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MANILA (/məˈnɪlə/ ; Filipino : _Maynilà_, pronounced or ), officially the CITY OF MANILA (Filipino : _Lungsod ng Maynilà_ ), is the capital of the Philippines
Philippines
and the most densely populated city proper in the world. It was the first chartered City by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949.

Spanish Manila
Manila
was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish _conquistador _ Miguel López de Legazpi , it is one of the oldest cities in the Philippines
Philippines
and was the seat of power for most of the country's colonial rulers. It is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay
Manila Bay
and is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th century. In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila
Manila
as an alpha- global city . The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015 , and is the historic core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. The term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater metropolitan area or the city proper. The officially-defined metropolitan area called Metro Manila , the capital region of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City and the Makati Central Business District . It is the most populous region of the country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world, and is one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia . With 41,515 people per square kilometer, Manila
Manila
is also the most densely populated city proper in the world.

Manila
Manila
is located on the eastern shores of the Manila Bay
Manila Bay
in one of the finest harbors in the country. The Pasig River runs through the middle of the city. Manila
Manila
is made up of 16 districts: Binondo
Binondo
, Ermita
Ermita
, Intramuros
Intramuros
, Malate , Paco , Pandacan , Port Area , Quiapo , Sampaloc , San Andres , San Miguel , San Nicolas , Santa Ana , Santa Cruz , Santa Mesa and Tondo . Manila
Manila
is also made up of Six Congressional Districts that represents the city on the Lower House of the Philippine Congress .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Precolonial history * 2.2 Spanish period * 2.3 American period * 2.4 Japanese occupation and World War II
World War II
* 2.5 Contemporary period

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Earthquakes * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Environment

* 4 Cityscape

* 4.1 Architecture

* 5 Demographics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Tourism * 6.2 Shopping

* 7 Culture and contemporary life

* 7.1 Religion

* 7.1.1 Christianity * 7.1.2 Other faiths

* 7.2 Festivities and holidays * 7.3 Museums

* 8 Sports

* 9 Law and government

* 9.1 Finance * 9.2 Barangays and Districts

* 10 Infrastructure

* 10.1 Utilities

* 10.1.1 Water and electricity

* 10.2 Transportation

* 11 Healthcare * 12 Education

* 13 Sister cities

* 13.1 Asia
Asia
* 13.2 Europe
Europe
* 13.3 Americas

* 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Sources * 18 External links

ETYMOLOGY

_Maynilà_, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word _nilà _, referring to a flowering mangrove tree that grew on the delta of the Pasig River and the shores of Manila Bay
Manila Bay
. The flowers were made into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to statues on religious altars or in churches. As _nilà_ products were distributed in other places, people came to refer to the area as "Sa may Nilà", Tagalog for "the place where there are _nilàs_". The word _nilà_ itself is probably from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_nila_ (नील), meaning "indigo tree".

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Manila and Timeline of Manila
Timeline of Manila

PRECOLONIAL HISTORY

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription
Laguna Copperplate Inscription
is the oldest historical record in the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to Tondo and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900). Rajah Sulayman

The earliest evidence of human life around present-day Manila
Manila
is the nearby Angono Petroglyphs , dated to around 3000 BC. Negritos
Negritos
, an Australoid people who became the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines, lived across the island of Luzon
Luzon
, where Manila
Manila
is located, before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated them.

The Kingdom of Tondo flourished during the latter half of the Ming dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China
China
. The Tondo district was the traditional capital of the empire, and its rulers were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. They were addressed variously as _panginuan_ in Maranao or _panginoón_ in Tagalog ("lords"); _anák banwa_ ("son of heaven"); or _lakandula _ ("lord of the palace"). The Emperor of China
China
considered the Lakans —the rulers of ancient Manila—"王", or kings.

In the 13th century, Manila
Manila
consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter on the shore of the Pasig
Pasig
River. It was then settled by the Indianized empire of Majapahit , as recorded in the epic eulogy poem " Nagarakretagama ", which described the area's conquest by Maharaja
Maharaja
Hayam Wuruk . Selurong (षेलुरोन्ग्), a historical name for Manila, is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu , and Kalka .

During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
invaded, wanting to take advantage of Tondo's trade with China
China
by attacking its environs and establishing the Kingdom of Maynilà (كوتا سلودوڠ; _Kota Seludong_). The kingdom was ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
as a satellite state . It established a new dynasty under the local leader, who accepted Islam
Islam
and became Rajah Salalila or Sulaiman I . He established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan Dula in Tondo. Islam
Islam
was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Asia . In 1574, Manila
Manila
was temporarily besieged by the Chinese pirate Lim Hong , who was ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. The city then became the seat of the Spanish colonial government.

SPANISH PERIOD

The Walled City of Intramuros
Intramuros
as seen from outside the walls in 1873.

On June 24, 1571, the conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Manila
Manila
and declared it a territory of New Spain , establishing a city council in what is now the district of Intramuros
Intramuros
. López de Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled after the failure of the Tondo Conspiracy , a plot wherein an alliance between datus , rajahs , Japanese merchants and the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
would band together to execute the Spaniards, along with their Latin American mercenaries. The victorious Spaniards made Manila, the capital of the Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which their empire would control for the next three centuries.

Manila
Manila
became famous during the Manila– Acapulco
Acapulco
galleon trade, which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from Europe
Europe
, Africa
Africa
and Hispanic America across the Pacific Islands to Southeast Asia
Asia
(which was already an entrepôt for goods coming from India
India
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and China), and vice versa. Silver
Silver
that was mined in Mexico and Peru
Peru
was exchanged for Chinese silk , Indian gems and the spices of Southeast Asia. Likewise, wines and olives grown in Europe
Europe
and North Africa
Africa
were shipped via Mexico
Mexico
to Manila. View of Manila, circa 1665.

The city was captured by Great Britain in 1762 as part of the European Seven Years\' War between Spain, France
France
and Great Britain. The city was then occpuied by the British for almost two years from 1762 to 1764 and remained the capital of the Philippines. Eventually, the British withdrew in accordance with the 1763 Treaty of Paris
Paris
. An unknown number of Indian soldiers known as sepoys , who came with the British, deserted and settled in nearby Cainta, Rizal , which explains the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta residents.

