MANILA (/məˈnɪlə/ ; Filipino : _Maynilà_, pronounced or ),
officially the CITY OF MANILA (Filipino : _Lungsod ng Maynilà_ ), is
the capital of the
Philippines and the most densely populated city
proper in the world. It was the first chartered City by virtue of the
Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy
with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of
the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949.
Manila was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish _conquistador
Miguel López de Legazpi , it is one of the oldest cities in the
Philippines and was the seat of power for most of the country's
colonial rulers. It is situated on the eastern shore of
Manila Bay and
is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th
century. In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Manila as an alpha- global city . The city proper is home to
1,780,148 people in 2015 , and is the historic core of a built-up area
that extends well beyond its administrative limits. The term "Manila"
is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater
metropolitan area or the city proper. The officially-defined
metropolitan area called
Metro Manila , the capital region of the
Philippines, includes the much larger
Quezon City and the Makati
Central Business District . It is the most populous region of the
country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world, and is
one of the wealthiest regions in
Southeast Asia . With 41,515 people
per square kilometer,
Manila is also the most densely populated city
proper in the world.
Manila is located on the eastern shores of the
Manila Bay in one of
the finest harbors in the country. The
Pasig River runs through the
middle of the city.
Manila is made up of 16 districts:
Intramuros , Malate , Paco ,
Pandacan , Port Area , Quiapo ,
Sampaloc , San Andres , San Miguel , San Nicolas , Santa Ana , Santa
Santa Mesa and Tondo .
Manila is also made up of Six
Congressional Districts that represents the city on the Lower House of
the Philippine Congress .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Precolonial history
* 2.2 Spanish period
* 2.3 American period
* 2.4 Japanese occupation and
World War II
World War II
* 2.5 Contemporary period
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Earthquakes
* 3.2 Climate
* 3.3 Environment
* 4 Cityscape
* 4.1 Architecture
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Tourism
* 6.2 Shopping
* 7 Culture and contemporary life
* 7.1 Religion
* 7.1.1 Christianity
* 7.1.2 Other faiths
* 7.2 Festivities and holidays
* 7.3 Museums
* 8 Sports
* 9 Law and government
* 9.1 Finance
* 9.2 Barangays and Districts
* 10 Infrastructure
* 10.1 Utilities
* 10.1.1 Water and electricity
* 10.2 Transportation
* 11 Healthcare
* 12 Education
* 13 Sister cities
* 13.3 Americas
* 14 See also
* 15 Notes
* 16 References
* 17 Sources
* 18 External links
_Maynilà_, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word
_nilà _, referring to a flowering mangrove tree that grew on the
delta of the
Pasig River and the shores of
Manila Bay . The flowers
were made into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to
statues on religious altars or in churches. As _nilà_ products were
distributed in other places, people came to refer to the area as "Sa
may Nilà", Tagalog for "the place where there are _nilàs_". The word
_nilà_ itself is probably from the
Sanskrit _nila_ (नील),
meaning "indigo tree".
History of Manila and
Timeline of Manila
Timeline of Manila
Laguna Copperplate Inscription
Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the oldest historical
record in the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to
Tondo and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).
The earliest evidence of human life around present-day
Manila is the
Angono Petroglyphs , dated to around 3000 BC.
Negritos , an
Australoid people who became the aboriginal inhabitants of the
Philippines, lived across the island of
Luzon , where
located, before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated
Kingdom of Tondo flourished during the latter half of the Ming
dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with
China . The Tondo
district was the traditional capital of the empire, and its rulers
were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. They were addressed
variously as _panginuan_ in Maranao or _panginoón_ in Tagalog
("lords"); _anák banwa_ ("son of heaven"); or _lakandula _ ("lord of
the palace"). The Emperor of
China considered the Lakans —the rulers
of ancient Manila—"王", or kings.
In the 13th century,
Manila consisted of a fortified settlement and
trading quarter on the shore of the
Pasig River. It was then settled
by the Indianized empire of
Majapahit , as recorded in the epic eulogy
Nagarakretagama ", which described the area's conquest by
Hayam Wuruk . Selurong (षेलुरोन्ग्), a
historical name for Manila, is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot,
which is now
Sulu , and
During the reign of Sultan
Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate
Brunei invaded, wanting to take advantage of Tondo's trade with
China by attacking its environs and establishing the Kingdom of
Maynilà (كوتا سلودوڠ; _Kota Seludong_). The kingdom was
ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of
Brunei as a
satellite state . It established a new dynasty under the local
leader, who accepted
Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Sulaiman I .
He established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan
Dula in Tondo.
Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim
traders from the
Middle East and
Southeast Asia . In 1574,
temporarily besieged by the Chinese pirate
Lim Hong , who was
ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. The city then became the
seat of the Spanish colonial government.
The Walled City of
Intramuros as seen from outside the walls in
On June 24, 1571, the conquistador
Miguel López de Legazpi arrived
Manila and declared it a territory of
New Spain , establishing a
city council in what is now the district of
Intramuros . López de
Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled after the failure of
the Tondo Conspiracy , a plot wherein an alliance between datus ,
rajahs , Japanese merchants and the Sultanate of
Brunei would band
together to execute the Spaniards, along with their Latin American
mercenaries. The victorious Spaniards made Manila, the capital of the
Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which their empire would
control for the next three centuries.
Manila became famous during the Manila–
Acapulco galleon trade,
which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from
Africa and Hispanic America across the
Pacific Islands to Southeast
Asia (which was already an entrepôt for goods coming from
Indonesia and China), and vice versa.
