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Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
is a nonprofit medical practice and medical research group based in Rochester, Minnesota. It employs more than 4,500 physicians and scientists and 58,400 administrative and allied health staff.[3][4] The practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary care. It spends over $660 million a year on research and employs over 3,000 full-time research personnel.[5][6] William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo
settled his family in Rochester in 1863 and opened a medical practice that evolved under his sons into Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
is widely regarded as one of the United States' greatest hospitals and ranked No. 1 in the country[7] on the 2016–2017 U.S. News & World Report List of "Best Hospitals" of the United States, maintaining a position near the top for more than 25 years.[8] It has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years. It continued to achieve this ranking through 2017.[9][10][11] In addition to their flagship hospital in Rochester, Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
has major campuses in Arizona
Arizona
and Florida.[12] The Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Health System also operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa.[13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years 1.2 Group practice 1.3 Growth and current practice

2 Locations 3 Core values

3.1 Patient care 3.2 Research 3.3 Education

4 Innovation 5 Leadership 6 Contributions to medicine 7 Rankings 8 Additional images 9 Bibliography 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

William Worrall Mayo, the founding father of what would become Mayo Clinic.

Early years[edit] In 1863, William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo
(1819–1911) came to Rochester, Minnesota
Minnesota
from Salford in Lancashire, England as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War. The city was to his liking, and his wife and children joined him in early 1864; the family served in several leadership roles in the community. On January 27, 1864, William Worrall Mayo
William Worrall Mayo
advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third Street" with "all calls answered by day or night."[14] Both of W.W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo
William James Mayo
(1861–1939) and Charles Horace Mayo (1865–1939) grew up in Rochester, and when old enough both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles joining after he completed his training in 1888.[15][16] On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries.[17] One-third of the town was destroyed, but the Mayo family escaped serious harm. The relief efforts began immediately with a temporary hospital being established at Rommell's Hall, and the doctors Mayo (W.W. and Will) as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes
Mother Alfred Moes
and the Sisters of Saint Francis (a teaching order) were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience.

St. Mary's Hospital in 1910

After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W.W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester, and Mayo agreed to work in the hospital, and soon other local doctors agreed to work in the hospital as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Marys Hospital was opened by the Sisters. W.W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital. His two sons began seeing patients and performing surgeries at the hospital.[2] Group practice[edit] In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice. After Stinchfield agreed, W.W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the practice continued to grow. The founders of Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Stinchfield, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet, Judd, and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W.W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, and their private practice became a not-for-profit entity. The founders gave the Clinic properties and furnishings to this newly formed association.[18] The integrated practice model developed primarily by Plummer, created a foundation for what would grow into Mayo Clinic.[19] Growth and current practice[edit] As the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914, the partners planned, designed and built a new clinic building. Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954 Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
building, and the 2002 Gonda building. In 1914, and under the guidance of Henry Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical practice concept to be fully expressed.[citation needed] Many innovative medical systems, tools, and equipment were incorporated into the building design. Plummer worked closely with Frederic Maass, of Maass & McAndrew, to design and fabricate many of the building systems innovations like the steam sterilization rooms, metal surgical tools and equipment, pneumatic tube system, knee operated sinks, and a state of the art HVAC
HVAC
system.[citation needed] The air exchange rate for the building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the Rookwood fountain in the main lobby that was designed to clean and humidify air from the outside. It also heated and humidified air in the winter, and provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection, steam sterilizer rooms were designed to hold much of the operating rooms metal surgical furniture, tools and equipment.[20] These and other aseptic procedures helped bring the overall patient infection rates down.[citation needed] In 1928, the Plummer Building
Plummer Building
was completed with considerable input from Clinic staff, and again under the guidance of Henry Plummer. Frederic Maass again worked closely with Plummer and staff on system design. After this project was complete he assumed the position as the "Chief Engineer" for the Clinic. Working hand-in-hand with physicians, scientists and other Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
staff, the engineering department developed unique medical devices and systems, many designed to meet the needs of individual patients.[citation needed] At the time of its completion, the Plummer Building
Plummer Building
was the tallest building in Minnesota and remained so until the Foshay Tower
Foshay Tower
was finished in Minneapolis in 1929. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in 1969, and has recently undergone a complete restoration of its bell tower. The historic 1914 "Red" Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
building, a National Landmark listed on the National Register, was demolished by the Clinic in the 1980s to make way for the Hammel, Green and Abrahamson-designed Siebens building.[citation needed] Since 1986, the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
campus has formally included the Rochester Methodist Hospital and Saint Marys Hospital, as all operations were integrated under one governing board to more efficiently serve the needs of Mayo patients.[2] In 2011, the foundation went before the Supreme Court to argue that medical residents should remain exempt from Social Security deductions. In Mayo Foundation v. United States the court sided with the Social Security Administration
Social Security Administration
and required FICA to be deducted going forward.[21] The same year, Tarek Obaid made a major donation in the name of his family to establish the Essam and Dalal Obaid Center for Reconstructive Transplant Surgery.[22][23] In 2015, Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
had about 1,318,300 different patients.[24] Locations[edit]

