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Mazandarani (Tabari)[5] Persian[5] Gilaki[6][7]

Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province  pronunciation (help·info), (Persian: استان مازندران‎ Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and in the adjacent Central Alborz
Alborz
mountain range, in central-northern Iran.[8]

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Administrative divisions

2 History

2.1 Pre-Islamic history 2.2 Post-Islamic history

3 Modern era 4 Geography and population

4.1 Geography 4.2 Environment 4.3 Climate 4.4 Climate 4.5 Demographics

5 Transportation

5.1 Train 5.2 Roads 5.3 Airports 5.4 Railway

6 Culture

6.1 Language 6.2 In literature 6.3 Nowruz 6.4 Ceremonies and events 6.5 Music and dance

7 Tourism 8 Historical and natural tourist attractions 9 People

9.1 Literature

9.1.1 Poetry

9.2 Music 9.3 Architecture 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Portraiture 9.6 Scholar 9.7 History 9.8 Science 9.9 Philosophy 9.10 Physician and astrologer 9.11 Athletics 9.12 Royalty 9.13 Military 9.14 Politics 9.15 Christianity 9.16 Islamic scholars 9.17 Other religion 9.18 Master

10 Mazandaran
Mazandaran
today

10.1 Food 10.2 Economy 10.3 Statistics 10.4 Colleges and universities 10.5 Sports

11 Gallery 12 Sister provinces 13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External links

Introduction[edit] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran[9] and has diverse natural resources, notably large reservoirs of oil and natural gas.[10] The province's four largest counties are Sari, Amol, Nur, and Tonekabon.[11] It was founded in 1937.[12] The diverse nature of the province features plains, prairies, forests and rainforest[13] stretching from the sandy beaches of the Caspian Sea to the rugged and snowcapped Alborz
Alborz
sierra,[14] including Mount Damavand, one of the highest peaks and volcanos in Asia.[15] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is a major producer of farmed fish,[16] and aquaculture provides an important economic addition to traditional dominance of agriculture.[17] Another important contributor to the economy is the tourism industry, as people from all of Iran
Iran
enjoy visiting the area.[18] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is also a fast-growing centre for biotechnology.[10] Administrative divisions[edit] The province covers an area of 23,842 km².[19] Sari
Sari
is the capital city of the province. Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is divided into 15 counties (shahrestan in Persian). All the shahrestans are named after their administrative center, except Savadkooh.

Caspian Sea Ramsar Tonekabon Chaloos Noshahr Noor Mahmood Abad Amol Babolsar Babol Qaemshahr Jooybar Savadkooh Sary Neka Behshahr Semnan Tehran Gilan Golestan Qazvin

History[edit]

Sassanid
Sassanid
Music Plate at 7th century
7th century
in Mazandaran

Human habitation in the area dates back at least 75,000 years.[20] Recent excavations in Gohar Tape in Behshahr
Behshahr
provide proof that the area has been urbanized for more than 5,000 years, and the area is considered one of the most important historical sites of Iran.[21] It has played an important role in cultural and urban development of the region.[22] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is one of the oldest areas without a significant nomadic heritage, thus culturally sedentary. Indigenous peoples of the region include the ethnic Mazanderanis,[23] who speak an Iranian language
Iranian language
which most closely resembles Gilaki and Sangiseri language, but also has phono-typical similarities to several Caucasian languages, reflecting the history of the region and its peoples. In the early 20th century, Reza Shah
Reza Shah
connected northern Elbourz to the southern slopes by constructing seven new roads and railways, the provinces of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
and Gilan became known as Shomal by all Iranians (meaning "the North" in Persian). Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is a Caspian province in the north of Iran.[24] Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Russia
Russia
(across the sea), Golestan, Semnan, Tehran, Alborz, Qazvin, and Gilan provinces. Sari
Sari
is the largest city and the capital of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
province. Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province was made part of the First Region upon the division of the provinces into five regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014.[1]

Map of the Median Empire
Median Empire
(600 BCE) showing the relative locations of the Amardian tribe

See also: Tabaristan

Wineglass Sassanid
Sassanid
Mazandaran
Mazandaran
for Ardashir I

Pre-Islamic history[edit]

Part of a series on the History of Tabaristan

Prehistoric archaeology

Huto and Kamarband Caves Gomeyshan Cave Gohar Tepe

Early inhabitants

Amardians Derbices Tapurians

Early Sasanian houses

House of Ispahbudhan House of Karen House of Mihran

Last Sasanian rulers

Karenvand dynasty (550s–11th-century) Dabuyid dynasty
Dabuyid dynasty
(642–760) Bavand dynasty
Bavand dynasty
(651–1349) Masmughans of Damavand
Masmughans of Damavand
(651–760) Paduspanids
Paduspanids
(655–1598)

Early Shia rulers

Alids (864–900, 914–928) Asfar ibn Shiruya
Asfar ibn Shiruya
(928–930) Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
(930–1090) Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
(934–1062) Nizari Ismaili state
Nizari Ismaili state
(1090–1256) Sarbadars
Sarbadars
(1337–1381) Afrasiyab dynasty
Afrasiyab dynasty
(1349–1504) Jalalid dynasty (1349–1359) Marashis
Marashis
(1359–1596) Ruzafzun (1518–?)

Modern period

Pahlavi dynasty Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province

Tabaristan
Tabaristan
portal Iran
Iran
portal

v t e

Before the arrival of the Iranian-speakers to Iran, native people of this area were subsistence hunters and cattle herders. Archaeological studies in caves belt and Hutu man in Behshahr
Behshahr
in the Mazandaran
Mazandaran
date to approximately 9500 BC. The Amard
Amard
were a tribe living along the mountainous region bordering the Caspian Sea, including current day Amol.