The Chinese were then punished for supporting the British invasion, and the fortress city of Intramuros
Intramuros
, initially populated by 1200 Spanish families and garrisoned by 400 Spanish troops, kept its cannons pointed at Binondo
Binondo
, the world's oldest Chinatown
Chinatown
. The Mexican population was concentrated at the south part of Manila, and also at Cavite , where ships from Spain's American colonies docked, and at Ermita
Ermita
, an area so named because of a Mexican hermit that lived there.

After Mexico
Mexico
gained independence in 1821, Spain
Spain
began to govern Manila
Manila
directly. Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and education flourished more than they had in the previous two centuries. The opening of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
in 1869 facilitated direct trade and communications with Spain.

The city's growing wealth and education attracted indigenous people, Chinese, Indians, Latinos, and Europeans from the surrounding provinces and facilitated the rise of an _ilustrado _ class that espoused liberal ideas: the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution , which sought independence from Spain.

AMERICAN PERIOD

A view of Escolta Street in 1899.

After the 1898 Battle of Manila
Manila
, Spain
Spain
ceded Manila
Manila
to the United States. The First Philippine Republic , based in nearby Bulacan
Bulacan
, fought against the Americans for control of the city. The Americans defeated the First Philippine Republic and captured President Emilio Aguinaldo , who declared allegiance to the United States
United States
on April 1, 1901. The Burnham Plan of Manila. North is at the left.

Upon drafting a new charter for Manila
Manila
in June 1901, the Americans made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila consisted not of Intramuros
Intramuros
alone but also of the surrounding areas. The new charter proclaimed that Manila
Manila
was composed of eleven municipal districts: presumably Binondo, Ermita
Ermita
, Intramuros, Malate , Paco , Pandacan , Sampaloc , San Miguel , Santa Ana , Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz
and Tondo . In addition, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognized five parishes—Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic, Santa Mesa and Singalong—as part of Manila. Later, two more would be added: Balut and San Andres .

Under American control, a new, civilian-oriented Insular Government headed by Governor-General William Howard Taft invited city planner Daniel Burnham to adapt Manila
Manila
to modern needs. The Burnham Plan included the development of a road system, the use of waterways for transportation, and the beautification of Manila
Manila
with waterfront improvements and construction of parks, parkways and buildings.

The planned buildings included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Rizal Park to the present Taft Avenue . The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea. Along with buildings for various government bureaus and departments, it would form a quadrangle with a lagoon in the center and a monument to José Rizal at the other end of the field. Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and Agricultural Departments—were completed when World War II
World War II
erupted.

JAPANESE OCCUPATION AND WORLD WAR II

The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila
Manila
in 1945

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
, American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations were removed on December 24, 1941. General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
declared Manila
Manila
an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it. Manila
Manila
was occupied by Japanese forces on January 2, 1942.

From February 3 to March 3, 1945, Manila
Manila
was the site of the bloodiest battle in the Pacific theater of World War II. Some 100,000 civilians were killed in February. At the end of the battle, Manila was recaptured by joint American and Philippine troops. It was the second most devastated city in the world, after Warsaw
Warsaw
, during the Second World War. Almost all of the structures in the city, particularly in Intramuros, were destroyed.

CONTEMPORARY PERIOD

Rizal Avenue in the 1970s before the construction of LRT Line 1 .

In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines
Philippines
to Quezon City , a new capital in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in 1939 during the administration of President Manuel L. Quezon . The move ended any implementation of the Burnham Plan's intent for the government centre to be at Luneta.

With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in 1952 (all mayors were appointed before this), Manila
Manila
underwent _The Golden Age_, once again earning its status as the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After Lacson's term in the 1950s, Manila
Manila
was led by Antonio Villegas for most of the 1960s. Ramon Bagatsing (an Indian-Filipino ) was mayor for nearly the entire 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution . Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are collectively known as the "Big Three of Manila" for their contribution to the development of the city and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila.

During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
, the region of Metro Manila
Manila
was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns , as a separate regional unit of government. On the 405th anniversary of the city's foundation on June 24, 1976, Manila
Manila
was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of the Philippines
Philippines
for its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila
Manila
has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines
Philippines
being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.

During the martial law era , Manila
Manila
became a hot-bed of resistance activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with the police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime. After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power Revolution (predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain in Europe
Europe
), ousted the authoritarian Marcos from power.

In 1992, Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first Chinese-Filipino
Chinese-Filipino
to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Lito Atienza , who served as his vice mayor. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city slogan) "_Buhayin ang Maynila_" (_Revive Manila_), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities. He was the city's mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out of office. The 119th commemoration of Rizal Day
Rizal Day
at the Rizal
Rizal
Park with the controversial Torre de Manila in the background.

Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city. The relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in which Lim won against Atienza.

Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008 over human rights , charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools, and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the Rizal
Rizal
Park hostage taking incident , one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines. Later on, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors filed another case against Lim in 2012, stating that Lim's statement in a meeting were "life-threatening" to them. In the 2013 elections , former President Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race. During his term, Estrada has paid more than ₱5 billion in city debts and increased the city's revenues from ₱6.2 billion in 2012 to ₱14.6 billion by 2016, resulting in increased infrastructure spending and the betterment of the welfare of the people of Manila. In 2015, the city became the most competitive city in the Philippines, making the city the best place for doing business and for living in. However, despite these achievements, Estrada only narrowly won over Lim in their electoral rematch in 2016 .

Torre de Manila , an under-construction residential building by DMCI Homes , is controversial for ruining the sight line of Rizal Park and violating several building and zoning laws. It is now known as the "national photobomber" or as "Terror de Manila". It drew flak after heritage preservation groups and citizens condemned it for destroying the historical monument’s view.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Manila The iconic Manila Bay
Manila Bay
sunset ISS photo of Manila
Manila
(just left of center) and surrounding cities

Manila
Manila
is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay
Manila Bay
, on the western edge of Luzon
Luzon
, 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) from mainland Asia
Asia
. One of Manila's greatest natural resources is the protected harbor upon which it sits, regarded as the finest in all of Asia. The Pasig River flows through the middle of city. The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise.

In 2017, the City Government approved four reclamation projects: the New Manila Bay
Manila Bay
International Community (407.43 hectares), Solar City (148 hectares), the Manila
Manila
Harbour Center expansion (50 hectares) and Horizon Manila
Manila
(419 hectares). Projects such as these have been criticized by environmentalists and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, stating that these reclamation projects are not sustainable and would put communities at risk of flooding. A fifth reclamation project is possible and when built, it will contain the in-city housing relocation projects.

