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Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
(Greek: Μάξιμος ὁ Ὁμολογητής), also known as Maximus the Theologian
and Maximus of Constantinople
(c. 580 – 13 August 662), was a Christian monk, theologian, and scholar. In his early life, Maximus was a civil servant, and an aide to the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Heraclius. However, he gave up this life in the political sphere to enter into the monastic life. Maximus had studied diverse schools of philosophy, and certainly what was common for his time, the Platonic dialogues, the works of Aristotle, and numerous later Platonic commentators on Aristotle and Plato, like Plotinus, Porphyry, Iamblichus, and Proclus. When one of his friends began espousing the Christological position known as Monothelitism, Maximus was drawn into the controversy, in which he supported an interpretation of the Chalcedonian formula on the basis of which it was asserted that Jesus
had both a human and a divine will. Maximus is venerated in both the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. He was eventually persecuted for his Christological positions; following a trial, his tongue and right hand were mutilated. He was then exiled and died on August 13, 662 in Tsageri, in present-day Georgia. However, his theology was upheld by the Third Council of Constantinople
and he was venerated as a saint soon after his death. It is highly uncommon among the saints that he has two feast days: the 13th of August and the 21st of January. His title of Confessor means that he suffered for the Christian
faith, but was not directly martyred. The Life of the Virgin, the only extant copy of which is in a Georgian translation, is commonly, albeit mistakenly, attributed to him, and is considered to be one of the earliest complete biographies of Mary, the mother of Jesus.


1 Life

1.1 Early life 1.2 Involvement in Monothelite
controversy 1.3 Trial and exile

2 Legacy 3 Theology 4 Reception 5 Writings 6 References 7 Further reading

7.1 Collections of Maximus' writings 7.2 On the theology of Saint

8 External links

Life[edit] Early life[edit] Very little is known about the details of Maximus' life prior to his involvement in the theological and political conflicts of the Monothelite
controversy.[2] Numerous Maximian scholars call substantial portions of the Maronite biography into question, including Maximus' birth in Palestine, which was a common seventh century trope to discredit an opponent. Moreover, the exceptional education Maximus evidently received could not have been had in any other part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
during that time except for Constantinople, and possibly Caesarea and Alexandria. It is also very unlikely that anyone of low social birth, as the Maronite biography describes Maximus, could have ascended by the age of thirty to be the Protoasecretis of the Emperor Heraclius, one of the most powerful positions in the Empire. It is more likely that Maximus was born of an aristocratic family and received an unparalleled education in philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc. It is true, however, that Maximus did not study rhetoric as he himself notes in the prologue to his Earlier Ambigua to John,[3] to which his lack of high stylistic by Byzantine standards attests. Nevertheless, for reasons not explained in the few autobiographical details to be gleaned from his texts, Maximus left public life and took monastic vows at the monastery of Philippicus in Chrysopolis, a city across the Bosporus
from Constantinople
(later known as Scutari, the modern Turkish city of Üsküdar). Maximus was elevated to the position of abbot of the monastery.[4] When the Persians conquered Anatolia, Maximus was forced to flee to a monastery near Carthage. It was there that he came under the tutelage of Saint
Sophronius, and began studying in detail with him the Christological writings of Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus
and Dionysius the Areopagite. Maximus continued his career as a theological and spiritual writer while his lengthy stay in Carthage.[5] Maximus was also held in very high esteem by the exarch Gregory, the eparch George[6] and the population as a holy man, ostensibly becoming an influential unofficial political advisor and spiritual head in North Africa. Involvement in Monothelite
controversy[edit] While Maximus was in Carthage, a controversy broke out regarding how to understand the interaction between the human and divine natures within the person of Jesus. This Christological debate was the latest development in disagreements that began following the First Council of Nicaea in 325, and were intensified following the Council of Chalcedon in 451. The Monothelite
position was developed as a compromise between the dyophysitists and the miaphysists, who believed dyophysitism is conceptually indistinguishable from Nestorianism. The Monothelites adhered to the Chalcedonian definition of the hypostatic union: that two natures, one divine and one human, were united in the person of Christ. However, they went on to say that Christ
had only a divine will and no human will ( Monothelite
is derived from the Greek for "one will"), which led some to charge them with Apollinarian monophysitism.

A silver hexagramma showing Constans II with his son. Constans II supported Monothelitism, and had Maximus exiled for his refusal to agree to Monothelite