The Hyrcanian Golden Cup, dating from the early 1st millennium AD (800s BC). It was excavated at Kalardasht
Kalardasht
in Mazandaran

The territory known as Mazandaran
Mazandaran
has changed hands among various dynasties from early in its history. There are several fortresses remaining from Parthia
Parthia
and Sassanid
Sassanid
times, and many older cemeteries scattered throughout the province. During this era, Mazandaran
Mazandaran
was part of Hyrcania
Hyrcania
Province which was one of the important provinces. In 662 CE, ten years after the death of Yazdegerd III
Yazdegerd III
the last Sassanian Emperor, a large Muslim army under the command of Hassan ibn Ali invaded Tabarestan. With the advent of the Sassanid
Sassanid
dynasty, the King of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
( Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and Padashkhwargar) was Gushnasp,[25] whose ancestors had reigned in the area (under the Parthian empire) since the time of Alexander the Great. In 529–536, Mazandaran
Mazandaran
was ruled by the Sassanid
Sassanid
prince Kawus, son of Kawadh.[25] Anushirawan, the Sassanid
Sassanid
king, defeated Zarmihr, who claimed his ancestry from the legendary blacksmith Kaveh.[25] This dynasty ruled the area till 645 AD, when Gil Gilanshah (a descendant of the Sassanid
Sassanid
king Jamasp and a son of Piruz) joined Mazandaran
Mazandaran
to Gilan.[25] There are several fortresses remaining from Parthian and Sassanid
Sassanid
times, and many older cemeteries scattered throughout the province. During this era, Mazandaran
Mazandaran
was part of Hyrcania
Hyrcania
Province which was one of the important provinces. In 651 the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
fell, and all of the Sasanian domains gradually came under Arab control, except for the Caspian region of Iran
Iran
(amongst which Tabaristan). Post-Islamic history[edit] Tabaristan
Tabaristan
maintained an existence independent of the Umayyad Caliphate which supplanted the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
in the early seventh century, with independent Zoroastrian houses like the Bavand and Karen fighting an effective guerilla warfare against Islam. A short-lived Alid Shiite state collapsed before the subsequent take-over by the Ziyarid
Ziyarid
princes. Mazandaran, unlike much of the rest of the Iranian Plateau maintained a Zoroastrian majority until the 12th century, thanks to its isolation and hardy population which fought against the Caliph's armies for centuries. During the post-Islamic period the local dynasties fell into three classes: local families of pre-Islamic origin; the ʿAlid sayyid; and local families of secondary importance.[25]

Map of the Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Alavid
Alavid
emirate (864-929 AD).

The Bawandids, who claimed descent from Kawus, provided three dynasties.[25] The first dynasty (665–1007) was overthrown on the conquest of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
by the Ziyarid
Ziyarid
Kabus b. Wushmgir.[25] The second dynasty reigned from 1073 to 1210, when Mazandaran
Mazandaran
was conquered by 'Ala al-Din Muhammad Khwarzamshah.[25] The third ruled from 1237 to 1349 as vassals of the Mongols.[25] The last representative of the Bawandids was killed by Afrasiyab Chulawi.[25]

Gohar Tape Archaeological site

The Karinids claimed descent from Karin, brother of Zarmihr who was the pre-Islamic ruler under the Sassanids.[25] Their last representative Mazyar was put to death in 839.[25] The Paduspanids
Paduspanids
claimed descent from the Dabuyid of northern.[25] They came to the front about 660 and during the rule of the ʿAlids were their vassals. Later, they were vassals of the Buyids and Bawandids, who deposed them in 1190.[25] The dynasty, restored in 1209-10, survived till the time of Timur; the branch descended from Kawus the son of Kayumarth reigned till 1567 and the other, that of Iskandar the son of Kayumarth, till 1574.[25] In the 9th-11th century AD, there were repetitively military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
shores of Iran, Azerbaijan, and Dagestan
Dagestan
as part of the Caspian expeditions of the Rus'.[26] Initially, the Rus' appeared in Serkland
Serkland
in the 9th century traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route, selling furs, honey, and slaves. The first small-scale raids took place in the late 9th and early 10th century. The Rus' undertook the first large-scale expedition in 913; having arrived on 500 ships, they pillaged the westernmost parts of Gorgan
Gorgan
as well as Mazandaran
Mazandaran
and Gilan, taking slaves and goods. In the Safavid
Safavid
era Mazandaran
Mazandaran
was settled by very large amounts of Georgians, Circassians, Armenians, and other Peoples of the Caucasus, whose descendants still live or linger across Mazandaran. Towns, villages and neighbourhoods in Mazandaran
Mazandaran
still bear the name "Gorji" (i.e., Georgian) in them, although most of the large amounts of Georgians, and Circassians
Circassians
are already assimilated into the mainstream Mazandaranis. The history of Georgian settlement is described by Iskandar Beg Munshi, the author of the 1 7th century
7th century
Tarikh-e Alam-Ara-ye Abbasi, and both the Circassian and Georgian settlements by Pietro Della Valle, among other authors.[27] Before the reign of Nader Shah, the province was briefly occupied by the Russian army in the aftermath of the Russo-Persian War (1722–23) and returned to Persia
Persia
in 1735. Following the outcomes of the Russo-Persian War (1804–13)
Russo-Persian War (1804–13)
and the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russian influence in northern Iran, and especially Mazandaran
Mazandaran
and Gilan. Modern era[edit] During the reign of Fath-Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar, the verdant region of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
was paid due attention as a recreational area. Tapuria remained independent until 1596, when Shah
Shah
Abbas I, Mazandarani on his mother's side, incorporated Mazandaran
Mazandaran
into his Safavid
Safavid
empire, forcing many Armenians, Circassians, Georgians, Kurds and Qajar Turks to settle in Mazandaran. Pietro della Valle, who visited a town near Firuzkuh
Firuzkuh
in Mazandaran, noted that Mazandarani women never wore the veil and didn't hesitate to talk to foreigners. He also noted the extremely large amount of Circassians
Circassians
and Georgians
Georgians
in the region, and that he had never encountered people with as much civility as the Mazandaranis.