Almost all of Manila
Manila
sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig River and on some land reclaimed from Manila
Manila
Bay. Manila's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the city's natural variations in topography have been evened out. As of 2013 , Manila
Manila
had a total area of 42.88 square kilometres (16.56 sq mi).

EARTHQUAKES

Further information: List of earthquakes in the Philippines
Philippines

Swiss Re , the world’s second-largest reinsurer based in Zürich , Switzerland
Switzerland
, places Manila
Manila
as the second riskiest capital city to live in. The company cited dangers of earthquakes and flooding. The seismically active Marikina Valley Fault System poses a threat to Manila
Manila
and the surrounding regions. Manila
Manila
has endured several deadly earthquakes, notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and brick medieval city. The Earthquake Baroque style was used by architects during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the frequent earthquakes.

CLIMATE

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila
Manila
has a tropical savanna climate ( Köppen climate classification Aw). Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila
Manila
lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going below 20 °C (68 °F) or above 38 °C (100 °F). Temperature extremes have ranged from 14.5 °C (58.1 °F) on January 11, 1914, to 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) on May 7, 1915.

Humidity levels are usually very high all year round. Manila
Manila
has a distinct dry season from December through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly cooler temperatures. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.

CLIMATE DATA FOR PORT AREA, MANILA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 29.0 (84.2) 29.1 (84.4) 30.9 (87.6) 32.7 (90.9) 33.6 (92.5) 32.9 (91.2) 31.8 (89.2) 31.4 (88.5) 31.2 (88.2) 30.5 (86.9) 29.8 (85.6) 29.3 (84.7) 31.02 (87.83)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 23.9 (75) 24.2 (75.6) 25.3 (77.5) 26.2 (79.2) 27.0 (80.6) 27.0 (80.6) 26.1 (79) 25.9 (78.6) 25.6 (78.1) 24.9 (76.8) 24.5 (76.1) 24.1 (75.4) 25.39 (77.71)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 19.5 (67.1) 19.6 (67.3) 19.9 (67.8) 21.8 (71.2) 23.2 (73.8) 23.9 (75) 24.1 (75.4) 24.0 (75.2) 23.7 (74.7) 22.6 (72.7) 21.4 (70.5) 19.9 (67.8) 21.97 (71.54)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 13.5 (0.531) 7.3 (0.287) 21.4 (0.843) 18.7 (0.736) 138.6 (5.457) 283.8 (11.173) 364.1 (14.335) 476.3 (18.752) 334.1 (13.154) 200.5 (7.894) 111.4 (4.386) 56.0 (2.205) 2,025.7 (79.753)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.10 MM) 4 2 3 3 10 16 22 22 20 18 14 9 143

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 72 73 66 64 68 76 80 83 81 78 76 75 74.3

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 176.7 197.8 225.8 258.0 222.7 162.0 132.8 132.8 132.0 157.6 153.0 151.9 2,103.1

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 51 61 61 70 57 42 34 34 36 44 45 44 48

Source #1: PAGASA

Source #2: Climatemps.com (sunshine)

ENVIRONMENT

Due to industrial waste and automobiles, Manila
Manila
suffers from air pollution , affecting 98% of the population. Annually, the air pollution causes more than 4,000 deaths. Ermita
Ermita
is Manila's most air polluted district due to open dump sites and industrial waste . According to a report in 2003, the Pasig River is one of the most polluted rivers in the world with 150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste dumped daily.

Annually, Manila
Manila
is hit with 5 to 7 typhoons creating floods. In 2009, Typhoon
Typhoon
Ketsana struck the Philippines. In its aftermath, the lack of infrastructure led to one of the worst floodings in the Philippines
Philippines
and creating a significant amount of pollution. Following the aftermath of Typhoon
Typhoon
Ketsana, the city began to dredge its rivers and improve its drainage network. The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up the Pasig River and tributaries for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes. Rehabilitation efforts have resulted in the creation of parks along the riverside, along with stricter pollution controls.

CITYSCAPE

The bay skyline of Manila
Manila
as seen from Harbour Square.

The city is made up of fourteen city districts, according to Republic Act No. 409—the Revised Charter of the City of Manila—the basis of which officially sets the present-day boundary of the city. Two were later added, which are Santa Mesa (partitioned off from Sampaloc) and San Andres (partitioned off from Santa Ana).

ARCHITECTURE

The Luneta Hotel
Luneta Hotel
, an example of French Renaissance architecture with Filipino stylized beaux art The façade of the Manila Metropolitan Theater , designed by Juan M. Arellano The façade of the Natividad Building
Natividad Building

Manila
Manila
is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a wide range of styles spanning different historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish, Chinese, and Malay influences. Prominent Filipino architects such as Antonio Toledo, Felipe Roxas, Juan M. Arellano and Tomás Mapúa have designed significant buildings in Manila
Manila
such as churches, government offices, theaters, mansions, schools and universities.

Manila
Manila
is also famed for its Art Deco theaters . Some of these were designed by National Artists for Architecture such as Juan Nakpil and Pablo Antonio . Unfortunately most of these theater neglected, and some of it have been demolished. The historic Escolta Street in Binondo
Binondo
features many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts architectural style, many of which were designed by prominent Filipino architects during the American Rule in the 1920s to the late 1930s. Many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are pushing for the revival of Escolta Street, which was once the premier street of the Philippines.

Almost all of Manila's prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive bombardment of the United States
United States
Air Force during World War II
World War II
. Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing the destroyed historic Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city's character. Some buildings destroyed by the war have been reconstructed, such as the Old Legislative Building (now the National Museum of Fine Arts ), Ayuntamiento de Manila (now the Bureau of the Treasury) and the currently under construction San Ignacio Church and Convent (as the Museo de Intramuros
Intramuros
). There are plans to rehabilitate and/or restore several neglected historic buildings and places such as Plaza Del Carmen, San Sebastian Church and the Manila
Manila
Metropolitan Theater . Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts of Binondo
Binondo
, Quiapo , and San Nicolas are also planned to be restored, as a part of a movement to restore the city to its former glory and its beautiful prewar state.

Since Manila
Manila
is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects invented the style called Earthquake Baroque which the churches and government buildings during the Spanish colonial period adopted. As a result, succeeding earthquakes of the 18th and 19th centuries barely affected Manila, although it did periodically level the surrounding area. Modern buildings in and around Manila
Manila
are designed or have been retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in accordance to the country's building code.

