Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit medical practice and medical research group
based in Rochester, Minnesota. It employs more than 4,500 physicians
and scientists and 58,400 administrative and allied health
staff. The practice specializes in treating difficult cases
through tertiary care. It spends over $660 million a year on research
and employs over 3,000 full-time research personnel.
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1863 and
opened a medical practice that evolved under his sons into Mayo
Mayo Clinic is widely regarded as one of the United States'
greatest hospitals and ranked No. 1 in the country on the
2016–2017 U.S. News & World Report List of "Best Hospitals" of
the United States, maintaining a position near the top for more than
25 years. It has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work
For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years. It
continued to achieve this ranking through 2017.
In addition to their flagship hospital in Rochester,
Mayo Clinic has
major campuses in
Arizona and Florida. The
Mayo Clinic Health
System also operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota,
Wisconsin, and Iowa.
1.1 Early years
1.2 Group practice
1.3 Growth and current practice
3 Core values
3.1 Patient care
6 Contributions to medicine
8 Additional images
10 See also
12 External links
William Worrall Mayo, the founding father of what would become Mayo
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo (1819–1911) came to Rochester,
Minnesota from Salford in Lancashire, England as part of his
appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board
during the American Civil War. The city was to his liking, and his
wife and children joined him in early 1864; the family served in
several leadership roles in the community. On January 27, 1864,
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening
of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third
Street" with "all calls answered by day or night."
Both of W.W. Mayo's sons,
William James Mayo
William James Mayo (1861–1939) and Charles
Horace Mayo (1865–1939) grew up in Rochester, and when old enough
both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his
father's practice, with Charles joining after he completed his
training in 1888.
On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37
deaths in the area and over 200 injuries. One-third of the town
was destroyed, but the Mayo family escaped serious harm. The relief
efforts began immediately with a temporary hospital being established
at Rommell's Hall, and the doctors Mayo (W.W. and Will) as well as
other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured
who were brought there for help.
Mother Alfred Moes
Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of
Saint Francis (a teaching order) were called in to act as nurses
despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical
St. Mary's Hospital in 1910
After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W.W. Mayo about
establishing a hospital in Rochester, and Mayo agreed to work in the
hospital, and soon other local doctors agreed to work in the hospital
as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Marys Hospital was opened by the
Sisters. W.W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians
at the hospital. His two sons began seeing patients and performing
surgeries at the hospital.
In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to
be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice. After
Stinchfield agreed, W.W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the
practice continued to grow. The founders of
Mayo Clinic are the Mayo
brothers Will and Charlie, Stinchfield, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet,
Judd, and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the
profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the
partners were salaried. W.W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the
remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo
Properties Association, and their private practice became a
not-for-profit entity. The founders gave the Clinic properties and
furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated
practice model developed primarily by Plummer, created a foundation
for what would grow into Mayo Clinic.
Growth and current practice
As the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914,
the partners planned, designed and built a new clinic building.
Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red"
building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental
Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954
Mayo Clinic building,
and the 2002 Gonda building. In 1914, and under the guidance of Henry
Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical
practice concept to be fully expressed. Many
innovative medical systems, tools, and equipment were incorporated
into the building design. Plummer worked closely with Frederic Maass,
of Maass & McAndrew, to design and fabricate many of the building
systems innovations like the steam sterilization rooms, metal surgical
tools and equipment, pneumatic tube system, knee operated sinks, and a
state of the art
HVAC system. The air exchange rate
for the building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the
Rookwood fountain in the main lobby that was designed to clean and
humidify air from the outside. It also heated and humidified air in
the winter, and provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection,
steam sterilizer rooms were designed to hold much of the operating
rooms metal surgical furniture, tools and equipment. These and
other aseptic procedures helped bring the overall patient infection
rates down.
In 1928, the
Plummer Building was completed with considerable input
from Clinic staff, and again under the guidance of Henry Plummer.