Today, Persia
Persia
proper, Fars, Mazanderan on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and many other lands of this empire are all full of Georgian and Circassian inhabitants. Most of them remain Christian to this day, but in a very crude manner, since they have neither priest nor minister to tend them. — Pietro della Valle

After the Safavid
Safavid
period, the Qajars began to campaign south from Mazandaran
Mazandaran
with Agha Mohammad Khan
Agha Mohammad Khan
who already incorporated Mazandaran into his empire in 1782. On 21 March 1782, Agha Mohammad Shah proclaimed Sari
Sari
as his imperial capital. Mazandaran
Mazandaran
was the site of local wars in those years, which led to the transfer of the capital from Sari
Sari
to Tehran
Tehran
by Fath Ali Shah. In Modern era at Mazandaran
Mazandaran
make new house and bridge in Amol
Amol
and Sari. In along the beach and in the forest built Villa and modern settlements. The top provincial official referred to the existence of three international airports and three major sea ports in the province and the visit of millions of Iranian and foreign tourists to Mazandaran, including the health tourists. Mazandaran
Mazandaran
first place, there tourists. Now in the mazandaran, set the recreational tourist, villa, mall store, residential complex, restaurants and hotel. Geography and population[edit]

Mount Damavand

Geography[edit] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. It is bordered clockwise by Golestan, Semnan and Tehran
Tehran
provinces.[28] This province also borders Qazvin and Gilan to the west. Mazandaran province is geographically divided into two parts: the coastal plains, and the mountainous areas. The Alborz
Alborz
Mountain Range surrounds the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea. From the geographical point of view, Mazandaran
Mazandaran
province is divided into two parts i.e. coastal plain and the mountainous area. The Alborz
Alborz
Mountain Range like a huge wall has surrounded the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea. Due to permanent sea breez and local winds of the southern and eastern coasts of the Caspian Sea, sandy hills are formed, causing the appearance of a low natural barrier between the sea and plain. There is often snowfall in the Alborz
Alborz
regions, which run parallel to the Caspian Sea's southern coast, dividing the province into many isolated valleys. The province enjoys a moderate, subtropical climate with an average temperature of 25 °C in summer and about 8 °C in winter. Although snow may fall heavily in the mountains in winter, it rarely falls at sea level.

Caspian Sea

Rice
Rice
Farm

Pasturage

Lar Vare

Old Stony

Road

Ecoregions:

Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests; Elburz Range forest steppe.

Environment[edit] Caspian tiger
Caspian tiger
and Caspian horse
Caspian horse
two animals that came from Mazandaran. Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
also held in Mazandaran.

Places adjacent to Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province

Caspian Sea Caspian Sea Caspian Sea

Gilan Province
Gilan Province
Qazvin Province

Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province

Golestan Province

Alborz
Alborz
Province Tehran
Tehran
Province Semnan Province

Relief map of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
area.

Unlike the rest of Iran, Mazanderan is watered by numerous rivers, or mountain torrents, all running from the mountains to the sea . The German traveller Gmelin, who visited this country a. d. 1771, says that in the space of eight miles, on the road from Resht to Amot, 250 of such streams are to be seen, many of them being so exceedingly broad and deep, that the passage across is sometimes impracticable for weeks together. Climate[edit] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
province naturally comes under the influence of the geographical latitude, Alborz
Alborz
heights, elevation from sea level, distance from the sea, and the southern barren areas of Turkmenistan, local and regional air currents, and versatile vegetation cover. Therefore, prompting the climate of the province to be divided into three types : Moderate Caspian weather with hot, humid summers, and mild, humid winters. Moderate mountainous weather with long, cold, and freezing winters and mild and short summers, and cold mountainous weather with long freezing winters and short cool summers. There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in the latter region, which continues till mid summer. Climate[edit] It has a variety of climates, including the mild and humid climate of Caspian shoreline and the moderate and cold climate of mountainous regions.

Central Alborz
Alborz
mountain range in Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province

The western and central plains of the province, up to the northern foothills of Alborz
Alborz
Mountain Range, experience the mild climate of the Caspian region. In the 1,500- to 3,000-meter altitudes, there is a moderate mountainous climate, with long, cold winters, and short, mild summers. In this region, snow covers parts of the province even up to the middle of the warm season. In fact, snow can be observed in this region even in the warmest months of the year. Demographics[edit]

The population of the province has been steadily growing during the last 50 years. The following table shows the approximate province population, excluding the Golestan province, which has separated as an independent province in 1998.[citation needed] The population is overwhelmingly Mazandarani, with a minority of Azerbaijanis, Georgians, Armenians, Circassians, Turkmen and others. In recent years the region has seen an influx of Iranians from other regions of Iran, many of them attracted by its nature and seaside.

Year 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 2011[4]

Approximate population 835,000 1,250,000 1,596,000 2,275,000 2,602,000 2,922,000 3,073,943

Transportation[edit]

a railway bridge on the Trans Iranian Railroad crossing the Haraz River in Mazandaran

Train[edit] The Mazandaran
Mazandaran
train station is the city's first modern rail station and it dates from the Pahlavi dynasty. Roads[edit] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is connected to Tehran
Tehran
by Haraz road
Haraz road
(Amol-Rudehen), Kandovan road
Kandovan road
(Chalus-Karaj), and Firoozkooh road
Firoozkooh road
(Qaem Shahr-Rudehen). Airports[edit] Dasht-e Naz Airport, serving the capital Sari, Noshahr Airport, and Ramsar International Airport
Ramsar International Airport
are the domestic airports that connect the province to the other parts of the country. Railway[edit]

[

v t e

] Iran
Iran
North Railway Dept.