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION CENSUS OF MANILA

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1903 219,928 —

1918 283,613 +1.71%

1939 623,492 +3.82%

1948 983,906 +5.20%

1960 1,138,611 +1.22%

1970 1,330,788 +1.57%

1975 1,479,116 +2.14%

1980 1,630,485 +1.97%

1990 1,601,234 −0.18%

1995 1,654,761 +0.62%

2000 1,581,082 −0.97%

2007 1,660,714 +0.68%

2010 1,652,171 −0.19%

2015 1,780,148 +1.43%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
Philippine Statistics Authority

Binondo
Binondo
, established in 1594, is the world's oldest Chinatown
Chinatown
.

According to the 2015 census, the population of the city was 1,780,148, making it the second most populous city in the Philippines.

Manila
Manila
is the most densely populated city in the world, with 43,079 inhabitants per km2. District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by District 1 with 64,936 and District 2 with 64,710, respectively. District 5 is the least densely populated area with 19,235.

Manila's population density dwarfs that of Kolkata
Kolkata
(27,774 inhabitants per km2), Mumbai
Mumbai
(22,937 inhabitants per km2), Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km2), Dhaka
Dhaka
(19,447 inhabitants per km2), Shanghai
Shanghai
(16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district, Nanshi, having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and Tokyo (10,087 inhabitants per km2).

Manila
Manila
has been presumed to be the Philippines' largest city since the establishment of a permanent Spanish settlement with the city eventually becoming the political, commercial and ecclesiastical capital of the country. Its population increased dramatically since the 1903 census as the population tended to move from rural areas to towns and cities. In the 1960 census, Manila
Manila
became the first Philippine city to breach the one million mark (more than 5 times of its 1903 population). The city continued to grow until the population somehow "stabilized" at 1.6 million and experienced alternating increase and decrease starting the 1990 census year. This phenomenon may be attributed to the higher growth experience by suburbs and the already very high population density of city. As such, Manila exhibited a decreasing percentage share to the metropolitan population from as high as 63% in the 1950s to 27.5% in 1980 and then to 13.8% in 2015. The much larger Quezon City marginally surpassed the population of Manila
Manila
in 1990 and by the 2015 census already has 1.1 million people more. Nationally, the population of Manila
Manila
is expected to be overtaken by cities with larger territories such as Caloocan City and Davao City by 2020.

The vernacular language is Filipino , based mostly on the Tagalog language of surrounding areas, and this Manila
Manila
form of spoken Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment. English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout Metro Manila and the Philippines
Philippines
itself.

A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish , which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino , Korean Filipino , Indian Filipino , and other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents' languages at home, aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. A variant of Southern Min , Hokkien (locally known as _Lan'nang-oe_) is mainly spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino
Chinese-Filipino
community.

ECONOMY

The Port of Manila , the chief port of the Philippines. Aerial view of Binondo
Binondo
, the city's Chinatown
Chinatown
and business district.

Manila
Manila
is a major center for commerce, banking and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional media , advertising, legal services, accounting, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines. Around 60,000 establishments operates in the city.

The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines
Philippines
which annually publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and infrastructure. According to the 2016 CMCI, Manila
Manila
was the second most competitive city in the Philippines. Manila
Manila
placed third in the Highly Urbanized City (HUC) category. Manila
Manila
held the title country's most competitive city in 2015, and since then has been making it to the top 3, assuring that the city is consistently one of the best place to live in and do business. Lars Wittig, the country manager of Regus Philippines, hailed Manila
Manila
as the third best city in the country to launch a start-up business.

The Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making it the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The Philippine Ports Authority is the government agency responsible to oversee the operation and management of the ports. The International Container Terminal Services Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the world has its headquarters and main operations on the ports of Manila. Another port operator, the Asian Terminal Incorporated, has its corporate office and main operations in the Manila
Manila
South Harbor and its container depository located in Santa Mesa .

Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest Chinatowns in the world, was the center of commerce and business activities in the city. Numerous residential and office skyscrapers are found within its medieval streets. Plans to make the Chinatown
Chinatown
area into a business process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.

Divisoria in Tondo is known as the "shopping mecca of the Philippines". Numerous shopping malls are located in this place, which sells products and goods at bargain price. Small vendors occupy several roads that causes pedestrian and vehicular traffic. A famous landmark in Divisoria is the Tutuban Center, a large shopping mall that is a part of the Philippine National Railways ' Main Station . It attracts 1 million people every month, but is expected to add another 400,000 people when the LRT Line 2 West Extension is constructed, which is set to make it as Manila's busiest transfer station. The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas , the central bank of the Philippines
Philippines

Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra , and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.

The Pandacan Oil Depot houses the storage facilities and distribution terminals of the three major players in the country's petroleum industry, namely Caltex Philippines
Philippines
, Pilipinas Shell and Petron Corporation . The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns, including its environmental and health impact to the residents of Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered that the oil depot to be relocated outside the city by July 2015, but it failed to meet this deadline. It is currently being demolished which is expected to be finished before the year 2016 ends, and plans have been set up to turn this 33 hectare facility into a transport hub or even a food park.

Manila
Manila
is a major publishing center in the Philippines. _Manila Bulletin _, the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by circulation, is headquartered in Intramuros. Other major publishing companies in the country like _ The Manila Times _, _The Philippine Star _ and _ Manila Standard Today _ are headquartered in the Port Area. The _ Chinese Commercial News _, the Philippines' oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing newspaper is headquartered in Binondo
Binondo
.

Manila
Manila
serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the Philippines
Philippines
which is located along Roxas Boulevard . Some universal banks in the Philippines
Philippines
that has its headquarters in the city are the Landbank of the Philippines
Philippines
and Philippine Trust Company . Philam Life Insurance Company , currently the largest life insurance company in the Philippines
Philippines
in terms of assets, net worth, investment and paid-up capital, has its headquarters along United Nations Avenue in Ermita. Unilever
Unilever
Philippines
Philippines
has its corporate office along United Nations Avenue in Paco . Toyota
Toyota
, a company listed in the Forbes Global 2000 , also has its regional office along UN Avenue.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Manila Panorama of Rizal Park taken at Roxas Boulevard . Panorama of the Tanghalang Pambansa at the Cultural Center of the Philippines
Philippines
Complex . People riding the Kalesa at Fort Santiago .