Silver that was mined in Mexico
Peru was exchanged for Chinese silk , Indian gems and the spices
of Southeast Asia. Likewise, wines and olives grown in
Africa were shipped via
Mexico to Manila. View of Manila,
The city was captured by Great Britain in 1762 as part of the
European Seven Years\' War between Spain,
France and Great Britain.
The city was then occpuied by the British for almost two years from
1762 to 1764 and remained the capital of the Philippines. Eventually,
the British withdrew in accordance with the 1763 Treaty of
Paris . An
unknown number of Indian soldiers known as sepoys , who came with the
British, deserted and settled in nearby
Cainta, Rizal , which explains
the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta residents.
The Chinese were then punished for supporting the British invasion,
and the fortress city of
Intramuros , initially populated by 1200
Spanish families and garrisoned by 400 Spanish troops, kept its
cannons pointed at
Binondo , the world's oldest
Chinatown . The
Mexican population was concentrated at the south part of Manila, and
Cavite , where ships from Spain's American colonies docked,
Ermita , an area so named because of a Mexican hermit that
Mexico gained independence in 1821,
Spain began to govern
Manila directly. Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and
education flourished more than they had in the previous two centuries.
The opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869 facilitated direct trade and
communications with Spain.
The city's growing wealth and education attracted indigenous people,
Chinese, Indians, Latinos, and Europeans from the surrounding
provinces and facilitated the rise of an _ilustrado _ class that
espoused liberal ideas: the ideological foundations of the Philippine
Revolution , which sought independence from Spain.
A view of
Escolta Street in 1899.
After the 1898 Battle of
Manila to the United
First Philippine Republic , based in nearby
fought against the Americans for control of the city. The Americans
First Philippine Republic and captured President Emilio
Aguinaldo , who declared allegiance to the
United States on April 1,
1901. The Burnham Plan of Manila. North is at the left.
Upon drafting a new charter for
Manila in June 1901, the Americans
made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila
consisted not of
Intramuros alone but also of the surrounding areas.
The new charter proclaimed that
Manila was composed of eleven
municipal districts: presumably Binondo,
Ermita , Intramuros, Malate ,
Pandacan , Sampaloc , San Miguel , Santa Ana ,
Santa Cruz and
Tondo . In addition, the
Catholic Church recognized five
parishes—Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic,
Santa Mesa and
Singalong—as part of Manila. Later, two more would be added: Balut
and San Andres .
Under American control, a new, civilian-oriented Insular Government
headed by Governor-General
William Howard Taft invited city planner
Daniel Burnham to adapt
Manila to modern needs. The Burnham Plan
included the development of a road system, the use of waterways for
transportation, and the beautification of
Manila with waterfront
improvements and construction of parks, parkways and buildings.
The planned buildings included a government center occupying all of
Wallace Field, which extends from
Rizal Park to the present Taft
Avenue . The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the
Taft Avenue end of
the field, facing toward the sea. Along with buildings for various
government bureaus and departments, it would form a quadrangle with a
lagoon in the center and a monument to
José Rizal at the other end of
the field. Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three
units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and
Agricultural Departments—were completed when
World War II
World War II erupted.
JAPANESE OCCUPATION AND WORLD WAR II
The destruction brought about by the Battle of
Manila in 1945
During the Japanese occupation of the
Philippines , American soldiers
were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations
were removed on December 24, 1941. General
Douglas MacArthur declared
Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but
Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it.
Manila was occupied by
Japanese forces on January 2, 1942.
From February 3 to March 3, 1945,
Manila was the site of the
bloodiest battle in the Pacific theater of World War II. Some 100,000
civilians were killed in February. At the end of the battle, Manila
was recaptured by joint American and Philippine troops. It was the
second most devastated city in the world, after
Warsaw , during the
Second World War. Almost all of the structures in the city,
particularly in Intramuros, were destroyed.
Rizal Avenue in the 1970s before the construction of LRT Line 1
In 1948, President
Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of
Quezon City , a new capital in the suburbs and
fields northeast of Manila, created in 1939 during the administration
Manuel L. Quezon . The move ended any implementation of
the Burnham Plan's intent for the government centre to be at Luneta.
With the Visayan-born
Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in
1952 (all mayors were appointed before this),
Manila underwent _The
Golden Age_, once again earning its status as the "Pearl of the
Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After
Lacson's term in the 1950s,
Manila was led by
Antonio Villegas for
most of the 1960s.
Ramon Bagatsing (an
Indian-Filipino ) was mayor for
nearly the entire 1970s until the 1986
People Power Revolution .
Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are collectively known as the
"Big Three of Manila" for their contribution to the development of the
city and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life and
welfare of the people of Manila.
During the administration of
Ferdinand Marcos , the region of Metro
Manila was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of
Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed
four cities and thirteen adjoining towns , as a separate regional unit
of government. On the 405th anniversary of the city's foundation on
June 24, 1976,
Manila was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of the
Philippines for its historical significance as the seat of government
since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that
Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the
world, the premier city of the
Philippines being the center of trade,
commerce, education and culture.
During the martial law era ,
Manila became a hot-bed of resistance
activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with
the police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime.
After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power Revolution
(predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain
Europe ), ousted the authoritarian Marcos from power.
Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first
hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was
Lito Atienza , who served as his vice mayor. Atienza was
known for his campaign (and city slogan) "_Buhayin ang Maynila_"
(_Revive Manila_), which saw the establishment of several parks and
the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities.
He was the city's mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out
of office. The 119th commemoration of
Rizal Day at the
with the controversial
Torre de Manila in the background.
Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the
2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects
claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to the
improvements of the city. The relationship of both parties turned
bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in
which Lim won against Atienza.
Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008 over human rights ,
charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools, and
was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the
hostage taking incident , one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the
Philippines. Later on, Vice Mayor
Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors
filed another case against Lim in 2012, stating that Lim's statement
in a meeting were "life-threatening" to them. In the 2013 elections ,
Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race.
During his term, Estrada has paid more than ₱5 billion in city debts
and increased the city's revenues from ₱6.2 billion in 2012 to
₱14.6 billion by 2016, resulting in increased infrastructure
spending and the betterment of the welfare of the people of Manila. In
2015, the city became the most competitive city in the Philippines,
making the city the best place for doing business and for living in.
However, despite these achievements, Estrada only narrowly won over
Lim in their electoral rematch in 2016 .
Torre de Manila , an under-construction residential building by DMCI
Homes , is controversial for ruining the sight line of
Rizal Park and
violating several building and zoning laws. It is now known as the
"national photobomber" or as "Terror de Manila". It drew flak after
heritage preservation groups and citizens condemned it for destroying
the historical monument’s view.
Geography of Manila The iconic
Manila Bay sunset
ISS photo of
Manila (just left of center) and surrounding cities
Manila is situated on the eastern shore of
Manila Bay , on the
western edge of
Luzon , 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) from mainland
Asia . One of Manila's greatest natural resources is the protected
harbor upon which it sits, regarded as the finest in all of Asia. The
Pasig River flows through the middle of city. The overall grade of
the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the
natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally
exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise.
In 2017, the City Government approved four reclamation projects: the
Manila Bay International Community (407.43 hectares), Solar City
(148 hectares), the
Manila Harbour Center expansion (50 hectares) and
Manila (419 hectares). Projects such as these have been
criticized by environmentalists and the
Catholic Church , stating that
these reclamation projects are not sustainable and would put
communities at risk of flooding. A fifth reclamation project is
possible and when built, it will contain the in-city housing
Almost all of
Manila sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial
deposits built by the waters of the
Pasig River and on some land
Manila Bay. Manila's land has been altered
substantially by human intervention, with considerable land
reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times.
Some of the city's natural variations in topography have been evened
out. As of 2013 ,
Manila had a total area of 42.88 square kilometres
(16.56 sq mi).
Further information: List of earthquakes in the
Swiss Re , the world’s second-largest reinsurer based in
Switzerland , places
Manila as the second riskiest capital city to
live in. The company cited dangers of earthquakes and flooding. The
Marikina Valley Fault System poses a threat to
Manila and the surrounding regions.
Manila has endured several deadly
earthquakes, notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and
brick medieval city. The
Earthquake Baroque style was used by
architects during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the
Köppen climate classification system,
Manila has a
tropical savanna climate (
Köppen climate classification Aw). Together
with the rest of the Philippines,
Manila lies entirely within the
tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range
is very small, rarely going below 20 °C (68 °F) or above 38 °C (100
°F). Temperature extremes have ranged from 14.5 °C (58.1 °F) on
January 11, 1914, to 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) on May 7, 1915.
Humidity levels are usually very high all year round.
Manila has a
distinct dry season from December through May, and a relatively
lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly
cooler temperatures. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but
rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur
from June to September.
CLIMATE DATA FOR PORT AREA, MANILA
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.10 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
Source #1: PAGASA
Source #2: Climatemps.com (sunshine)
Due to industrial waste and automobiles,
Manila suffers from air
pollution , affecting 98% of the population. Annually, the air
pollution causes more than 4,000 deaths.
Ermita is Manila's most air
polluted district due to open dump sites and industrial waste .
According to a report in 2003, the
Pasig River is one of the most
polluted rivers in the world with 150 tons of domestic waste and 75
tons of industrial waste dumped daily.
Manila is hit with 5 to 7 typhoons creating floods. In
Typhoon Ketsana struck the Philippines. In its aftermath, the
lack of infrastructure led to one of the worst floodings in the
Philippines and creating a significant amount of pollution. Following
the aftermath of
Typhoon Ketsana, the city began to dredge its rivers
and improve its drainage network. The
Pasig River Rehabilitation
Commission is in charge of cleaning up the
Pasig River and tributaries
for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes. Rehabilitation
efforts have resulted in the creation of parks along the riverside,
along with stricter pollution controls.
The bay skyline of
Manila as seen from Harbour Square.
The city is made up of fourteen city districts, according to Republic
Act No. 409—the Revised Charter of the City of Manila—the basis of
which officially sets the present-day boundary of the city. Two were
later added, which are
Santa Mesa (partitioned off from Sampaloc) and
San Andres (partitioned off from Santa Ana).
Luneta Hotel , an example of French Renaissance architecture
with Filipino stylized beaux art The façade of the Manila
Metropolitan Theater , designed by
Juan M. Arellano The
façade of the
Manila is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a
wide range of styles spanning different historical and cultural
periods. Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish, Chinese, and
Malay influences. Prominent Filipino architects such as Antonio
Toledo, Felipe Roxas,
Juan M. Arellano and
Tomás Mapúa have designed
significant buildings in
Manila such as churches, government offices,
theaters, mansions, schools and universities.
Manila is also famed for its Art Deco theaters . Some of these were
designed by National Artists for Architecture such as
Juan Nakpil and
Pablo Antonio . Unfortunately most of these theater neglected, and
some of it have been demolished. The historic
Escolta Street in
Binondo features many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts
architectural style, many of which were designed by prominent Filipino
architects during the American Rule in the 1920s to the late 1930s.
Many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are
pushing for the revival of Escolta Street, which was once the premier
street of the Philippines.
Almost all of Manila's prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were
destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive
bombardment of the
United States Air Force during
World War II
World War II .
Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing the destroyed historic
Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city's
character. Some buildings destroyed by the war have been
reconstructed, such as the Old Legislative Building (now the National
Museum of Fine Arts ),
Ayuntamiento de Manila (now the Bureau of the
Treasury) and the currently under construction San Ignacio Church and
Convent (as the Museo de
Intramuros ). There are plans to rehabilitate
and/or restore several neglected historic buildings and places such as
Plaza Del Carmen, San Sebastian Church and the
Theater . Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts of
Quiapo , and San Nicolas are also planned to be restored, as a part of
a movement to restore the city to its former glory and its beautiful
Manila is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects
invented the style called
Earthquake Baroque which the churches and
government buildings during the Spanish colonial period adopted. As a
result, succeeding earthquakes of the 18th and 19th centuries barely
affected Manila, although it did periodically level the surrounding
area. Modern buildings in and around
Manila are designed or have been
retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in accordance to the
country's building code.
POPULATION CENSUS OF MANILA
Philippine Statistics Authority
Philippine Statistics Authority
Binondo , established in 1594, is the world's oldest
According to the 2015 census, the population of the city was
1,780,148, making it the second most populous city in the Philippines.
Manila is the most densely populated city in the world, with 43,079
inhabitants per km2. District 6 is listed as being the most dense
with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by District 1 with 64,936
and District 2 with 64,710, respectively. District 5 is the least
densely populated area with 19,235.
Manila's population density dwarfs that of
inhabitants per km2),
Mumbai (22,937 inhabitants per km2), Paris
(20,164 inhabitants per km2),
Dhaka (19,447 inhabitants per km2),
Shanghai (16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district,
Nanshi, having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and Tokyo
(10,087 inhabitants per km2).
Manila has been presumed to be the Philippines' largest city since
the establishment of a permanent Spanish settlement with the city
eventually becoming the political, commercial and ecclesiastical
capital of the country. Its population increased dramatically since
the 1903 census as the population tended to move from rural areas to
towns and cities. In the 1960 census,
Manila became the first
Philippine city to breach the one million mark (more than 5 times of
its 1903 population). The city continued to grow until the population
somehow "stabilized" at 1.6 million and experienced alternating
increase and decrease starting the 1990 census year. This phenomenon
may be attributed to the higher growth experience by suburbs and the
already very high population density of city. As such, Manila
exhibited a decreasing percentage share to the metropolitan population
from as high as 63% in the 1950s to 27.5% in 1980 and then to 13.8%
in 2015. The much larger
Quezon City marginally surpassed the
Manila in 1990 and by the 2015 census already has 1.1
million people more. Nationally, the population of
Manila is expected
to be overtaken by cities with larger territories such as Caloocan
Davao City by 2020.
The vernacular language is Filipino , based mostly on the Tagalog
language of surrounding areas, and this
Manila form of spoken Tagalog
has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having
spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and
entertainment. English is the language most widely used in education,
business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout
Metro Manila and
A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish , which
used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine
universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino ,
Korean Filipino ,
Indian Filipino , and other migrants or expatriates
also speak their parents' languages at home, aside from English and/or
Filipino for everyday use. A variant of
Southern Min , Hokkien
(locally known as _Lan'nang-oe_) is mainly spoken by the city's
Port of Manila , the chief port of the Philippines.
Aerial view of
Binondo , the city's
Chinatown and business district.
Manila is a major center for commerce, banking and finance,
retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as
traditional media , advertising, legal services, accounting,
insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines. Around
60,000 establishments operates in the city.
The National Competitiveness Council of the
annually publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index
(CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country
according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and
infrastructure. According to the 2016 CMCI,
Manila was the second most
competitive city in the Philippines.
Manila placed third in the
Highly Urbanized City (HUC) category.
Manila held the title country's
most competitive city in 2015, and since then has been making it to
the top 3, assuring that the city is consistently one of the best
place to live in and do business. Lars Wittig, the country manager of
Regus Philippines, hailed
Manila as the third best city in the country
to launch a start-up business.
Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making
it the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The
Philippine Ports Authority is the government agency responsible to
oversee the operation and management of the ports. The International
Container Terminal Services Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank
as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the world
has its headquarters and main operations on the ports of Manila.
Another port operator, the Asian Terminal Incorporated, has its
corporate office and main operations in the
Manila South Harbor and
its container depository located in
Santa Mesa .
Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest Chinatowns in the world,
was the center of commerce and business activities in the city.
Numerous residential and office skyscrapers are found within its
medieval streets. Plans to make the
Chinatown area into a business
process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued
by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified
to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located
Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can
be converted into offices.
Divisoria in Tondo is known as the "shopping mecca of the
Philippines". Numerous shopping malls are located in this place, which
sells products and goods at bargain price. Small vendors occupy
several roads that causes pedestrian and vehicular traffic. A famous
Divisoria is the Tutuban Center, a large shopping mall
that is a part of the
Philippine National Railways ' Main Station . It
attracts 1 million people every month, but is expected to add another
400,000 people when the LRT Line 2 West Extension is constructed,
which is set to make it as Manila's busiest transfer station.
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas , the central bank of the
Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related
products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods.
Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local
entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export,
including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra , and coconut oil. The
food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing
sector in the city.
Pandacan Oil Depot houses the storage facilities and distribution
terminals of the three major players in the country's petroleum
industry, namely Caltex
Philippines , Pilipinas Shell and Petron
Corporation . The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns,
including its environmental and health impact to the residents of
Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered that the oil depot to be
relocated outside the city by July 2015, but it failed to meet this
deadline. It is currently being demolished which is expected to be
finished before the year 2016 ends, and plans have been set up to turn
this 33 hectare facility into a transport hub or even a food park.