The Plummer Building
Plummer Building
in Rochester, Minnesota.

Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
has a large presence in three U.S. metropolitan areas: Rochester (Minnesota), Jacksonville (Florida), and Phoenix (Arizona). Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
employs more than 34,000 people at the main campus in Rochester and the Arizona
Arizona
and Florida sites employ approximately 6,000 persons at each site.[4] In addition, Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
partially owns and operates the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Health System, which consists of more than 70 hospitals and clinics across Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
with an employment of over 17,000 people. Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
also operates the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science which is a non-profit college dedicated to training medical and allied health professionals at Mayo Hospitals in Minnesota, Arizona
Arizona
and Florida.[25] The clinic is to set up an independent business subsidiary in London in partnership with the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in 2019.[26] Core values[edit] As the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
logo suggests, the institution has a three-part focus. First and primary to the organization is the patient care practice, represented by the central shield. This is in accordance with the primary statement of the organization that "the needs of the patient come first." The other two shields represent the areas of education and research, two areas of Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
which have become more prominent over time.[27] Patient care[edit] Each year, more than 1.3 million patients from all 50 states and from more than 150 countries are seen at one of the Mayo Clinic facilities.[4] Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
offers highly specialized medical care, and a large portion of the patient population are referrals from smaller clinics and hospitals from across the upper Midwest and the United States as a whole. Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
physicians are paid a fixed salary that is not linked to patient volume (relative value units) or income from fee-for-service payments.[28][29][30] This practice is thought to decrease the monetary motivation to see patients in large numbers and increase the incentive to spend more time with individuals. Salaries are determined by the marketplace salaries for physicians in comparable large group practices.[citation needed] Research[edit] Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
researchers contribute to the understanding of disease processes, best clinical practices, and translation of findings from the laboratory to the clinical practice. Nearly 600 doctoral level physicians and research scientists are employed, with an additional 3,400 other health personnel and students with appointments in research. In 2015, more than 2,700 research protocols were reviewed by the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Institutional review board and 11,000 ongoing human research studies. These research initiatives led to more than 7,300 research publications and review articles in peer-review journals.[4] Education[edit] Main article: Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
College of Medicine and Science The founding partners in the private practice were proponents of education very early on. In 1917, the Mayo Foundation helped fund the medical school at the University of Minnesota
Minnesota
with a two million dollar donation as it developed out of the combination of several medical faculties in Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Many new graduates were sent to Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
for further training. Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
was a pioneer in helping to establish the current residency education system. Until the early 1970s, consulting physicians at Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
in Rochester, Minnesota
Rochester, Minnesota
held joint appointments as professors at the University of Minnesota
Minnesota
medical school. In 1972, Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
opened the doors of its own medical school ( Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
School of Medicine) in Rochester, which is known for its contributions in the medical field.[31] Also, Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
established its graduate school (Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences) in 1989, to educate biomedical sciences PhD and Master students.[32] Innovation[edit] Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
issued an open letter stating the healthcare reform bills as written in July 2009 would not reduce costs or increase quality nationwide.[33] Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
has adopted more than 15,000 mobile devices from Apple for patient care; including the iPad, iPad Mini and iPhone. Mayo Clinic then created an app for these devices called Synthesis Mobile which integrated hundreds of their health systems. Other apps were also created for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Care Network members that assists patients with seeing their medical records or asking clinicians for assistance.[34] In 2014 Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
was developing an app for Apple's HealthKit
HealthKit
that would help users maintain healthy lifestyles and warns users of certain health signs that need attention.[35] Mayo Clinic, in collaboration with real estate firm Delos Living, launched the Well Living Lab in September 2015. This research facility is designed to simulate real-world, non-hospital environments to allow Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
researchers to study the interaction between indoor spaces and human health.[36] The Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Center for Innovation, established in 2008, was one of the pioneers of innovation in healthcare. It has since worked on over 270 projects and is often looked to as a role model for using design in healthcare.[37] In March 2018, Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
and Mytonomy, a healthcare education system company, partnered to provide video content for cancer patients. The video content is used to address important questions and answers and designed to aide in the decision-making process between patient and doctor.[38] Leadership[edit] Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
is led by President and CEO John Noseworthy, M.D. The previous CEO, Denis Cortese, retired in November 2009.[39] Contributions to medicine[edit] Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
has developed many medical and surgical specialities, including cancer research, heart and lung surgery, laboratory techniques and many others.[40] Rankings[edit] In 2016-17, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked as the #1 overall hospital in the United States
United States
by U.S. News & World Report. A total of almost 5,000 hospitals were considered and ranked in 16 specialties from cancer and heart disease to respiratory disorders and urology; 153 (just over 3 percent of the total) were ranked in at least one of the 16 specialties. Of the 153 hospitals that are ranked in one or more specialties, 20 qualified for the Honor Roll by earning high scores in at least six specialties. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, was ranked in the top 10 in all but one of 16 specialties, in the top 4 in 13 specialties, and was the #1 ranked hospital in 8 of the 12 data-driven specialties. This year U.S. News expanded their common procedures and conditions list to 9 individual measures, and Mayo was one of less than 70 hospitals to score High Performing in every category.[41] Additionally, Mayo was the only hospital on the 2016-2017 honor roll to also receive 5 stars from CMS.[42] Every Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
hospital received an "A" safety rating from Leapfrog in its April 2017 report.[43]