Gorgan

Sabzdasht

Bandar Torkaman

Bandar Gaz

Galoogah

Tirtash

Behshahr

Rostamkola

Amir Abad

Neka

Nobakht

Sari

Gooni Bafi

Qaemshahr

Shirgah

Zirab

Pol Sefid

Savadkooh

Sorkh Abad

Veresk

Dogol

Gadook

Firoozkooh

Mahabad

Zarrin Dasht

Simin Dasht

Kabootar Darreh

Bonekooh

To Tehran
Tehran
Dept.

Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is served by the North Railway Dept. of the Iranian Railways. The department connects the province to Tehran
Tehran
to the south and Gorgan
Gorgan
to the east. The cities of Sari, Qaemshahr, and Pol Sefid are major stations of the department. Culture[edit] The peoples of the two provinces are largely secular, and consequently women have had greater social freedom and independence than their Persian cousins.[29] Language[edit] Main article: Mazandarani Language Mazanderani or Tabari is a Northwestern Iranian language. Various Mazandarani dialects exist which are spoken in Mazandaran
Mazandaran
province and the neighbor province Golestan such as Mazanderani, and Gorgani and possibly Qadikolahi (Ghadikolahi) and Palani. Today, Mazandaranis also use Persian (Western Persian). The educated can communicate and read Persian well.[30] A slightly different version of the eastern dialect of the Gilaki language is spoken in the city of Ramsar.[31][better source needed][32][better source needed][33][better source needed] A dialect of Azeri is spoken in the town of Galoogah.[34] In literature[edit] See also: Mazandaran
Mazandaran
(Shahnameh)

The Battle History of Mazandaran

Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
Coast in Mazandaran

Huto and Kamarband Caves

Lake in Churet

Babolsar
Babolsar
Sea

Baladeh Castle

Sangeno Waterfall

Gorji Mahaleh Jungle in Behshahr

Babol
Babol
Museum

Haydar Amuli
Haydar Amuli
(Seyyed Se Tan) Tomb Tower in Amol, 15th century

Restek tower in Dodangeh District

Moalagh Bridge
Moalagh Bridge
in Amol

Namak Abrood
Namak Abrood
Tourist resort

Cheshmeh Emarat in Behshahr

In the Persian epic, Shahnameh, Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is mentioned in two different sections. The first mention is implicit, when Fereydun
Fereydun
sets its capital in a city called Tamishe near Amol: بیاراست گیتی بسان بهشت.................... به جای گیا سرو گلبن بکشت از آمل گذر سوی تمیشه کرد .............. نشست اندر آن نامور بیشه کرد And when Manuchehr
Manuchehr
is returning to Fereydun's capital, Tamisheh in Mazandaran
Mazandaran
(known as Tabarestan), after his victory over Salm and Tur[35] In the second section, a region called Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is mentioned in the Kai Kavoos
Kai Kavoos
era; it is an area which is mostly inhabited by Div (demons). The legendary Iranian Shah
Shah
Kaykavoos, as well as the Iranian hero Rostam, each take turn to go to Mazandaran
Mazandaran
in order to battle the demons. In a verse from Shahnameh, Zal
Zal
tells Kai Kavoos: "I heard troubling news that the king is planning to go to Mazandaran".

Forest in Mazandaran

However, this Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is not considered identical to the modern province of Mazandaran, and is instead a land to the west of Iran. The current province was simply considered a part of Tabaristan; the name Mazandaran
Mazandaran
is a later development, perhaps based upon local terminology.[36] In Gaston Leroux's The Phantom of the Opera, one of the characters was formerly the daroga (chief of police) of Mazanderan. Nowruz[edit] The Tabarian New Year, or Neowrez, occurs in the pintek days of the Tabarian Calendar. In the Mazandarani language
Mazandarani language
of Iran
Iran
in the Mazanderani calendar, the year is divided into 12 thirty-day months and one pentad of days, often beginning on March 21. Neowrez Khani is one of the strongest and most popular traditions of the Mazanderani people. Ceremonies and events[edit] Tirgan
Tirgan
is a mid summer Iranian festival, celebrated annually on Tir 13 (July 3, 4, or 5). It is performed by splashing water, dancing, reciting poetry, and serving traditional foods such as spinach soup and shole-zard. The custom of tying rainbow-colored bands on wrists, which are worn for ten days and then thrown into a stream, is also a way to rejoice for children. Other famous events like, Varf chal, Traditional ceremony with almost 800 years old as one of the unique rituals of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
associated with water was held in the village of Ab Ask and Lochu Wrestling game in different time. Music and dance[edit] Music in this region relates to the lifestyle of the inhabitants, and the melodies revolve around issues such as the forests, cultivation or farming activities and herding. The most famous dance of this area is the Shomali dance, not forgetting the stick dance that the men perform. Popular music in province, known as the Taleb and Zohre, Amiri Khani and Katuli. Tourism[edit] Over 15 million Iranian and some 400,000 foreign tourists visit the province annually. More than 800 registered historical and cultural sites, 338 kilometers of shorelines, mineral springs in jungles and mountains, waterfalls, and caves are among the major tourism attractions in the Mazandaran
Mazandaran
province. Historical and natural tourist attractions[edit]