Manila
Manila
welcomes over 1 million tourists each year. Major destinations include the historic Walled City of Intramuros
Intramuros
, the Cultural Center of the Philippines
Philippines
Complex , Manila Ocean Park , Binondo
Binondo
(Chinatown), Ermita, Malate , Manila Zoo , the National Museum Complex and Rizal Park . The Walled City of Intramuros
Intramuros
and Rizal
Rizal
Park were designated as flagship destination and as a tourism enterprise zone in the Tourism Act of 2009.

Rizal
Rizal
Park, also known as Luneta Park, is the national park and the largest urban park in Asia
Asia
with an area of 58 hectares (140 acres), The park was constructed as an honor and dedication to the country's national hero José Rizal , who was executed by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. The park was managed by the National Parks and Development Committee.

The 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) Walled City of Intramuros
Intramuros
is the historic center of Manila. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration, an attached agency of the Department of Tourism . It contains the famed Manila Cathedral and the 18th Century San Agustin Church , a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation for tourists in Intramuros
Intramuros
and nearby places including Binondo, Ermita
Ermita
and Rizal
Rizal
Park.

The Department of Tourism designates Manila
Manila
as the pioneer of medical tourism , expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually. However, lack of progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances for its growth.

SHOPPING

Tutuban Centermall, a famous shopping center for locals in the city Lucky Chinatown
Chinatown
Mall in Binondo
Binondo
.

Manila
Manila
is regarded as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia. Major shopping malls , department stores , markets , supermarkets and bazaars thrives within the city.

Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city. The mall was the second and the largest Robinsons Malls built. SM Supermall operates two shopping malls in the city which are the SM City Manila
Manila
and SM City San Lazaro . SM City Manila
Manila
is located on the former grounds of YMCA Manila
Manila
beside the Manila City Hall
Manila City Hall
in Ermita
Ermita
, while SM City San Lazaro is built on the site of the former San Lazaro Hippodrome in Sta. Cruz . The building of the former Manila
Manila
Royal Hotel in Quiapo , which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop, is now the SM Clearance Center that was established in 1972. The site of the first SM Store is located at Carlos Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague) Street in San Miguel .

Quiapo is referred to as the "Old Downtown", where tiangges , markets, boutique shops, music and electronics stores are common. C.M. Recto Avenue
Recto Avenue
is where lots of department stores are located. One of Recto Avenue's famous destinations is Divisoria , home to numerous shopping malls in the city, including the famed Tutuban Center and the Lucky Chinatown
Chinatown
Mall . It is also dubbed as the shopping mecca of the Philippines
Philippines
where everything is sold at bargain price. Binondo, the oldest Chinatown
Chinatown
in the world, is the city's center of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese merchants with a wide variety of Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants.

CULTURE AND CONTEMPORARY LIFE

RELIGION

Christianity

As a result of Spanish cultural influence, Manila
Manila
is a predominantly Christian city. As of 2010 , Roman Catholics were 83.5% of the population, followed by adherents of the Philippine Independent Church (2.4%); Iglesia ni Cristo (1.9%); various Protestant churches (1.8%); and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of Islam
Islam
and other religions make up the remaining 10.4% of the city's population.

Manila
Manila
is the site of prominent Catholic churches and institutions. There are 113 Catholic churches within the city limits; 63 are considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral. The Manila Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila and the oldest established church in the country. Aside from the Manila Cathedral, there are also three other basilicas in the city: Quiapo Church , Binondo
Binondo
Church , and the Minor Basilica of San Sebastián . The San Agustín Church in Intramuros
Intramuros
is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site and is one of the two fully air-conditioned Catholic churches in the city. Manila
Manila
also has other parishes located throughout the city, with some of them dating back to the Spanish Colonial Period when the city serves as the base for numerous Catholic missions both within the Philippines
Philippines
and to Asia
Asia
beyond.

Several Mainline Protestant denominations are headquartered in the city. St. Stephen\'s Parish pro-cathedral in the Sta. Cruz district is the see of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines
Philippines
' Diocese of Central Philippines, while align Taft Avenue are the main cathedral and central offices of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also called the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the Philippine Revolution ). Other faiths like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ( Mormons ) has several churches in the city.

The indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo has several locales (akin to parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum) in Punta, Sta. Ana. Evangelical , Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist denominations also thrive within the city. The headquarters of the Philippine Bible Society is in Manila. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise is located along Taft Avenue . Jesus Is Lord Church also has several branches and campuses in Manila, and celebrates its anniversary yearly at the Burnham Green and Quirino Grandstand in Rizal
Rizal
Park.

*

Manila Cathedral is the seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila *

The Minor Basilica of San Sebastián is the only all-steel church in Asia
Asia
. *

San Agustín Church in Intramuros
Intramuros
, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
.

*

The Binondo
Binondo
Church *

Quiapo Church is the home to the iconic Black Nazarene which celebrates its feasts every January 9.

Other Faiths

The city also hosts other religions. There are many Buddhist and Taoist
Taoist
temples serving the Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
community. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population which worships at Masjid Al-Dahab
Masjid Al-Dahab
. Members of the Indian expatriate population have the option of worshiping at the large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara along United Nations Avenue. The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá\'ís of the Philippines, the governing body of the Filipino Bahá'í community, is headquartered near Manila's eastern border with Makati.

FESTIVITIES AND HOLIDAYS

Further information: Public holidays in the Philippines
Philippines
_ Catholic devotees during the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon_)

Manila
Manila
celebrates civic and national holidays. Manila
Manila
Day, which celebrates the city's founding on June 24, 1571, was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962 and has been annually commemorated, under the patronage of John the Baptist . Locally, each of the city's barangays also have their own festivities guided by their own patron saint . The city is also the host to the Feast of the Black Nazarene , held every January 9, which draws millions of Catholic devotees. Other religious feasts held in Manila
Manila
are the Feast of Santo Niño in Tondo and Pandacan held on the third Sunday of January and the Feast of the Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados de Manila
Manila
(Our Lady of the Abandoned), the patron saint of Santa Ana and held every May 12. Non-religious holidays include the New Year\'s Day , National Heroes\' Day , Bonifacio Day and Rizal
Rizal
Day .

MUSEUMS

The National Museum of Fine Arts at the National Museum Complex .