Frederic Maass again worked closely with Plummer and staff on system
design. After this project was complete he assumed the position as the
"Chief Engineer" for the Clinic. Working hand-in-hand with physicians,
scientists and other
Mayo Clinic staff, the engineering department
developed unique medical devices and systems, many designed to meet
the needs of individual patients. At the time of its
Plummer Building was the tallest building in Minnesota
and remained so until the
Foshay Tower was finished in Minneapolis in
1929. It was added to the
National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places in
1969, and has recently undergone a complete restoration of its bell
tower. The historic 1914 "Red"
Mayo Clinic building, a National
Landmark listed on the National Register, was demolished by the Clinic
in the 1980s to make way for the Hammel, Green and Abrahamson-designed
Siebens building.
Since 1986, the
Mayo Clinic campus has formally included the Rochester
Methodist Hospital and Saint Marys Hospital, as all operations were
integrated under one governing board to more efficiently serve the
needs of Mayo patients. In 2011, the foundation went before the
Supreme Court to argue that medical residents should remain exempt
from Social Security deductions. In Mayo Foundation v. United States
the court sided with the
Social Security Administration
Social Security Administration and required
FICA to be deducted going forward. The same year, Tarek Obaid made
a major donation in the name of his family to establish the Essam and
Dalal Obaid Center for Reconstructive Transplant Surgery.
Mayo Clinic had about 1,318,300 different patients.
Plummer Building in Rochester, Minnesota.
Mayo Clinic has a large presence in three U.S. metropolitan areas:
Rochester (Minnesota), Jacksonville (Florida), and Phoenix (Arizona).
Mayo Clinic employs more than 34,000 people at the main campus in
Rochester and the
Arizona and Florida sites employ approximately 6,000
persons at each site. In addition,
Mayo Clinic partially owns and
Mayo Clinic Health System, which consists of more than 70
hospitals and clinics across Minnesota, Iowa, and
Wisconsin with an
employment of over 17,000 people.
Mayo Clinic also operates the Mayo
Clinic College of Medicine and Science which is a non-profit college
dedicated to training medical and allied health professionals at Mayo
Hospitals in Minnesota,
Arizona and Florida.
The clinic is to set up an independent business subsidiary in London
in partnership with the
University of Oxford
University of Oxford and Oxford University
Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in 2019.
Mayo Clinic logo suggests, the institution has a three-part
focus. First and primary to the organization is the patient care
practice, represented by the central shield. This is in accordance
with the primary statement of the organization that "the needs of the
patient come first." The other two shields represent the areas of
education and research, two areas of
Mayo Clinic which have become
more prominent over time.
Each year, more than 1.3 million patients from all 50 states and from
more than 150 countries are seen at one of the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic offers highly specialized medical care, and
a large portion of the patient population are referrals from smaller
clinics and hospitals from across the upper Midwest and the United
States as a whole.
Mayo Clinic physicians are paid a fixed salary that
is not linked to patient volume (relative value units) or income from
fee-for-service payments. This practice is thought to
decrease the monetary motivation to see patients in large numbers and
increase the incentive to spend more time with individuals. Salaries
are determined by the marketplace salaries for physicians in
comparable large group practices.
Mayo Clinic researchers contribute to the understanding of disease
processes, best clinical practices, and translation of findings from
the laboratory to the clinical practice. Nearly 600 doctoral level
physicians and research scientists are employed, with an additional
3,400 other health personnel and students with appointments in
research. In 2015, more than 2,700 research protocols were reviewed by
Mayo Clinic Institutional review board and 11,000 ongoing human
research studies. These research initiatives led to more than 7,300
research publications and review articles in peer-review journals.
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science
The founding partners in the private practice were proponents of
education very early on. In 1917, the Mayo Foundation helped fund the
medical school at the University of
Minnesota with a two million
dollar donation as it developed out of the combination of several
medical faculties in Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Many new graduates
were sent to
Mayo Clinic for further training.