Mount Damavand Abbas Abad Garden, Behshahr Mausoleum of Mir Bozorg Tomb of Haydar Amuli Safi Abad Palace Ramsar Palace Malek Bahman Castle Lajim Tower, Savadkuh Miankaleh peninsula Veresk Bridge Castle Poolad Baladeh Davazdah Cheshmeh
Davazdah Cheshmeh
Bridge Moalagh Bridge, Amol Shapour Bridge, Juybar Bathroom Vaziri, Sari Tomb Darvish Fakhruddin Babol History Museum Amol Museum of Babol Larijan Hot Spring Shah
Shah
Neshin Castle Lake Valasht Gerdkooh ancient hill Gohar Tapeh Lar Dam Alam-Kuh Lar National Park Badab-e Surt Tomb of Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Abbas Kandolus Museum Nowshahr Fire Temple of Amol Farahabad Complex Safi Abad Palace Bagh Shah, Behshahr Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Ebrahim Amol Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Ebrahim Babolsar Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Yahya Sari Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Qasem Babol See Sangan Jungle Alendan lake Watch Tower Babol Abpari Waterfall Cave Zangian Qaemshahr Alimastan Village Cheshmeh Kileh Bridge, Tonekabon Shahrak-e Namak Abrud Huto and Kamarband Caves Cemetery Sefid Chah Cheshmeh Kileh Bridge Tonekabon Resket Tower Shapur Place, Babol Waterfall Tircan Nassereddin Shah
Shah
relief Jameh Mosque of Amol Jameh Mosque of Sari Elburz Range forest steppe Bridge Felezi of Babolsar Imam Hassan Askari Mosque Chai Khoran Palace, Chalus Lake Miansheh Forest Park Nur Clock tower Sari Haraz River Gerdkooh ancient hill Mount Takht-e Suleyman Waterfall Sangeno Heshtel Towers Amoloo Mineral Water Spring Harijan Village Chalus Tamishan Palace Noor Div Sefid Cave Cemetery Ispe Chah Alasht
Alasht
Village Cemetery Ispe Chah Zangian Cave Cheshmeh Imarat Behshar Mohammad Hassan Khan Bridge, Babol Haft Abshar Waterfall, Babol Hill Qlaya Ghale Kety Bathroom Vaziri, Sari House Kalbadi, Sari House Manouchehri, Amol Palace of Shapur Temple Kowsan Cave rostam Kola Garden Chehelsotoon Mansion Municipal Tonekabon Castle Kanglou Tower Shervin Bavand Church sourkh Abad Watchtower of Babol Tomb Shah
Shah
baloo zahid Amuli Heshtel Tower Mosque Jameh of Babol Mosque Mohadesin Tomb of Ibn-e Shahr Ashoob Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Sayyid Ali kia Sultan Tomb of Seyed Mohammad Zarrin Nava Herijan Waterfall Deryouk Waterfall Espe-o Waterfall Kiasar
Kiasar
Waterfall Takieh Taker Tower Shervin Bavand Lake Sahon Mohaddesin Mosque of Babol Tomb Soltan Mohammad-e Taher Tomb of Ibn Shahrashub Forest Park Chaldareh Forest Park Shahid Zare Forest Park Mirza Kuchik Khan Haraz Forst Park Kashpel Javarem Forest park Kangaloo Castle Tamishan Palace Div Sefid Cave Marko Summit Forst Park Dalkhani Do hezar Village Abe ask Village Shahrak-e Darya Kenar Lavij Village Sheikh Musa Village Forest Sange no, Neka Amoloo mineral water Springs Ramsar mineral water Springs Pahlavi Hotel Qaem Shahr Band-e Borideh River Bazaar of Amol Ramsar Palace Ramsar Parsian Hotel Clock Tower of Sari Waterfall Sangeno Cellar Kafer Keli Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Hashem Haraz Shahandasht Waterfall Shoormast Lake, Savadkuh Figure King Haraz Kelardasht Ramedani Historical House, Sari Estakhr-e-Posht Lake Paband National Park Mal Khast Village Kiasar
Kiasar
National Park Heyrat Village Sarandoon and Balandoon

People[edit] People from and/or active in Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province or its historical region include: Literature[edit]

Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
(838-923), was a Persian world historian and theologian (the most famous and widely influential person called al-Tabari). Espahbod Sa'ad ad-Din Varavini[37] who wrote the book called Marzuban-nama, and also a Divan of poetry in the Ṭabarí dialect, known as the Níkí-nama. Ibn Isfandiyar, historian, author of a history of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Tarikh-i Tabaristan). Mírzá Asadu’llah Fádil Mázandarání
Mírzá Asadu’llah Fádil Mázandarání
(1880–1957), Iranian Bahá'í scholar. Musa ibn Khalil Mazandarani, 19th century Persian scribe and scholar. Zahir al-Din Mar'ashi Parviz Natel-Khanlari

Poetry[edit]

Nima Youshij Reza-Qoli Khan Hedayat Mohammad Zohari Amir Pazevari Taleb Amoli Mina Assadi Sofi Mazandarani Mina Assadi Seyed Karim Amiri Firuzkuhi Mohsen Emadi Salman Harati Ciyos Guran Faramarz Soleimani

Music[edit]

Gholam Hossein Banan Emad Ram Benyamin Bahadori Abdolhossein Mokhtabad Delkash Bijan Mortazavi Mohammad Donyavi Afshin Benyamin Bahadori Farhang Sharif Parisa Simin Ghanem Majid Akhshabi Mehdi Rajabian Lotfollah Majd Rezaya Fardin Khalatbari Tusi Hayeri Mazandarani Saman Jalili

Architecture[edit]

Omar Tiberiades (Abû Hafs 'Umar ibn al-Farrukhân al-Tabarî Amoli) (d.c.815), Persian astrologer and architect. Abolhassan Sadighi

Cinema[edit]

Shahab Hosseini Khosrow Sinai Hossein Rajabian Davoud Rashidi Kambiz Dirbaz Ladan Mostofi Mostafa Zamani Mohammad Ali Sadjadi Anahita Hemmati Roya Nonahali Irene Zazians Reza Allamehzadeh Abbas Amiri Saba Kamali Ardalan Shoja Kaveh Parinaz Izadyar Maryam Kavyani Fereidoun Hassanpour Amrolah Saberi Hossein Gil

Portraiture[edit]