As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila
Manila
is the home to a number of museums. The National Museum of the Philippines
Philippines
operates a chain of museums in Rizal
Rizal
Park, such as the National Museum of Fine Arts , the National Museum of Anthropology and the National Museum of Natural History . Museums established by educational institutions include the Mabini Shrine , the Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, UST Museum of Arts and Sciences , and the UP Museum of a History of Ideas .

Bahay Tsinoy , one of Manila's most prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. The Intramuros
Intramuros
Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila exhibits the Filipino arts and culture .

Other museums in the city are the Museum of Manila, the city-owned museum that exhibits the city's culture and history, Museo Pambata , a children's museum, the Museum of Philippine Political History , which exhibits notable political events in the country, the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned and the San Agustin Church Museum, which houses religious artifacts, and Plaza San Luis, a public museum.

SPORTS

Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church in Intramuros
Intramuros
The Intramuros
Intramuros
Golf Club

Sports in Manila
Manila
have a long and distinguished history. The city's, and in general the country's main sport is basketball , and most barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer (April to May). Manila
Manila
has many sports venues, such as the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila Metrostars . The Rizal Memorial Sports Complex houses the Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball
Baseball
Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two are indoor arenas). The Rizal
Rizal
complex had hosted several multi-sport events, such as the 1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far Eastern Games . Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian Games , most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005 Games , most events were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship and the 1973 ABC Championship , forerunners of the FIBA Asia
Asia
Championship , was hosted by the complex, with the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World Championship was held at the complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City , Southeast Asia's largest indoor arena at that time.

Manila
Manila
also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas Sports Complex , both of which are private venues owned by a university; collegiate sports are also held, with the University Athletic Association of the Philippines
Philippines
and the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball games held at Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred to San Juan 's Filoil Flying V Arena and the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon
Quezon
City. Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at the city, but the Philippine Basketball
Basketball
Association now holds their games at Araneta Coliseum and Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay ; the now defunct Philippine Basketball
Basketball
League played some of their games at the Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Sports Complex.

The Manila Storm are the city's rugby league team training at Rizal Park (Luneta Park) and playing their matches at Southern Plains Field, Calamba, Laguna . Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Baseball
Baseball
Stadium . The stadium hosts games of Baseball
Baseball
Philippines
Philippines
; Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, 1934. Another popular sport in the city are cue sports , and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons Place Manila .

The Rizal
Rizal
Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines
Philippines
hosted Sri Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, had undergone a major renovation program before the match. The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of the United Football League . The stadium also hosted its first rugby test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.

LAW AND GOVERNMENT

Manila City Hall
Manila City Hall
The Malacañang Palace is the official residence and office of the President of the Philippines
Philippines
. Palacio del Gobernador
Palacio del Gobernador
in Intramuros
Intramuros
is home to the Philippine Commission on Elections and Intramuros
Intramuros
Administration. The Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
.

Manila—officially known as the City of Manila—is the national capital of the Philippines
Philippines
and is classified as a Special
Special
City (according to its income) and a Highly Urbanized City (HUC). The mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted by the vice mayor, the 36-member City Council, six Congressmen, the President of the Association of Barangay Captains, and the President of the _ Sangguniang Kabataan _. The members of the City Council are elected as representatives of specific congressional districts within the city. The city, however, have no control over Intramuros
Intramuros
and the Manila
Manila
North Harbor. The historic Walled City is administered by the Intramuros
Intramuros
Administration, while the Manila
Manila
North Harbor is managed by the Philippine Ports Authority. Both are national government agencies. The barangays that have jurisdictions over these places only oversee the welfare of the city's constituents and cannot exercise their executive powers.

The current mayor is Joseph Estrada , who served as the President of the Philippines
Philippines
from 1998 to 2001. He is currently on his second term in serving as the city mayor. The current vice mayor is Dr. Maria Shielah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan, daughter of former Manila
Manila
Vice Mayor Danny Lacuna. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited by up to 3 terms, with each term lasting for 3 years.

Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonization when they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington, D.C. These improvements were eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
.

A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon
Quezon
City. Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila
Manila
during World War II and by subsequent administrations.

The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president's official residence. Aside from these, important government agencies and institutions such as the Supreme Court , the Court of Appeals , the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas , the Departments of Budget and Management , Finance , Health , Justice , Labor and Employment and Public Works and Highways still call the city home. Manila
Manila
also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General Hospital.

Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building . In 1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa , held office at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex . When a new constitution restored the bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System at reclaimed land at Pasay . The Supreme Court will also transfer to its new campus at Bonifacio Global City , Taguig in 2019.

FINANCE

In the 2015 Annual Audit Report by the Commission on Audit on the City of Manila, the city's total income was ₱12,589,845,794. The city increased its revenue collection by 20.80% or 1.94 billion pesos higher than that of 2014. The city's asset was worth ₱18.6 billion in 2013. Its local income was ₱5.41 billion and its national government allocation was ₱1.74 billion, having an annual regular income (ARI) of ₱7.15 billion. Manila's net income was ₱3.54 billion in 2014. The City of Manila
Manila
has the highest budget allocation to healthcare among all the cities and municipalities in the Philippines. It was also one of the cities with the highest tax and internal revenue. Tax revenue accounts for 46% of the city's income in 2012. Manila
Manila
employs 14,586 personnel by the end of 2015.

BARANGAYS AND DISTRICTS

Manila's congressional districts Manila's sixteen geographical districts

Manila
Manila
is made up of 896 barangays , which are grouped into 100 Zones for statistical convenience. Manila
Manila
has the most number of barangays in the Philippines. Attempts at reducing its number have not prospered despite local legislation—Ordinance 7907, passed on 23 April 1996—reducing the number from 897 to 150 by merging existing barangays, because of the failure to hold a plebiscite.

* The 1ST DISTRICT (2015 population: 415,906) covers the western part of Tondo and is the most densely populated Congressional District. It is the home to one of the biggest urban poor communities. The Smokey Mountain in Balut Island is once known as the largest landfill where thousands of impoverished people lives in the slums. After the closure of the landfill in 1995, mid-rise housing buildings were built in place. This district also contains the Manila
Manila
North Harbour Centre, the Manila
Manila
North Harbor, and the Manila
Manila
International Container Terminal of the Port of Manila . * The 2ND DISTRICT (2015 population: 215,457) covers the eastern part of Tondo known as Gagalangin. It contains Divisoria, a popular shopping place in the Philippines
Philippines
and the site of the Main Terminal Station of the Philippine National Railways . * The 3RD DISTRICT (2015 population: 197,242) covers Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz. * The 4TH DISTRICT (2015 population: 265,046) covers Sampaloc and some parts of Santa Mesa. It contains the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
, the oldest existing university in Asia
Asia
. * The 5TH DISTRICT (2015 population: 366,714) covers Ermita, Malate, Paco Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Santa Ana. * The 6TH DISTRICT (2007 population: 295,245) covers Pandacan, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Mesa and a portion of Paco.