Ranked 1st

Diabetes
Diabetes
and Endocrinology Gastroenterology Geriatrics Gynecology Nephrology Neurology
Neurology
and Neurosurgery Pulmonology Urology

Ranked 2nd

Cardiology
Cardiology
and Heart Surgery Ear, Nose and Throat Orthopedics

Ranked 3rd - 7th

Cancer
Cancer
(3rd) Rheumatology (4th) Rehabilitation (6th) Psychiatry
Psychiatry
(7th)

High-Performing

Ophthalmology

Additional images[edit]

Gonda building
Gonda building
from cafeteria.

Gonda building
Gonda building
from 3rd Avenue SW.

Inside the Gonda building
Gonda building
looking south toward the 1954 Mayo building.

The Plummer building.

The Opus Imaging Research Building.

Mayo Brothers U.S. Commemorative Stamp issued 1964

The Guggenheim Building
Guggenheim Building
in Rochester, MN.

Bibliography[edit]

Clapesattle, Helen (1941). The Doctors Mayo. University of Minnesota Press. later editions are abridged  Fye, W. Bruce (Fall 2010). "The Origins and Evolution of the Mayo Clinic from 1864 to 1939: A Minnesota
Minnesota
Family Practice Becomes an International 'Medical Mecca'". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 84 (3): 323–357. (Subscription required (help)). in Project MUSE  Fye, W. Bruce (March 2, 2015). Caring for the Heart: Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
and the Rise of Specialization. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-998235-6. (Subscription required (help)).  Keeling, Arlene PhD, RN (2014). The Nurses of Mayo Clinic: Caring Healers. Mayo Clinic. ISBN 978-1-89-300583-9.  Wright-Peterson, Virginia M. (2016). Women of Mayo Clinic: The Founding Generation. Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-1681340005. 