Manila is a major publishing center in the Philippines. _Manila
Bulletin _, the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by
circulation, is headquartered in Intramuros. Other major publishing
companies in the country like _
The Manila Times _, _The Philippine
Star _ and _
Manila Standard Today _ are headquartered in the Port
Area. The _
Chinese Commercial News _, the Philippines' oldest existing
Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing
newspaper is headquartered in
Manila serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the
Philippines which is located along
Roxas Boulevard . Some universal
banks in the
Philippines that has its headquarters in the city are the
Landbank of the
Philippine Trust Company . Philam Life
Insurance Company , currently the largest life insurance company in
Philippines in terms of assets, net worth, investment and paid-up
capital, has its headquarters along
United Nations Avenue in
Philippines has its corporate office along United
Nations Avenue in Paco .
Toyota , a company listed in the Forbes
Global 2000 , also has its regional office along UN Avenue.
Tourism in Manila Panorama of
Rizal Park taken
Roxas Boulevard . Panorama of the
Tanghalang Pambansa at
the Cultural Center of the
Philippines Complex . People riding
Fort Santiago .
Manila welcomes over 1 million tourists each year. Major
destinations include the historic Walled City of
Intramuros , the
Cultural Center of the
Philippines Complex ,
Manila Ocean Park ,
Binondo (Chinatown), Ermita, Malate ,
Manila Zoo , the National Museum
Rizal Park . The Walled City of
were designated as flagship destination and as a tourism enterprise
zone in the Tourism Act of 2009.
Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park, is the national park and the
largest urban park in
Asia with an area of 58 hectares (140 acres),
The park was constructed as an honor and dedication to the country's
José Rizal , who was executed by the Spaniards on
charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the
Rizal Monument is the
Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. The
park was managed by the National Parks and Development Committee.
The 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) Walled City of
the historic center of Manila. It is administered by the Intramuros
Administration, an attached agency of the Department of Tourism . It
contains the famed
Manila Cathedral and the 18th Century San Agustin
Church , a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
Kalesa is a popular mode of
transportation for tourists in
Intramuros and nearby places including
The Department of Tourism designates
Manila as the pioneer of medical
tourism , expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually.
However, lack of progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure
and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances for its
Tutuban Centermall, a famous shopping center for locals in the
Chinatown Mall in
Manila is regarded as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia.
Major shopping malls , department stores , markets , supermarkets and
bazaars thrives within the city.
Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city. The
mall was the second and the largest
Robinsons Malls built. SM
Supermall operates two shopping malls in the city which are the SM
SM City San Lazaro . SM City
Manila is located on the
former grounds of YMCA
Manila beside the
Manila City Hall
Manila City Hall in
SM City San Lazaro is built on the site of the former San Lazaro
Hippodrome in Sta. Cruz . The building of the former
Hotel in Quiapo , which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop, is
now the SM Clearance Center that was established in 1972. The site of
the first SM Store is located at Carlos Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague)
Street in San Miguel .
Quiapo is referred to as the "Old Downtown", where tiangges ,
markets, boutique shops, music and electronics stores are common. C.M.
Recto Avenue is where lots of department stores are located. One of
Recto Avenue's famous destinations is
Divisoria , home to numerous
shopping malls in the city, including the famed Tutuban Center and the
Chinatown Mall . It is also dubbed as the shopping mecca of the
Philippines where everything is sold at bargain price. Binondo, the
Chinatown in the world, is the city's center of commerce and
trade for all types of businesses run by
with a wide variety of Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants.
CULTURE AND CONTEMPORARY LIFE
As a result of Spanish cultural influence,
Manila is a predominantly
Christian city. As of 2010 , Roman Catholics were 83.5% of the
population, followed by adherents of the Philippine Independent Church
Iglesia ni Cristo (1.9%); various Protestant churches (1.8%);
and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of
Islam and other religions make up the
remaining 10.4% of the city's population.
Manila is the site of prominent Catholic churches and institutions.
There are 113 Catholic churches within the city limits; 63 are
considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral. The Manila
Cathedral is the seat of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila and
the oldest established church in the country. Aside from the Manila
Cathedral, there are also three other basilicas in the city: Quiapo
Binondo Church , and the Minor Basilica of San Sebastián .
The San Agustín Church in
Intramuros is a
UNESCO World Heritage Site
and is one of the two fully air-conditioned Catholic churches in the
Manila also has other parishes located throughout the city, with
some of them dating back to the Spanish Colonial Period when the city
serves as the base for numerous Catholic missions both within the
Philippines and to
Mainline Protestant denominations are headquartered in the
city. St. Stephen\'s Parish pro-cathedral in the Sta. Cruz district is
the see of the Episcopal Church in the
Philippines ' Diocese of
Central Philippines, while align
Taft Avenue are the main cathedral
and central offices of the
Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also called
the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the
Philippine Revolution ). Other faiths like The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints (
Mormons ) has several churches in the city.
Iglesia ni Cristo has several locales (akin to
parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum)
in Punta, Sta. Ana. Evangelical ,
Pentecostal and Seventh-day
Adventist denominations also thrive within the city. The headquarters
of the Philippine Bible Society is in Manila. Also, the main campus of
Cathedral of Praise is located along
Taft Avenue . Jesus Is Lord
Church also has several branches and campuses in Manila, and
celebrates its anniversary yearly at the Burnham Green and Quirino
Manila Cathedral is the seat of
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
The Minor Basilica of San Sebastián is the only all-steel church in
San Agustín Church in
Intramuros , a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
Quiapo Church is the home to the iconic
Black Nazarene which
celebrates its feasts every January 9.