NAME AREA Population (2015) DENSITY BARANGAYS

KM2 SQ MI

/KM2 /SQ MI

BINONDO 0.6611 0.2553 18,040 27,000 70,000 10

ERMITA 1.5891 0.6136 10,523 6,600 17,000 13

INTRAMUROS 0.6726 0.2597 5,935 8,800 23,000 5

MALATE 2.5958 1.0022 86,196 33,000 85,000 57

PACO 2.7869 1.0760 82,466 30,000 78,000 43

PANDACAN 1.66 0.64 87,405 53,000 140,000 38

PORT AREA 3.1528 1.2173 66,742 21,000 54,000 5

QUIAPO 0.8469 0.3270 28,478 34,000 88,000 16

SAMPALOC 5.1371 1.9834 265,046 52,000 130,000 192

SAN ANDRéS 1.6802 0.6487 128,499 76,000 200,000 65

SAN MIGUEL 0.9137 0.3528 17,464 19,000 49,000 12

SAN NICOLAS 1.6385 0.6326 43,069 26,000 67,000 15

SANTA ANA 1.6942 0.6541 66,656 39,000 100,000 34

SANTA CRUZ 3.0901 1.1931 118,903 38,000 98,000 82

SANTA MESA 2.6101 1.0078 110,073 42,000 110,000 51

TONDO 8.6513 3.3403 631,363 73,000 190,000 258

INFRASTRUCTURE

UTILITIES

Water And Electricity

Water services used to be provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System , which served 30% of the city with most other sewage being directly dumped into storm drains, septic tanks, or open canals. MWSS was privatized in 1997 , which split the water concession into the east and west zones. The Maynilad Water Services
Maynilad Water Services
took over the west zone of which Manila
Manila
is a part. It now provides the supply and delivery of potable water and sewerage system in Manila, but it does not provide service to the southeastern part of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila Water
Manila Water
. Electric services are provided by Meralco , the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila.

TRANSPORTATION

Main articles: Transportation in Metro Manila , Public transport in Manila
Manila
, and Major roads in Metro Manila People waiting at the platform of Recto Terminal Station , the western terminus of LRT Line 2 . Jeepney is one of the most popular modes of transportation in Manila. Blumentritt Station of the LRT-1

One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila
Manila
is the jeepney . Patterned after U.S. Army jeeps , these have been in use since the years immediately following World War II. The Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota
Toyota
Kijang , which competed directly with jeepneys and followed fixed routes for a set price, once plied the streets of Manila. All types of public road transport plying Manila are privately owned and operated under government franchise.

On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs , "tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw ), and "_trisikads_" or "_sikads_", which are also known as "_kuligligs_" (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs ). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of Binondo
Binondo
and Intramuros. By October 2016, the city will phase out all gasoline-run tricycles and pedicabs and replace them with electric tricycles (e-trikes). The city plans to distribute 10,000 e-trikes to qualified tricycle drivers from the city.

The city is serviced by the LRT Line 1 and Line 2 , which form the Manila Light Rail Transit System
Manila Light Rail Transit System
. Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when Line 1 was built, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. These systems are currently undergoing a multibillion-dollar expansion. Line 1 runs along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Rizal Avenue (R-9), and Line 2 runs along Claro M. Recto Avenue
Recto Avenue
(C-1) and Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (R-6) from Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz
, through Quezon City , up to Masinag in Antipolo , Rizal
Rizal
.

The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city. One commuter railway within Metro Manila is in operation. The line runs in a general north-south direction from Tutuban (Tondo) toward Laguna. The Port of Manila, located in the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines. The Pasig River Ferry Service which runs on the Pasig River is another form of transportation. The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Clark International Airport .

In 2006, _ Forbes _ magazine ranked Manila
Manila
the world's most congested city. According to Waze 's 2015 "Global Driver Satisfaction Index", Manila
Manila
is the town with the worst traffic worldwide. Manila
Manila
is notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities. The government has undertaken several projects to alleviate the traffic in the city. Some of the projects include: the construction of a new viaduct or underpass at the intersection of España Boulevard and Lacson Avenue, the construction of the Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3 , the proposed LRT Line 2 West Extension Project from Recto Avenue
Recto Avenue
to Tondo or the Port Area, and the expansion and widening of several national and local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue unabated.

The Metro Manila Dream Plan , formulated in the mid-2010s seeks to address these problems. It consists of a list of short term priority projects and medium to long term infrastructure projects that will last up to 2030.

HEALTHCARE

See also: List of hospitals in Metro Manila The Philippine General Hospital .

The Manila
Manila
Health Department is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health care programs provided by the city government. It operates 59 health centers and six city-run hospitals, which are free of charge for the city's constituents. The six public city-run hospitals are the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center , Ospital ng Sampaloc, Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center, Ospital ng Tondo, Sta. Ana Hospital , and Justice Jose Abad Santos General Hospital. Manila
Manila
is also the site of the Philippine General Hospital , the tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated by the University of the Philippines
Philippines
Manila
Manila
.

Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. Private hospitals that operates in the city are the Manila
Manila
Doctors Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Metropolitan Medical Center , Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital , and the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
Hospital .

The Department of Health has its main office in Manila. The national health department also operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a special referral tertiary hospital. Manila
Manila
is also the home to the headquarters of the World Health Organization 's Regional Office for the Western Pacific and Country Office for the Philippines.

The city has free immunization programs for children, specifically targeted against the seven major diseases – smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles. As of 2016, a total of 31,115 children age one and below has been “fully immunized”. The Manila
Manila
Dialysis Center that provides free services for the poor has been cited by the United Nations Committee on Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships as a model for public-private partnership (PPP) projects.

EDUCATION

Main articles: List of universities and colleges in Manila and Division of City Schools–Manila The campus of the University of the City of Manila
Manila
and Baluarte de San Diego in Intramuros
Intramuros
. The University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
is the oldest existing university in Asia, established in 1611.