See also[edit]

American Legacy Foundation Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Center for Innovation Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Diet Medical centers in the United States Philippe Baele

References[edit]

^ a b c "An Inside Look at the Mayo Clinic" (PDF). Mayo Clinic. 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2018.  ^ a b c "History of Saint Marys Hospital". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved January 6, 2016.  ^ Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Website. [1]. Accessed March 11, 2013. ^ a b c d " Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Facts". December 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2016.  ^ "About Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Research".  ^ McKinney, Matt (June 8, 2016). " Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
unveils plans for expanded research space". Star Tribune. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ Harder, Ben (August 1, 2015). "Best Hospitals: 2016-2017 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Overview". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.  ^ "Top American Hospitals – US News Best Hospitals". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 4, 2010.  ^ " 100 Best Companies to Work For
100 Best Companies to Work For
2011: Mayo Clinic". Fortune. February 7, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011.  ^ " Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
named one of FORTURE's "100 Best Companies to Work For"" (Press release). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ " 100 Best Companies to Work For
100 Best Companies to Work For
2017". Fortune. Retrieved May 16, 2017.  ^ "About Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
- About Us - Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic.  ^ "Locations - Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Health System". Mayo Clinic.  ^ Furst, Jay (2014). "Fight for the Union, 1864: Hope grows for war's end". Post-Bulletin (Rochester, Minn.), Sept. 6, 2014.  ^ Schlup, Leonard; Ryan, James G. (2003). Historical dictionary of the Gilded Age. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. p. 299. ISBN 9780765621061.  ^ "Mayo, Charles Horace (1865 - 1939)". Royal College of Surgeons. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ "The Rochester, MN Tornado of 1883". National Weather Service. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ Danilov, Victor J. (2013). Famous Americans : a directory of museums, historic sites, and memorials. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 138. ISBN 9780810891869.  ^ Zachariah, Prince K (2005). "Automation of the Clinical Practice: Cost-Effective and Efficient Health Care". Building a Better Delivery System: A New Engineering/Health Care Partnership. National Academies Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-309-09643-0.  ^ Billstein, Kelli (February 15, 2016). "Building our history: Conley/Maass Building". Rochester Magazine. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ Lowes, Robert. "Residents Are Workers, Not Students, for Tax Purposes, Says High Court". Medscape. Retrieved August 25, 2016.  ^ "Saudi oil executive gives $10M to Mayo Clinic". Star Tribune. August 10, 2011.  ^ "Saudi Family Major Gift to Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
is Emblem of Generosity". Arabia Link. August 15, 2011.  ^ "An Inside Look at Mayo Clinic" (PDF). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ " Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
College of Medicine & Science". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 16, 2017.  ^ "Mayo Clinic, Oxford to collaborate on research and innovation". Healthcare IT news. October 5, 2017. Retrieved December 23, 2017.  ^ "Logo Logic: What do those shields mean?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved November 4, 2012.  ^ Underwood, Anne (23 September 2009). "A new way to pay physicians". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ MacGillis, Alex; Stein, Rob (20 September 2009). "Is the Mayo Clinic a model or a mirage? Jury is still out". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Olson, Jeremy (23 April 2015). "Mayo faces new price of success". Star Tribune. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Mayo Medical School". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2012.  ^ "History". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 14, 2017.  ^ McGreal, Chris (July 21, 2009). "Obama launches campaign urging Congress to pass healthcare reform". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  ^ "Mayo Clinic". Apple. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ Sparks, Dana (June 2, 2014). "Apple Highlights New Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
App During Worldwide Developers Keynote" (Press release). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ Stinson, Liz (October 4, 2015). "Why the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Modeled Its New Lab on a Stuffy Office". Wired. Retrieved October 9, 2015.  ^ " Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
CFI". centerforinnovation.mayo.edu. Retrieved August 4, 2016.  ^ " Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
partners with cloud startup Mytonomy to give cancer patients critical data". Healthcare IT News. 2018-03-22. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ Newmarker, Chris (May 8, 2009). "Noseworthy Named New Mayo Clinic CEO". Minneapolis-St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ "Contributions to Medicine Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
History & Heritage". history.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved August 4, 2016.  ^ "US News / Healthcare / Best Hospitals / Mayo Clinic". August 3, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.  ^ Punke, Heather. "How did CMS rate US News' 20 Honor Roll hospitals?". www.beckershospitalreview.com. Retrieved August 3, 2016.  ^ "See which hospitals earned an 'A' from Leapfrog". Healthcare Finance News. Retrieved May 15, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mayo Clinic.

Official site of Mayo Clinic Official site of Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
Health System Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
College of Medicine MNopedia article about Mayo Clinic

Coordinates: 44°01′20″N 92°28′00″W / 44.0222°N 92.4666°W /

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