Mokarrameh Ghanbari Kourosh Sotoodeh Towhidi Tabari Ahmad Esfandiari

Scholar[edit]

Sadegh Hedayat Manouchehr Sotodeh Mohammad Taqi Danesh Pajouh Ahmad Ghahreman Ali Yachkaschi Esfandiar Esfandiari Rahimberdi Annamoradnejad

History[edit]

Arash Maziar

Science[edit]

Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari His stature, however, was eclipsed by his more famous pupil, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi. Abul Hasan al-Tabari, a 10th-century Iranian physician. Abu'l Tayyeb Tabari[38] was jurisconsult, judge (qāżī), and professor of legal sciences; he was regarded by his contemporaries as one of the leading Shafeʿites of 5th/11th century Baghdad. Ali Yachkaschi Moslem Bahadori Iraj Malekpour Alireza Mashaghi Pooran Farrokhzad Shahrokh Meskoob Al-Tabarani

Philosophy[edit]

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Theologian
Theologian
and philosopher. Ibn Hindu

Physician and astrologer[edit]

Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli Abū Sahl al-Qūhī Al-Nagawri Sahl ibn Bishr Muhammad ibn Ayyub Tabari Yahya ibn Abi Mansur Al-Nagawri Tunakabuni Al-Natili Haseb-i Tabari

Athletics[edit]

Abdollah Movahed Imam-Ali Habibi Behdad Salimi Ghasem Rezaei Hassan Rangraz Reza Yazdani Hassan Yazdani Reza Soukhteh-Saraei Askari Mohammadian Mehdi Taghavi Komeil Ghasemi Morad Mohammadi Ahmad Mohammadi Mehdi Hajizadeh Masoud Esmaeilpour Ezzatollah Akbari Ali Asghar Bazri Bashir Babajanzadeh Reza Simkhah Mohammad Reza Khalatbari Farhad Majidi Rahman Rezaei Mehrdad Oladi Mohsen Bengar Peiman Hosseini Rahman Ahmadi Hossein Tavakkoli Hanif Omranzadeh Hadi Norouzi Adel Gholami Mojtaba Mirzajanpour Sheys Rezaei Morteza Pouraliganji Mojtaba Abedini Sohrab Entezari Farshid Talebi Mousa Nabipour Shahab Gordan Noshad Alamiyan Sousan Hajipour Mahmoud Fekri Ramin Rezaeian Bahador Molaei Maysam Baou Omid Ebrahimi Morteza Mehrzad Reza Ghara Shoja Khalilzadeh Omid Alishah Hamed Kavianpour Abbas Hajkenari Kianoush Rahmati Ebrahim Taghipour Mohsen Yousefi Javad Asghari Moghaddam Manouchehr Boroumand Jasem Delavari Behnam Ehsanpour Mehrdad Pooladi Majid Torkan Mohsen Karimi Hamed Kavianpour Farzan Ashourzadeh Ahmad Mohammadi Javad Manafi Nima Alamian Mohammad Reza Barari Ramezan Kheder Abbas Dabbaghi Reza Simkhah Hassan Rahnavardi Babak Nourzad Ali Asghar Bazri Sousan Hajipour Anoushiravan Nourian

Royalty[edit]

Reza Shah

Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi He was the Shah
Shah
of Iran
Iran
(Persia) from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Iran
on 16 September 1941. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Dowlatshah Khayr al-Nisa Begum Khurshid of Tabaristan

Military[edit]

Ali Akbar Shiroodi Abbas Mirza Ahmad Keshvari Manouchehr Khosrodad Al-Mu'ayyad Ahmad Sardar Rafie Yanehsari Mohammad Rouyanian Iskandar-i Shaykhi Hossein Khalatbari Bahram Aryana

Politics[edit]

Ali Larijani Mohammad Vali Khan Tonekaboni Manuchehr
Manuchehr
Mottaki Ehsan Tabari Hossein Ghods-Nakhai Noureddin Kianouri Ali-Akbar Davar Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei Reza Salehi Amiri Hamid Reza Chitgar Sadeq Larijani Mohammad-Javad Larijani Bagher Larijani Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri Mirza Aqa Khan Nuri Morteza Gholi Khan Hedayat Ahmad Tavakoli Davoud Hermidas-Bavand Sam Dastyari Hossein Rajabian Ali Kordan Ahmad Moshir al-Saltaneh Elaheh Koulaei Abdul Karim Hashemi Nejad Reza Sheykholeslam Shamseddin Hosseini Hassan Ghashghavi Mirza Shafi Mazandarani Sheikh Khalifa Mazandarani Gholam Hossein Sadighi Mirza Hassan Khan Esfandiary Davoud Hermidas-Bavand Haji Washington Hossein Dadgar Mirza Hassan Khan Esfandiary Musa Nuri Esfandiari Ali Khan Kamal-Hedayat Zeinolabedin Rahnama Abdol-samad Mirza Ezz ed-Dowleh Saloor

Christianity[edit]

Hossein Fallah Noshirvani Shaban Dibaj

Islamic scholars[edit]

Hassan Hasanzadeh Amoli Abdollah Javadi-Amoli Mirza Hashem Amoli Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani Muhammad Taqi Amoli Haydar Amuli Ibn Furak Ali Asghar Mazandarani Mirza Husain Noori Tabarsi Mohammad Taghi Falsafi Muḥammad ibn Ali Ibn Shahrashub Shaykh Tabarsi Imad al-Din al-Tabari Rustam al-Tabari Abul-Abbas Qassab Amoli Yasubedin Rastegar Jooybari Mulla Ali Kani Mohaddes Nouri Mirza Muhammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi Yasubedin Rastegar Jooybari Mohammad Salih al-Mazandarani

Other religion[edit]

Daniel al-Kumisi Baha'u'llah- The founder of the Baha'i Faith was born and grew up in Nur, Mazandaran Quddús