The center of education since the colonial period, Manila
Manila
— particularly Intramuros
Intramuros
— is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
(1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), Ateneo de Manila University (1859), Lyceum of the Philippines University and the Mapua Institute of Technology . Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros
Intramuros
for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952.

The University of the City of Manila (Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila) located at Intramuros, and Universidad de Manila
Universidad de Manila
located just outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government. The national government controls the University of the Philippines
Philippines
Manila
Manila
, the oldest of the University of the Philippines
Philippines
constituent universities and the center of health sciences education in the country. The city is also the site of the main campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Philippines
, the largest university in the country in terms of student population.

The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the eastern end of Claro M. Recto Avenue
Recto Avenue
(formerly Azcarraga), Legarda Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different side streets. Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig
Pasig
River, mostly at the Intramuros
Intramuros
and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the border with Pasay such as the private co-educational institution of De La Salle University , the largest of all De La Salle University System of schools.

The Division of the City Schools of Manila
Manila
, a branch of the Department of Education , refers to the city's three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools.

The city also contains the Manila Science High School , the pilot science high school of the Philippines; the National Museum, where the Spoliarium of Juan Luna is housed; the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, a museum of modern and contemporary visual arts; the Museo Pambata , the Children's Museum, a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning; and, the National Library , the repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources.

SISTER CITIES

See also: List of sister cities in the Philippines
Philippines

ASIA

* Astana , Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand
Thailand
* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
* Dili , East Timor * Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, China
China
* Haifa , Israel
Israel
* Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam
Vietnam
* Incheon
Incheon
, South Korea
South Korea
* Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia
Indonesia
* Nantan, Kyoto , Japan
Japan
* Osaka
Osaka
, Japan
Japan
(Business Partner) * Saipan , Northern Mariana Islands * Shanghai
Shanghai
, China
China
* Taipei
Taipei
, Taiwan
Taiwan
* Takatsuki , Osaka, Japan
Japan
* Yokohama
Yokohama
, Japan
Japan

EUROPE

* Bucharest
Bucharest
, Romania
Romania
* Madrid
Madrid
, Spain
Spain
* Màlaga
Màlaga
, Spain
Spain
* Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
* Nice , France
France

AMERICAS

* Acapulco
Acapulco
, Mexico
Mexico
* Cartagena , Colombia
Colombia
* Havana
Havana
, Cuba
Cuba
* Honolulu
Honolulu
, Hawaii, United States
United States
* Lima
Lima
, Peru
Peru
* Maui County , Hawaii, United States
United States
* Mexico
Mexico
City , Mexico * Montreal , Quebec, Canada
Canada
* New York City
New York City
, New York, United States
United States
(Global Partner) * Sacramento
Sacramento
, California, United States
United States
* San Francisco
San Francisco
, California, United States
United States
* Santiago , Chile
Chile
* Winnipeg , Manitoba, Canada
Canada

SEE ALSO

* Book: Manila
Manila

* Cities of the Philippines
Philippines
* Greater Manila Area * Imperial Manila * Kingdom of Maynila
Kingdom of Maynila
* List of cities in the Philippines
Philippines
* Mega Manila * Remarkable people from Manila

* Geography portal * Asia
Asia
portal * Philippines
Philippines
portal * Manila
Manila
portal

NOTES

* ^ The city limits was at Vicente Sotto Street. The rest of the place south of the street belongs to Pasay . Buildings and structures in CCP that falls under the jurisdiction of Manila
Manila
includes the National Theater.

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Guangzhou
and Manila
Manila
City, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Metro Manila, Xiamen and Cebu City, Shenyang and Quezon
Quezon
City, Fushun and Lipa City, Hainan and Cebu Province, Sanya and Lapu-Lapu City, Shishi and Naya City, Shandong and Ilocos Norte Province, Zibo and Manduae City, Anhui and Nueva Ecija Province, Hubei and Leyte Province, Liuzhou and Muntinlupa City, Hezhou and San Fernando City, Haerbin and Cagayan de Oro City, Laibin and Laoag City, Beijing
Beijing
and Manila
Manila
City, Jiangxi and Bohol
Bohol
Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Davao City, Lanzhou and Albay Province, Beihai and Puerto Princessa City, Fujian Province and Laguna Province, Wuxi and Puerto Princessa City. * ^ "Sisterhood Agreement With Democratic Republic Of Timor Leste". City of Manila. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. * ^ "Twin Cities". _Hello Haifa_. Retrieved 16 August 2016. * ^ "Sister Cities – Ho Chi Minh City". Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved 7 February 2015. * ^ "Sister and Friendship Cities". Retrieved 7 February 2015. * ^ "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved 2 September 2009. * ^ "Sister cities, towns and villages of Kyoto Prefecture". _Kyoto Prefecture Website_. Retrieved 5 February 2015. * ^ "Business Partner Cities (BPC), the official website of Osaka city". Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved 2009-08-05. * ^ Todeno, Junhan B. (17 June 2012). "Flores forges sister city ties with Manila". Marianas Variety . Retrieved 10 November 2015. * ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
Foreign Affairs". Shfao.gov.cn. Retrieved 24 November 2016. * ^ "International Sister Cities". Taipei
Taipei
City Council. Retrieved June 3, 2015. * ^ "Manila-Takatsuki sisterpact". City of Manila. Retrieved 8 January 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "List of Sister City Affiliations with Japan
Japan
(by country): Philippines". Singapore: Japan
Japan
Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR, Singapore). February 29, 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2015. * ^ "How the Filipino hero found his samurai wife in Yokohama". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 8 January 2015. * ^ "Hermanamientos y Acuerdos con ciudades". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Retrieved November 24, 2016. * ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-24. * ^ "Sister Cities" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2013. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ "Manila, Philippines". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 27 October 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "US- Asia
Asia
Sister Cities by State". _ Asia
Asia
Matters for America_. Honolulu, Hawaii: East West Center. Retrieved 5 February 2015. * ^ Foreign Relations (June 24, 2005). "Manila- Montreal Sister City Agreement Holds Potential for Better Cooperation". The Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009. * ^ "NYC\'s Partner Cities". New York City
New York City
Global Partners. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2015. * ^ "Winnipeg\'s Sister Cities: Manila
Manila
(Maynila), Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas)". Retrieved June 2, 2015.

SOURCES

* Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutMANILAat's sister projects

* Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Data from Wikidata

* Official Website of the City of Manila * Geographic data related to Manila
Manila
at

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