The MAYO CLINIC is a nonprofit medical practice and medical research
group based in
Rochester, Minnesota . It employs more than 4,500
physicians and scientists and 57,100 allied health staff. The
practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary care
. It spends over $660 million a year on research.
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1863 and
opened a medical practice that evolved under his sons into Mayo
Mayo Clinic is widely regarded as one of the United States'
greatest hospitals and ranked No. 1 in the country on the 2016–2017
U.S. News ">
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo , the founding father of what
would become the Mayo Clinic.
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo (1819–1911) came to Rochester,
Minnesota as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the
military draft board during the
American Civil War
American Civil War . The city was to
his liking, and his wife and children joined him in early 1864.
William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo opened his medical practice after the war, and
served in several leadership roles in the community. Both of W.W.
William James Mayo (1861–1939) and Charles Horace Mayo
(1865–1939) grew up in Rochester, and when old enough both attended
medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's
practice, with Charles joining after he completed his training in
On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37
deaths in the area and over 200 injuries. One-third of the town was
destroyed, but the Mayo family escaped serious harm. The relief
efforts began immediately with a temporary hospital being established
at Rommell's Hall, and the doctors Mayo (W.W. and Will) as well as
other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured
who were brought there for help.
Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of
Saint Francis (a teaching order) were called in to act as nurses
despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical
experience. St. Mary's Hospital in 1910
After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W.W. Mayo about
establishing a hospital in Rochester, and Mayo agreed to work in the
hospital, and soon other local doctors agreed to work in the hospital
as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Marys Hospital was opened by the
Sisters. W.W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians
at the hospital. His two sons began seeing patients and performing
surgeries at the hospital.
In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked
Augustus Stinchfield , whom he considered
to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice. After
Stinchfield agreed, W.W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the
practice continued to grow. The founders of
Mayo Clinic are the Mayo
brothers Will and Charlie, Stinchfield, Graham, Henry Plummer ,
Millet, Judd, and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in
the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by
the partners were salaried. W.W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the
remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo
Properties Association, and their private practice became a
not-for-profit entity. The founders gave the Clinic properties and
furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated practice
model developed primarily by Plummer, created a foundation for what
would grow into the Mayo Clinic.
GROWTH AND CURRENT PRACTICE
As the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914,
the partners planned, designed and built a new clinic building.
Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red"
building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental
Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954
Mayo Clinic building,
and the 2002
Gonda building . In 1914, and under the guidance of Henry
Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical
practice concept to be fully expressed.Many highly innovative medical
systems, tools, and equipment were incorporated into the building
design. This was groundbreaking work, and the first building designed
to facilitate the integrated group medical practice. Plummer worked
closely with Frederic Maass, of Maass ">The air exchange rate for the
building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the Rookwood
fountain in the main lobby that was designed to clean and humidify air
from the outside. It also heated and humidified air in the winter, and
provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection, steam sterilizer
rooms were designed to hold much of the operating rooms metal surgical
furniture, tools and equipment. These and other aseptic procedures
helped bring the overall patient infection rates down.In 1928, the
Plummer Building was completed with considerable input from Clinic
staff, and again under the guidance of Henry Plummer. Mr. Maass again
worked closely with Plummer and staff on system design. After this
project was complete he assumed the position as the "Chief Engineer"
for the Clinic. Working hand-in-hand with physicians, scientists and
Mayo Clinic staff, the engineering department developed unique
medical devices and systems, many designed to meet the needs of
individual patients.At the time of its completion, the Plummer
Building was the tallest building in
Minnesota and remained so until
Foshay Tower was finished in Minneapolis in 1929. It was added to
National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places in 1969, and has recently
undergone a complete restoration of its bell tower. The historic 1914
Mayo Clinic building, a National Landmark listed on the National
Register, was demolished by the Clinic in the 1980s to make way for
Hammel, Green and Abrahamson -designed Siebens building.Since
Mayo Clinic campus has formally included the Rochester
Methodist Hospital and Saint Mary\'s Hospital , as all operations were
integrated under one governing board to more efficiently serve the
needs of Mayo patients. In 2011, the foundation went before the
Supreme Court to argue that medical residents should remain exempt
from Social Security deductions. In Mayo Foundation v. United States
the court sided with the
Social Security Administration
Social Security Administration and required
FICA to be deducted going forward. The same year, Tarek Obaid made a
major donation in the name of his family to establish the Essam and
Dalal Obaid Center for Reconstructive Transplant Surgery.
Mayo Clinic had about 1,318,300 different patients.
Plummer Building in
Rochester, Minnesota .
Mayo Clinic has a large presence in three U.S. metropolitan areas:
Rochester (Minnesota), Jacksonville (Florida), and Phoenix (Arizona).
The Clinic employs more than 34,000 people at the main campus in
Rochester, Minnesota and the Arizona and Florida sites employ
approximately 6,000 persons at each site. In addition, the Mayo
Clinic owns and operates the
Mayo Clinic Health System, which consists
of more than 70 hospitals and clinics across
Wisconsin and Georgia with an employment of over 17,000 people. Mayo
Clinic also operates several colleges of medicine, including Mayo
Medical School , the
Mayo Graduate School , and the Mayo School of
Graduate Medical Education,
Mayo School of Health Sciences .