Master[edit]

Kourosh Mansory Gholam-Ali Soleimani Farshid Moussavi Maria Khorsand Behdad Esfahbod

Mazandaran
Mazandaran
today[edit] Food[edit] See also: Mazanderani cuisine

Kebab and Rice

The cuisine of the province is very rich in seafood due to its location by the Caspian Sea, and rice is present in virtually every meal. Mazandarani cuisine is diverse between regions; the cuisine of coastal regions is different from mountainous regions, as people in the Alborz
Alborz
usually use the indigenous herbs and coastal people use the dishes of fish and Caspian Mazandaran
Mazandaran
rice with vegetables. Economy[edit] The province is one of the 5 wealthiest in Iran. Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, tobacco, sugarcane, and silk are produced in the lowland strip along the Caspian shore. Oil wealth has stimulated industries in food processing, cement, textiles, cotton, and fishing (caviar). Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists close to 630 sites of historical and cultural significance, many of which are tourist attractions. Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, tobacco, sugarcane, Flower, Mineral water
Mineral water
and silk are produced in the lowland strip along the Caspian shore. Oil wealth has stimulated industries in food processing, cement, textiles, cotton, and fishing (caviar). Statistics[edit]

9th rank industrial units Iran 5th rank general industry Iran 4th rank tooling machines Iran 2nd rank coal Iran 1st rank livestock and agricultural products Iran 1st rank granite Iran 1st rank fluorine Iran 1st rank flowers and ornamental plants Iran 1st rank citrus exports Iran 1st rank food products exports Iran

Colleges and universities[edit] Main universities of Mazandaran:

University of Mazandaran, Babolsar Mazandaran
Mazandaran
University of Medical Sciences, Sari Babol
Babol
Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol Babol
Babol
University of Medical Sciences, Babol Sari
Sari
Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari Shomal University, Amol Allameh Mohaddes Nouri University

Sports[edit] For the past several years Mazandaran
Mazandaran
has generated a consistent stream of wrestlers.[39] Football
Football
and volleyball are two other popular sports that have a lot of players in the Premier League and the national team. Weightlifting, Taekwondo, table tennis, boxing, kickboxing, kung fu, karate, rally car are other successful sports in the province. Kalleh Mazandaran
Mazandaran
VC and Shamoushak Noshahr F.C.
Shamoushak Noshahr F.C.
and F.C. Nassaji Mazandaran
Mazandaran
are three famous teams in the province. Kalleh have twice won the Iranian Volleyball
Volleyball
Super League championship and once the AVC Championship. Mazandaran
Mazandaran
has hosted sports tournaments such as the Wrestling World Cup. Nine athletes from Mazandaran
Mazandaran
have received medals at the Olympic Games. In the 2016 Persian Gulf Pro League, fifty mazandarani players in different teams attended. Gallery[edit]

Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Coast

Nima House at Nour

Ramsar Palace

Shahrak-e Namak Abrud
Shahrak-e Namak Abrud
at Chalus

Jungle and River

Riding a watercraft in Ramsar

Babolsar
Babolsar
Pleasure

Fire Temple of Amol

Snow in Tonekabon

Marals at Semes Kandeh Animal Shelter

Lar national park at Larijan

Glacial lake in Alam Kuh

Neka
Neka
Railway

Museum of Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi at Alasht

Lajim Tower in Savadkuh

Coast Beach

Farah Abad Complex

Sister provinces[edit]

Astrakhan Marche Dar es Salaam Issyk-Kul Mekong Delta

See also[edit]

Tapurian people
Tapurian people
Mazandarani people. List of Mazanderanis Maziar Alborz
Alborz
(Elburz) mountain range topics

References[edit]

^ a b همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند ^ http://www.president.ir/en/101336 ^ "Province of Mazandaran". Iran
Iran
Chamber Society. Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ a b Statistical Centre of Iran ^ a b Maryam Borjian - Bilingualism in Mazandaran: Peaceful Coexistence With Persian. Archived September 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://ost.gilan.ir/27 ^ http://www.iranmarkaz.com/pages/visit-ramsar-iran/ ^ Based on Maz or Mazan Term: Mazanderani: مازرون‎ Māzerūn, Persian: مازندران‎, Russian: Мазендеран. Based on Tapur Term: English: Tapuria, Arabic: طبرستان‎ Ṭabaristan, from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Tapuristān Mazandarani: Tapurana. (not prevalent) Ancient Greek: Hyrcania
Hyrcania
came from local name Vergana (Persian Gorgan), Caspia from local name Kaspi, See Caspian Sea. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
called the Caspian region Mazandaran, so people refer to Caspian provinces as Gilan. Note: It was also known as Al-Jannat by the Arabs, meaning paradise, during the 7–8th centuries ^ Statistical Centre, Government of Iran. See: "General Characteristics of Ostans according to their administrative divisions at the end of 1383 (2005 CE)"[dead link] , "Population estimation by urban and rural areas, 2005" ^ a b University of Mazanderan Archived October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Census Results, 2006: Sari: 490.830, Babel: 464.535, Amel: 343.747, Shahi: 293.721. Iranian 2006 Census Website, Information File
File
Archived June 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. (in Persian) ^ Natural attractions of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
in IRIB ^ Springer Netherlands; July 10, 2005; Contributions to the knowledge of the useful plants and plant raw materials of Iran[permanent dead link]; ISSN 0921-9668 ^ Mazandaran, Geography & History Archived February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Entry for Elburz Archived May 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Freshwater Fishes of Iran
Iran
Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.; Revised: 12 July 2007 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Entry for Mazandaran[permanent dead link] ^ [1][permanent dead link] (Persian) ^ http://www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci_en/sci_en/sel/year85/f1/CS_01_4.HTM[permanent dead link] ^ IRAN Daily Caspian Region Archived September 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Parthia
Parthia
News, November 6, 2005. ^ Payvand, 400 Historical Sites Discovered within 7 Days in Mazandaran Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ CHN Page for Mazandaran ^ Keddie, N. R.; 1968; The Iranian villages before and after land reform. Journal of Contemporary History, 3(3), 69–78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Minorsky, V.; Vasmer, R. "Mazandaran" Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. ^ Logan (1992), p. 201 ^ Pietro Della Valle, Viaggi, 3 vols. in 4 parts, Rome, 1658–63; tr. J. Pinkerton as Travels in Persia, London, 1811. ^ Gwillim Law, Statoids website. "Provinces of Iran" Archived October 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2007-08-28 ^ Reference: "The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran, 1920-1921: Birth of the Trauma" by Cosroe Chaqueri. ^ Gordon, R.G., Jr. (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition. (Dallas, TX: SIL International). Online version "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-07. Retrieved 2009-11-12.  ^ https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mazandaran_Province#cite_note-5 ^ https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mazandaran_Province#cite_note-6 ^ https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mazandaran_Province#cite_note-7 ^ Lars Johanson, Éva Csató, Eva Agnes Csato. The Turkic Languages. Taylor & Francis, 1998. ISBN 0-415-08200-5; p. 274 ^ Shahnameh/Book of Kings by Abu'L Ferdawsi, edited by Jalal Khaleghi-Motlagh "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2008-08-20.  ^ Iran
Iran
Chamber Society: Geography of Iran: Ancient Iran’s Geographical Position in Shah-Nameh Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ AN ABRIDGED TRANSLATION OF THE HISTORY OF ṬABARISTÁN BY MUHAMMAD B. AL-ḤASAN B. ISFANDIYÁR ^ Encyclopedia Iranica http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc ^ Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Capital Wrestling