Mayo Clinic was a
pioneer in helping to establish the current residency education
system. Until the early 1970s, consulting physicians at
Mayo Clinic in
Rochester, Minnesota held joint appointments as professors at the
Minnesota medical school. In 1972,
Mayo Clinic opened
the doors of its own medical school (
Mayo Clinic School of Medicine)
in Rochester, which is known for its contributions in the medical
Mayo Clinic established its graduate school (Mayo
Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences) in 1989, to educate
biomedical sciences PhD and Master students.
Mayo Clinic issued an open letter stating the healthcare reform bills
as written in July 2009 would not reduce costs or increase quality
Mayo Clinic has adopted more than 15,000 mobile devices from Apple for
patient care; including the iPad, iPad Mini and iPhone. Mayo Clinic
then created an app for these devices called Synthesis Mobile which
integrated hundreds of their health systems. Other apps were also
Mayo Clinic Care Network members that assists patients
with seeing their medical records or asking clinicians for
assistance. In 2014
Mayo Clinic was developing an app for Apple's
HealthKit that would help users maintain healthy lifestyles and warns
users of certain health signs that need attention.
Mayo Clinic, in collaboration with real estate firm Delos Living,
Well Living Lab in September 2015. This research facility
is designed to simulate real-world, non-hospital environments to allow
Mayo Clinic researchers to study the interaction between indoor spaces
and human health.
Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation, established in 2008, was one of
the pioneers of innovation in healthcare. It has since worked on over
270 projects and is often looked to as a role model for using design
In March 2018,
Mayo Clinic and Mytonomy, a healthcare education system
company, partnered to provide video content for cancer patients. The
video content is used to address important questions and answers and
designed to aide in the decision-making process between patient and
Mayo Clinic is led by President and CEO John Noseworthy, M.D. The
previous CEO, Denis Cortese, retired in November 2009.
Contributions to medicine
Mayo Clinic has developed many medical and surgical specialities,
including cancer research, heart and lung surgery, laboratory
techniques and many others.
In 2016-17, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked as the #1 overall
hospital in the
United States by U.S. News & World Report. A total
of almost 5,000 hospitals were considered and ranked in 16 specialties
from cancer and heart disease to respiratory disorders and urology;
153 (just over 3 percent of the total) were ranked in at least one of
the 16 specialties. Of the 153 hospitals that are ranked in one or
more specialties, 20 qualified for the Honor Roll by earning high
scores in at least six specialties. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked
in the top 10 in all but one of 16 specialties, in the top 4 in 13
specialties, and was the #1 ranked hospital in 8 of the 12 data-driven
specialties. This year U.S. News expanded their common procedures and
conditions list to 9 individual measures, and Mayo was one of less
than 70 hospitals to score High Performing in every category.
Additionally, Mayo was the only hospital on the 2016-2017 honor roll
to also receive 5 stars from CMS. Every
Mayo Clinic hospital
received an "A" safety rating from Leapfrog in its April 2017
Diabetes and Endocrinology
Neurology and Neurosurgery
Cardiology and Heart Surgery
Ear, Nose and Throat
Ranked 3rd - 7th
Gonda building from cafeteria.
Gonda building from 3rd Avenue SW.
Gonda building looking south toward the 1954 Mayo building.
The Plummer building.
The Opus Imaging Research Building.
Mayo Brothers U.S. Commemorative Stamp issued 1964
Guggenheim Building in Rochester, MN.
Clapesattle, Helen (1941). The Doctors Mayo. University of Minnesota
Press. later editions are abridged
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Mayo Clinic and
the Rise of Specialization. Oxford University Press.
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Keeling, Arlene PhD, RN (2014). The Nurses of Mayo Clinic: Caring
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Wright-Peterson, Virginia M. (2016). Women of Mayo Clinic: The
Minnesota Historical Society Press.
American Legacy Foundation
Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation
Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation
Mayo Clinic Diet
Medical centers in the United States
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