bid to tap into the
ethical consumer market,
McDonald's switched to using coffee
beans taken from stocks that are certified by the Rainforest Alliance,
a conservation group. Additionally, in response to pressure,
McDonald's UK started using organic milk supplies for its bottled milk
and hot drinks, although it still uses conventional milk in its
milkshakes, and in all of its dairy products in the United
States. According to a report published by
Farmers Weekly in
2007, the quantity of milk used by
McDonald's could have accounted for
as much as 5 percent of the UK's organic milk output.
McDonald's announced on May 22, 2008, that, in the
United States and
Canada, it would switch to using cooking oil that contains no trans
fats for its french fries, and canola-based oil with corn and soy
oils, for its baked items, pies and cookies, by year's end.
With regard to acquiring chickens from suppliers who use CAK/CAS
methods of slaughter,
McDonald's says that it needs to see more
research "to help determine whether any CAS system in current use is
optimal from an animal welfare perspective."
In April 2008,
McDonald's announced that 11 of its Sheffield, England
restaurants have been engaged in a biomass trial that had cut its
waste and carbon footprint by half in the area. In this trial, wastes
from the restaurants were collected by Veolia Environmental Services
and were used to produce energy at a power plant.
McDonald's plans to
expand this project, although the lack of biomass power plants in the
United States will prevent this plan from becoming a national standard
anytime soon. In addition, in Europe,
McDonald's has been
recycling vegetable grease by converting it to fuel for its diesel
McDonald's has been using a corn-based bioplastic to produce
containers for some of its products. The environmental benefits of
this technology are controversial, with critics noting that
biodegradation is slow, produces greenhouse gases and that
contamination of traditional plastic waste streams with bioplastics
can complicate recycling efforts.
McDonald's worked with the
Environmental Defense Fund
Environmental Defense Fund to stop
using "clam shell" shaped styrofoam food containers to house its food
products. 20 years later,
McDonald's announced they would try
replacing styrofoam coffee cups with an alternative material.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized McDonald's
continuous effort to reduce solid waste by designing more efficient
packaging and by promoting the use of recycled-content materials.
McDonald's reports that it is committed towards environmental
leadership by effectively managing electric energy, by conserving
natural resources through recycling and reusing materials, and by
addressing water management issues within the restaurant.
In an effort to reduce energy usage by 25 percent in its restaurants,
McDonald's opened a prototype restaurant in
Chicago in 2009 with the
intention of using the model in its other restaurants throughout the
world. Building on past efforts, specifically a restaurant it opened
in Sweden in 2000 that was the first to intentionally incorporate
McDonald's designed the
Chicago site to save energy by
incorporating old and new ideas such as managing storm water, using
skylights for more natural lighting and installing some partitions and
tabletops made from recycled goods.
McDonald's received criticism for its environmental policies in
the 1970s, it began to make substantial progress in reducing its use
of materials. For instance, an "average meal" in the 1970s—a
Big Mac, fries, and a drink—required 46 grams of packaging;
today, it requires only 25 grams, allowing a 46 percent
reduction. In addition,
McDonald's eliminated the need for
intermediate containers for cola by having a delivery system that
pumps syrup directly from the delivery truck into storage containers,
saving two million pounds (910 tonnes) of packaging annually.
Overall, weight reductions in packaging and products, as well as the
increased usage of bulk packaging ultimately decreased packaging by
twenty-four million pounds (11,000 tonnes) annually.
McDonald's legal cases
McDonald's has been involved in a number of lawsuits and other legal
cases, most of which involved trademark disputes. The company has
threatened many food businesses with legal action unless it drops the
Mc or Mac from trading names.
On September 8, 2009,
McDonald's Malaysian operations lost a lawsuit
to prevent another restaurant calling itself McCurry.
in an appeal to Malaysia's highest court, the Federal Court.
In April 2007, in Perth, Western Australia,
McDonald's pleaded guilty
to five charges relating to the employment of children under 15 in one
of its outlets and was fined A$8,000.
In 2016, the
Australian Taxation Office
Australian Taxation Office revealed that McDonald's
Asia-Pacific Consortium had generated $478 million in revenue in
2013–14, but had paid no tax on those earnings whatsoever.
McDonald's has defended itself in several cases involving workers'
The longest running legal action of all time in the UK was the McLibel
case against 2 defendants who criticized a number of aspects of the
company. The trial lasted 10 years and called 130 witnesses. The
European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights deemed that the unequal resources of
the litigants breached the defendants rights to freedom of speech and
biased the trial. The result was widely seen as a "PR disaster."
A famous legal case in the US involving
McDonald's was the 1994
Liebeck v. McDonald's Restaurants where Stella Liebeck was
awarded several million dollars after she suffered third-degree burns
after spilling a scalding cup of
McDonald's coffee on herself.
Use of genetically modified food
In April 2014, it was reported that
McDonald's in Europe will use
chicken meat that was produced by using genetically modified animal
Greenpeace argues that
McDonald's saves less than one Eurocent
for each chicken burger and goes down a path not desired by its
Arcos Dorados Holdings
List of hamburger restaurants
List of restaurant chains
The Founder—a 2016 film detailing the creation and controversial
business history of McDonald's, that is also a biopic of Ray Kroc
MaDonal—a restaurant operating in northern Iraq that copies many
features of McDonald's, illicitly
Maxime, McDuff & McDo-documentary film about the unionizing of a
McDonald's in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
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"Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's" by Ray Kroc, 1977
"Ray & Joan: The Man Who Made the
McDonald's Fortune and the Woman
Who Gave It All Away" by Lisa Napoli, 2016 ISBN 1101984953
"Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal" by Eric
Schlosser, 2001 ISBN 0395977894
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Steak 'n Shake
L&L Hawaiian Barbecue
Pei Wei Asian Diner
P. F. Chang's China Bistro
Pick Up Stix
Au Bon Pain
Great American Cookies
Honey Dew Donuts
Nestlé Toll House
Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf
Juice It Up!
Seattle's Best Coffee
Ben & Jerry's
Hot Dog on a Stick
El Pollo Loco
Taco del Mar
Noodles & Company
Erbert & Gerbert's
Port of Subs
Tudor's Biscuit World
H. Salt Esquire
Long John Silver's
Seafood & Chowder House
Hot 'n Now
Hot Sam Pretzels
Illinois based corporations
Archer Daniels Midland
Illinois Tool Works
Old Republic International
State Farm Insurance
United Continental Holdings
Walgreens Boots Alliance
Amcol International Corporation
Arthur J Gallagher & Co
Career Education Corporation
Chicago Board Options Exchange
Fortune Brands Home & Security
General Growth Properties
Hyatt Hotels Corp
Integrys Energy Group
Nalco Holding Company
Telephone and Data Systems
Tootsie Roll Industries
Blue Cross Blue Shield Association
Danfoss Power Solutions
Health Care Service Corporation
Jenner & Block
Kirkland & Ellis
Nestlé Frozen Pizza
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
Solo Cup Company
Breweries in Illinois
Companies in the
Chicago metropolitan area
Food manufacturers of Chicago
Newspapers in Illinois
Wineries in Illinois
Restaurant chains in Poland
Coffee shops and tea rooms
Fast food restaurants
Food chains in the United Kingdom
Ed's Easy Diner
Frankie & Benny's
Gourmet Burger Kitchen
Loch Fyne Restaurants
Chipotle Mexican Grill
Papa John's Pizza
Southern Fried Chicken
Pret a Manger
The West Cornwall Pasty Company
Coffee shops and tea rooms
Harris + Hoole
Ben & Jerry's
All Bar One
Chef & Brewer
Slug and Lettuce
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