Bibliography[edit]

W. Barthold (1984). "Gilan and Mazandaran". An Historical Geography of Iran. Translated by Svat Soucek. Princeton University Press. pp. 230–242. ISBN 978-1-4008-5322-9. 

External links[edit]

Official website Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Cultural Heritage Organization Official website of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
TV Houchang E. Chehabi (ed.). "Regional Studies: Mazandaran". Bibliographia Iranica. USA: Iranian Studies Group at MIT.  (Bibliography) Registration Mazandaran A Mazandarani folk-song sung by Shusha Guppy in the 1970s: Darling Dareyne

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province.

v t e

Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province

Capital

Sari

Counties and cities

Abbasabad County

Abbasabad Kelarabad Salman Shahr

Amol
Amol
County

Amol Dabudasht Gazanak Rineh

Babol
Babol
County

Babol Amirkola Galugah Gatab Khush Rudpey Marzikola Zargarmahalleh

Babolsar
Babolsar
County

Babolsar Bahnemir Kalleh Bast

Behshahr
Behshahr
County

Behshahr Khalil Shahr Rostamkola

Chalus County

Chalus Kelardasht Marzanabad

Fereydunkenar
Fereydunkenar
County

Fereydunkenar

Galugah
Galugah
County

Galugah

Juybar
Juybar
County

Juybar Kuhi Kheyl

Mahmudabad County

Mahmudabad Sorkhrud

Miandorud County

Surak

Neka
Neka
County

Neka

Nowshahr
Nowshahr
County

Nowshahr

Nur County

Nur Baladeh Chamestan Izadshahr Royan

Qaem Shahr
Qaem Shahr
County

Qaem Shahr

Ramsar County

Ramsar Ketalem and Sadat Shahr

Sari
Sari
County

Sari Farim Kiasar

Savadkuh
Savadkuh
County

Zirab Alasht Pol-e Sefid Shirgah

Simorgh County

Kiakola

Tonekabon
Tonekabon
County

Tonekabon Khorramabad Nashtarud

Sights

Mount Damavand Mir Bozorg Tomb Aab pari Alasht Babolsar Amol Davazdah Cheshmeh Badab-e Surt
Badab-e Surt
natural site Dasht-e Naz national Park Sari Larijan spa Ghermerez spa Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Abbas Tower Resket Shahandasht Waterfall Sayyid Mir Heydar Tomb Jameh Mosque of Amol Agha Abbas Mosque Farah Abad Didbani Tower Babol Mollana Mosque Qa'em Shahr's Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
kati Sisangan national Park, Nowshahr Challdareh national Park, Tonekabon Veresk Bridge Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Ghasem Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar's Bridge Namakabrood's aerial tramway Javaherdeh Nima Yooshij's house in Yoush Khestpol Bridge in Qa'em Shahr Valasht lake, Kelardasht Saadatmahaleh, Sari Avidar lake Nowshahr Lar Dam
Lar Dam
Amol Kalakchal Deryok Kalbadi House Tamishan Noor Golden Park Amol Alam-Kuh Palaeolithic caves of Kamarband’, and Hotu , Sari Malek Bahman Castle Galehgardan, Tonekabon Palace of Ramsar Safavid
Safavid
gardens of Behshahr Babol
Babol
museum Khoshedaran Museum of natural history, Fereydoon Kenar Kandelus museum,near Chaloos Sari's clock square Rahband Palace of Behshahr Se Sangan Gol-e-Zard Cave Danial Cave Heshtel Tower Gabri Tonekabon Alimastan Village Moalagh Bridge Ramsar's old hotel Shekleh Shah

populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province

v t e

Provinces of Iran

Alborz Ardabil Bushehr Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari East Azerbaijan Isfahan Fars Gilan Golestan Hamadan Hormozgan Ilam Kerman Kermanshah Khuzestan Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Kurdistan Lorestan Markazi Mazandaran North Khorasan Qazvin Qom Razavi Khorasan Semnan Sistan and Baluchestan South Khorasan Tehran West Azerbaijan Yazd Zanjan

Authority control

.