Mayo Clinic logo suggests, the institution has a three-part
focus. First and primary to the organization is the patient care
practice, represented by the central shield. This is in accordance
with the primary statement of the organization that "the needs of the
patient come first." The other two shields represent the areas of
education and research, two areas of
Mayo Clinic which have become
more prominent over time.
Each year, more than 1.3 million patients from all 50 states and from
more than 150 countries are seen at one of the
Mayo Clinic facilities.
Mayo Clinic offers highly specialized medical care, and a large
portion of the patient population are referrals from smaller clinics
and hospitals from across the upper Midwest and the
United States as a
Mayo Clinic physicians are paid a fixed salary that is not
linked to patient volume (relative value units ) or income from
fee-for-service payments. This practice is thought to decrease the
monetary motivation to see patients in large numbers and increase the
incentive to spend more time with individuals. Salaries are determined
by the marketplace salaries for physicians in comparable large group
Mayo Clinic researchers contribute to the understanding of disease
processes, best clinical practices, and translation of findings from
the laboratory to the clinical practice. Nearly 600 doctoral level
physicians and research scientists are employed, with an additional
3,400 other health personnel and students with appointments in
research. In 2015, more than 2,700 research protocols were reviewed by
Mayo Clinic Institutional review board and 11,000 ongoing human
research studies. These research initiatives led to more than 7,300
research publications and review articles in peer-review journals.
The founding partners in the private practice were proponents of
education very early on. In 1917, the Mayo Foundation helped with the
establishment of the medical school at the University of Minnesota
with a two million dollar donation. Many new graduates were sent to
Mayo Clinic for further training. The
Mayo Clinic was a pioneer in
helping to establish the current residency education system. Until the
early 1970s, consulting physicians at
Mayo Clinic in Rochester,
Minnesota held joint appointments as professors at the University of
Minnesota medical school. In 1972,
Mayo Clinic opened the doors of its
own medical school (
Mayo Medical School ) in Rochester, which is known
for its contributions in the medical field. Also, Mayo Clinic
established its graduate school (
Mayo Graduate School ) in 1989, to
educate biomedical sciences PhD and Master students.
Mayo Clinic issued an open letter stating the healthcare reform bills
as written in July 2009 would not reduce costs or increase quality
Mayo Clinic has adopted more than 15,000 mobile devices from Apple
for patient care; including the iPad , iPad Mini and iPhone . Mayo
Clinic then created an app for these devices called Synthesis Mobile
which integrated hundreds of their health systems. Other apps were
also created for
Mayo Clinic Care Network members that assists
patients with seeing their medical records or asking clinicians for
Mayo Clinic is also developing an app for Apple 's
HealthKit that would help users maintain healthy lifestyles and warns
users of certain health signs that need attention.
Mayo Clinic, in collaboration with real estate firm Delos Living, in
September 2015 launched the
Well Living Lab . This research facility
is designed to simulate real-world, non-hospital environments to allow
Mayo Clinic researchers to study the interaction between indoor spaces
and human health.
Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation , established in 2008, was one
of the pioneers of innovation in healthcare. It has since worked on
over 270 projects and is often looked to as a role model for using
design in healthcare.
Mayo Clinic is led by President and CEO John Noseworthy, M.D. The
previous CEO Denis Cortese retired in November 2009
CONTRIBUTIONS TO MEDICINE
Mayo Clinic developed the concept of an integrated, multi-speciality
group practice of medicine.
Mayo Clinic has also developed many medical and surgical
specialities, including cancer research, heart and lung surgery,
laboratory techniques and many others.
In 2016-17, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked as the #1 overall
hospital in the
United States by U.S. News 153 (just over 3 percent of
the total) were ranked in at least one of the 16 specialties. Of the
153 hospitals that are ranked in one or more specialties, 20 qualified
for the Honor Roll by earning high scores in at least six specialties.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked in the top 10 in all but one of 16
specialties, in the top 4 in 13 specialties, and was the #1 ranked
hospital in 8 of the 12 data-driven specialties. This year U.S. News
expanded their common procedures and conditions list to 9 individual
measures, and Mayo was one of less than 70 hospitals to score High
Performing in every category. Additionally, Mayo was the only
hospital on the 2016-2017 honor roll to also receive 5 stars from CMS.
Mayo Clinic hospital received an "A" safety rating from
Leapfrog in its April 2017 report.
Ear, Nose and Throat
RANKED 3RD - 8TH
* Rehabilitation (6th)
Gonda building from cafeteria.
Gonda building from 3rd Avenue SW.
Gonda building looking south toward the 1954 Mayo
Plummer building .
Opus Imaging Research Building .
Mayo Brothers U.S. Commemorative Stamp issued 1964
Guggenheim Building in Rochester, MN.
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