The city also hosts other religions. There are many Buddhist and
Taoist temples serving the
Chinese Filipino community. Quiapo is home
to a sizable Muslim population which worships at
Masjid Al-Dahab .
Members of the Indian expatriate population have the option of
worshiping at the large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh
gurdwara along United Nations Avenue. The National Spiritual Assembly
of the Bahá\'ís of the Philippines, the governing body of the
Filipino Bahá'í community, is headquartered near Manila's eastern
border with Makati.
FESTIVITIES AND HOLIDAYS
Further information: Public holidays in the
Catholic devotees during the Feast of the Black Nazarene
Manila celebrates civic and national holidays.
Manila Day, which
celebrates the city's founding on June 24, 1571, was first proclaimed
Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962
and has been annually commemorated, under the patronage of John the
Baptist . Locally, each of the city's barangays also have their own
festivities guided by their own patron saint . The city is also the
host to the Feast of the
Black Nazarene , held every January 9, which
draws millions of Catholic devotees. Other religious feasts held in
Manila are the Feast of Santo Niño in Tondo and
Pandacan held on the
third Sunday of January and the Feast of the Nuestra Señora de los
Manila (Our Lady of the Abandoned), the patron saint
of Santa Ana and held every May 12. Non-religious holidays include the
New Year\'s Day , National Heroes\' Day ,
Bonifacio Day and
The National Museum of Fine Arts at the National Museum Complex
As the cultural center of the Philippines,
Manila is the home to a
number of museums. The National Museum of the
Philippines operates a
chain of museums in
Rizal Park, such as the National Museum of Fine
Arts , the National Museum of Anthropology and the National Museum of
Natural History . Museums established by educational institutions
include the Mabini Shrine , the Museum of Contemporary Art and Design,
UST Museum of Arts and Sciences , and the UP Museum of a History of
Bahay Tsinoy , one of Manila's most prominent museums, documents the
Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. The
Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for
freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other
revolutionary leaders. The
Metropolitan Museum of Manila exhibits the
Filipino arts and culture .
Other museums in the city are the Museum of Manila, the city-owned
museum that exhibits the city's culture and history,
Museo Pambata , a
children's museum, the
Museum of Philippine Political History , which
exhibits notable political events in the country, the Parish of the
Our Lady of the Abandoned and the San Agustin Church Museum, which
houses religious artifacts, and Plaza San Luis, a public museum.
Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church
Intramuros Golf Club
Manila have a long and distinguished history. The city's,
and in general the country's main sport is basketball , and most
barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift basketball
court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have
covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer
(April to May).
Manila has many sports venues, such as the Rizal
Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now
Manila Metrostars . The
Rizal Memorial Sports Complex houses
Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the
Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the
latter two are indoor arenas). The
Rizal complex had hosted several
multi-sport events, such as the
1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far
Eastern Games . Whenever the country hosts the
Southeast Asian Games ,
most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005 Games ,
most events were held elsewhere. The
1960 ABC Championship and the
1973 ABC Championship , forerunners of the FIBA
Asia Championship ,
was hosted by the complex, with the national basketball team winning
on both tournaments. The
1978 FIBA World Championship was held at the
complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum
Quezon City , Southeast Asia's largest indoor arena at that time.
Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the
Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas
Sports Complex , both of which are private venues owned by a
university; collegiate sports are also held, with the University
Athletic Association of the
Philippines and the National Collegiate
Athletic Association basketball games held at
Rizal Memorial Coliseum
and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred
to San Juan 's
Filoil Flying V Arena and the
Araneta Coliseum in
Quezon City. Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal
Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at
the city, but the Philippine
Basketball Association now holds their
Araneta Coliseum and
Cuneta Astrodome at
Pasay ; the now
Basketball League played some of their games at the
Rizal Memorial Sports Complex.
Manila Storm are the city's rugby league team training at Rizal
Park (Luneta Park) and playing their matches at Southern Plains Field,
Calamba, Laguna . Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila
is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country,
Baseball Stadium . The stadium hosts games of
Lou Gehrig and
Babe Ruth were the first players
to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on
December 2, 1934. Another popular sport in the city are cue sports ,
and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup
of Pool was held at
Robinsons Place Manila .
Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA
World Cup qualifier in decades when the
Philippines hosted Sri Lanka
in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for
international matches, had undergone a major renovation program before
the match. The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of the
United Football League . The stadium also hosted its first rugby test
when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.
LAW AND GOVERNMENT
Manila City Hall
Manila City Hall The
Malacañang Palace is the official
residence and office of the President of the
Palacio del Gobernador
Palacio del Gobernador in
Intramuros is home to the Philippine
Commission on Elections and
Intramuros Administration. The
Supreme Court of the
Manila—officially known as the City of Manila—is the national
capital of the
Philippines and is classified as a
(according to its income) and a Highly Urbanized City (HUC). The
mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted by the vice mayor, the
36-member City Council, six Congressmen, the President of the
Barangay Captains, and the President of the
Sangguniang Kabataan _. The members of the City Council are elected
as representatives of specific congressional districts within the
city. The city, however, have no control over
Intramuros and the
Manila North Harbor. The historic Walled City is administered by the
Intramuros Administration, while the
Manila North Harbor is managed by
the Philippine Ports Authority. Both are national government agencies.
The barangays that have jurisdictions over these places only oversee
the welfare of the city's constituents and cannot exercise their
The current mayor is
Joseph Estrada , who served as the President of
Philippines from 1998 to 2001. He is currently on his second term
in serving as the city mayor. The current vice mayor is Dr. Maria
Shielah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan, daughter of former
Manila Vice Mayor
Danny Lacuna. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited by up to 3
terms, with each term lasting for 3 years.
Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has
several national government offices headquartered at the city.
Planning for the development for being the center of government
started during the early years of American colonization when they
envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The
strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now
Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design
commission was given to
Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the
city patterned after
Washington, D.C. These improvements were
eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L.
A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of
Manila, or what is now
Quezon City. Several government agencies have
set up their headquarters in
Quezon City but several key government
offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were
substantially altered after the devastation of
Manila during World War
II and by subsequent administrations.
The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as
well as the president's official residence. Aside from these,
important government agencies and institutions such as the Supreme
Court , the Court of Appeals , the
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas , the
Departments of Budget and Management , Finance , Health , Justice ,
Labor and Employment and Public Works and Highways still call the city
Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the
National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the
Philippine General Hospital.
Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building . In
1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its
successor, the unicameral
Batasang Pambansa , held office at the new
Batasang Pambansa Complex . When a new constitution restored the
bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the
Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old
Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new
building it shares with the
Government Service Insurance System at
reclaimed land at
Pasay . The Supreme Court will also transfer to its
new campus at
Bonifacio Global City ,
Taguig in 2019.
In the 2015 Annual Audit Report by the Commission on Audit on the
City of Manila, the city's total income was ₱12,589,845,794. The
city increased its revenue collection by 20.80% or 1.94 billion pesos
higher than that of 2014. The city's asset was worth ₱18.6 billion
in 2013. Its local income was ₱5.41 billion and its national
government allocation was ₱1.74 billion, having an annual regular
income (ARI) of ₱7.15 billion. Manila's net income was ₱3.54
billion in 2014. The City of
Manila has the highest budget allocation
to healthcare among all the cities and municipalities in the
Philippines. It was also one of the cities with the highest tax and
internal revenue. Tax revenue accounts for 46% of the city's income
Manila employs 14,586 personnel by the end of 2015.
BARANGAYS AND DISTRICTS
Manila's congressional districts Manila's sixteen
Manila is made up of 896 barangays , which are grouped into 100
Zones for statistical convenience.
Manila has the most number of
barangays in the Philippines. Attempts at reducing its number have
not prospered despite local legislation—Ordinance 7907, passed on 23
April 1996—reducing the number from 897 to 150 by merging existing
barangays, because of the failure to hold a plebiscite.
* The 1ST DISTRICT (2015 population: 415,906) covers the western
part of Tondo and is the most densely populated Congressional
District. It is the home to one of the biggest urban poor communities.
Smokey Mountain in Balut Island is once known as the largest
landfill where thousands of impoverished people lives in the slums.
After the closure of the landfill in 1995, mid-rise housing buildings
were built in place. This district also contains the
Harbour Centre, the
Manila North Harbor, and the
Container Terminal of the
Port of Manila .
* The 2ND DISTRICT (2015 population: 215,457) covers the eastern
part of Tondo known as Gagalangin. It contains Divisoria, a popular
shopping place in the
Philippines and the site of the Main Terminal
Station of the
Philippine National Railways .
* The 3RD DISTRICT (2015 population: 197,242) covers Binondo,
Quiapo, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz.
* The 4TH DISTRICT (2015 population: 265,046) covers Sampaloc and
some parts of Santa Mesa. It contains the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas ,
the oldest existing university in
* The 5TH DISTRICT (2015 population: 366,714) covers Ermita, Malate,
Paco Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Santa
* The 6TH DISTRICT (2007 population: 295,245) covers Pandacan, San
Miguel, Santa Ana,
Santa Mesa and a portion of Paco.
Water And Electricity
Water services used to be provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and
Sewerage System , which served 30% of the city with most other sewage
being directly dumped into storm drains, septic tanks, or open canals.
MWSS was privatized in 1997 , which split the water concession into
the east and west zones. The
Maynilad Water Services
Maynilad Water Services took over the
west zone of which
Manila is a part. It now provides the supply and
delivery of potable water and sewerage system in Manila, but it does
not provide service to the southeastern part of the city which belongs
to the east zone that is served by
Manila Water . Electric services
are provided by
Meralco , the sole electric power distributor in Metro
Main articles: Transportation in
Metro Manila , Public transport in
Manila , and Major roads in
Metro Manila People waiting at the
platform of Recto Terminal Station , the western terminus of LRT Line
Jeepney is one of the most popular modes of transportation
in Manila. Blumentritt Station of the LRT-1
One of the more famous modes of transportation in
Manila is the
jeepney . Patterned after U.S. Army jeeps , these have been in use
since the years immediately following World War II. The Tamaraw FX,
the third generation
Toyota Kijang , which competed directly with
jeepneys and followed fixed routes for a set price, once plied the
streets of Manila. All types of public road transport plying Manila
are privately owned and operated under government franchise.
On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs ,
"tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the
auto rickshaw ), and "_trisikads_" or "_sikads_", which are also known
as "_kuligligs_" (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of
pedicabs ). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized pedicabs
are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular
tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of
Binondo and Intramuros. By October 2016, the city will phase out all
gasoline-run tricycles and pedicabs and replace them with electric
tricycles (e-trikes). The city plans to distribute 10,000 e-trikes to
qualified tricycle drivers from the city.
The city is serviced by the LRT Line 1 and Line 2 , which form the
Manila Light Rail Transit System
Manila Light Rail Transit System . Development of the railway system
began in the 1970s under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when Line
1 was built, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast
Asia. These systems are currently undergoing a multibillion-dollar
expansion. Line 1 runs along the length of
Taft Avenue (R-2) and
Rizal Avenue (R-9), and Line 2 runs along Claro M.
Recto Avenue (C-1)
and Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (R-6) from
Santa Cruz , through Quezon
City , up to Masinag in
The main terminal of the
Philippine National Railways lies within the
city. One commuter railway within
Metro Manila is in operation. The
line runs in a general north-south direction from Tutuban (Tondo)
toward Laguna. The Port of Manila, located in the vicinity of Manila
Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines. The
Pasig River Ferry
Service which runs on the
Pasig River is another form of
transportation. The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino
International Airport and
Clark International Airport .
In 2006, _
Forbes _ magazine ranked
Manila the world's most congested
city. According to
Waze 's 2015 "Global Driver Satisfaction Index",
Manila is the town with the worst traffic worldwide.
notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities. The
government has undertaken several projects to alleviate the traffic in
the city. Some of the projects include: the construction of a new
viaduct or underpass at the intersection of España Boulevard and
Lacson Avenue, the construction of the
Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3 ,
the proposed LRT Line 2 West Extension Project from
Recto Avenue to
Tondo or the Port Area, and the expansion and widening of several
national and local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any
meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue
Metro Manila Dream Plan , formulated in the mid-2010s seeks to
address these problems. It consists of a list of short term priority
projects and medium to long term infrastructure projects that will
last up to 2030.
See also: List of hospitals in
Metro Manila The Philippine
General Hospital .
Manila Health Department is responsible for the planning and
implementation of the health care programs provided by the city
government. It operates 59 health centers and six city-run hospitals,
which are free of charge for the city's constituents. The six public
city-run hospitals are the
Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center , Ospital
ng Sampaloc, Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center, Ospital ng
Tondo, Sta. Ana Hospital , and Justice Jose Abad Santos General
Manila is also the site of the Philippine General Hospital
, the tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated by the
University of the
Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. Private
hospitals that operates in the city are the
Manila Doctors Hospital,
Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes
Memorial Medical Center,
Metropolitan Medical Center , Our Lady of
Lourdes Hospital , and the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas Hospital .
The Department of Health has its main office in Manila. The national
health department also operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a special
referral tertiary hospital.
Manila is also the home to the
headquarters of the
World Health Organization 's Regional Office for
the Western Pacific and Country Office for the Philippines.
The city has free immunization programs for children, specifically
targeted against the seven major diseases – smallpox, diphtheria,
tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles. As of 2016,
a total of 31,115 children age one and below has been “fully
Manila Dialysis Center that provides free services
for the poor has been cited by the United Nations Committee on
Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships as a model
for public-private partnership (PPP) projects.
List of universities and colleges in Manila and
Division of City Schools–Manila The campus of the University
of the City of
Manila and Baluarte de San Diego in
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas is the oldest existing university in
Asia, established in 1611.
The center of education since the colonial period,
Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities
and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Ateneo de Manila University (1859), Lyceum of the Philippines
University and the
Mapua Institute of Technology . Only Colegio de San
Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo
Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left
Intramuros for Loyola Heights,
Quezon City (while still retaining "de
Manila" in its name) in 1952.
University of the City of Manila (Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng
Maynila) located at Intramuros, and
Universidad de Manila
Universidad de Manila located just
outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila
city government. The national government controls the University of
Manila , the oldest of the University of the
Philippines constituent universities and the center of health sciences
education in the country. The city is also the site of the main
campus of the Polytechnic University of the
Philippines , the largest
university in the country in terms of student population.
University Belt refers to the area where there is a high
concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city
and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo
and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of
España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the
eastern end of Claro M.
Recto Avenue (formerly Azcarraga), Legarda
Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different side streets. Each of the
colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance
of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern
bank of the
Pasig River, mostly at the
Intramuros and Ermita
districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost
part of Malate near the border with
Pasay such as the private
co-educational institution of
De La Salle University , the largest of
De La Salle University System of schools.
The Division of the City Schools of
Manila , a branch of the
Department of Education , refers to the city's three-tier public
education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32
public high schools.
The city also contains the
Manila Science High School , the pilot
science high school of the Philippines; the National Museum, where the
Juan Luna is housed; the Metropolitan Museum of Manila,
a museum of modern and contemporary visual arts; the
Museo Pambata ,
the Children's Museum, a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning;
and, the National Library , the repository of the country's printed
and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information
See also: List of sister cities in the
Ho Chi Minh City ,
Nantan, Kyoto ,
Japan (Business Partner)
Northern Mariana Islands
* Takatsuki , Osaka,
* Nice ,
* Cartagena ,
Honolulu , Hawaii,
Maui County , Hawaii,
Mexico City , Mexico
Montreal , Quebec,
New York City
New York City , New York,
United States (Global Partner)
Sacramento , California,
San Francisco , California,
* Santiago ,
Winnipeg , Manitoba,
* Cities of the
Greater Manila Area
Kingdom of Maynila
Kingdom of Maynila
* List of cities in the
Remarkable people from Manila
* Geography portal
* ^ The city limits was at Vicente Sotto Street. The rest of the
place south of the street belongs to
Pasay . Buildings and structures
in CCP that falls under the jurisdiction of
Manila includes the
* ^ "\'PEARL OF ORIENT\' STRIPPED OF FOOD; Manila, Before Pearl
Harbor, Had Been Prosperous—Its Harbor One, of Best Focus for Two
Attacks Osmeña Succeeded Quezon". New York Times. 5 February 1945.
Retrieved 3 March 2014. Manila, modernized and elevated to the status
of a metropolis by American engineering skill, was before Pearl Harbor
a city of 623,000 population, contained in an area of fourteen square
* ^ "Cities".
Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior
and Local Government. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013.
Retrieved 30 November 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "An Update on the Earthquake Hazards and
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