The Monothelite
position was promulgated by Patriarch
Sergius I of Constantinople
and by Maximus' friend and successor as the Abbot
of Chrysopolis, Pyrrhus.[7] Following the death of Sergius in 638, Pyrrhus succeeded him as Patriarch, but was shortly deposed due to political circumstances. During Pyrrhus' exile from Constantinople, Maximus and the deposed Patriarch
held a public debate on the issue of Monothelitism. In the debate, which was held in the presence of many North African bishops, Maximus took the position that Jesus
possessed both a human and a divine will. The result of the debate was that Pyrrhus admitted the error of the Monothelite
position, and Maximus accompanied him to Rome in 645.[8] However, on the death of Emperor Heraclius
and the ascension of Emperor Constans II, Pyrrhus returned to Constantinople
and recanted of his acceptance of the Dyothelite ("two wills") position. Maximus may have remained in Rome, because he was present when the newly elected Pope Martin I convened the Lateran Council of 649
Lateran Council of 649
at the Lateran Basilica in Rome.[9] The 105 bishops present condemned Monothelitism
in the official acts of the synod, which some believe may have been written by Maximus.[10] It was in Rome that Pope
Martin and Maximus were arrested in 653 under orders from Constans II, who supported the Monothelite
doctrine. Pope
Martin was condemned without a trial, and died before he could be sent to the Imperial Capital.[11] Trial and exile[edit] Maximus' refusal to accept Monothelitism
caused him to be brought to the imperial capital of Constantinople
to be tried as a heretic in 658. In Constantinople, Monothelitism
had gained the favor of both the Emperor and the Patriarch
of Constantinople. Maximus stood behind the Dyothelite
position and was sent back into exile for four more years. During his trial he was accused of aiding the Muslim conquests in Egypt and North Africa, which he rejected as slander.[12][13] In 662, Maximus was placed on trial once more, and was once more convicted of heresy. Following the trial Maximus was tortured, having his tongue cut out, so he could no longer speak his rebellion, and his right hand cut off, so that he could no longer write letters.[14] Maximus was then exiled to the Lazica
or Colchis
region of modern-day Georgia and was cast in the fortress of Schemarum, perhaps Muris-Tsikhe near the modern town of Tsageri.[15] He died soon thereafter, on 13 August 662.[16] The events of the trials of Maximus were recorded by Anastasius Bibliothecarius. Legacy[edit]

Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
and His Miracles. An early 17th-century Stroganov school
Stroganov school
icon from Solvychegodsk.

Along with Pope
Martin I, Maximus was vindicated by the Third Council of Constantinople
(the Sixth Ecumenical Council, 680–681), which declared that Christ
possessed both a human and a divine will. With this declaration Monothelitism
became heresy, and Maximus was posthumously declared innocent of all charges against him. Maximus is among those Christians who were venerated as saints shortly after their deaths. The vindication of Maximus' theological position made him extremely popular within a generation after his death, and his cause was aided by the accounts of miracles at his tomb.[17] In the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
the veneration of Maximus began prior to the foundation of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. Maximus is one of the last men to be recognized by both the Orthodox and Catholic Churches as a Father of the Church. In the encyclical Spe Salvi (2007), Pope
Benedict XVI called Maximus 'the great Greek doctor of the Church', although it's not clear if the Pontiff intended to nominate Maximus 'Doctor of the Church' or to say that he already was one.[18] Theology[edit] As a student of Pseudo-Dionysius, Maximus was one of many Christian theologians who preserved and interpreted the earlier Neo-Platonic philosophy, including the thought of such figures as Plotinus
and Proclus. Maximus' work on Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
was continued by John Scotus Eriugena
at the request of Charles the Bald.[19] The Platonic influence on Maximus' thought can be seen most clearly in his theological anthropology. Here, Maximus adopted the Platonic model of exitus-reditus (exit and return), teaching that humanity was made in the image of God, and the purpose of salvation is to restore us to unity with God.[20] This emphasis on divinization or theosis helped secure Maximus' place in Eastern theology, as these concepts have always held an important place in Eastern Christianity.[21] Christologically Maximus insisted on a strict dyophysitism, which can be seen as a corollary of the emphasis on theosis. In terms of salvation, humanity is intended to be fully united with God. This is possible for Maximus because God was first fully united with humanity in the incarnation.[19] If Christ
did not become fully human (if, for example, he only had a divine and not a human will), then salvation was no longer possible, as humanity could not become fully divine.[22] Furthermore, in his works Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
argued the unconditionality of the divine incarnation.[23] Regarding salvation, Maximus has been described as a proponent of apocatastasis or universal reconciliation, the idea that all rational souls will eventually be redeemed, like Origen
and St. Gregory of Nyssa.[24] While this claim has been disputed,[25] others have argued that Maximus shared this belief in universal reconciliation with his most spiritually mature students.[26] Reception[edit] Maximus' work was translated by the 9th-century, Irish philosopher and mystical theologian Johannes Scotus Eriugena. In Eastern Christianity, Maximus has always been influential. The Eastern theologians Symeon the New Theologian
and Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
are seen as intellectual heirs to Maximus. Further, a number of Maximus' works are included in the Greek Philokalia, a collection of some of the most influential Orthodox Christian
writers. Writings[edit]

Ambigua ad Iohannem (Difficult Passages Addressed to John) PG91 1061A-1417C Ambigua ad Thomam (Difficult Passages Addressed to Thomas) PG91 1032-1060 – Both the Ambigua to John and Thomas are explorations of difficult passages in the works of Pseudo-Dionysius
and Gregory of Nazianzus, focusing on Christological issues. This also was later translated by Eriugena. Capita XV (Fifteen Chapters) PG90 1177-1185 Capita de caritate (Centuries on Love) PG90 959-1082 - Work in the ascetic style of the 'century', where groups of one hundred short sayings are used as meditations during prayer. Capita theologica et oeconomica (Chapters on Theology and the Economy) PG 90 1084-1173 - A work in the ascetic style of the 'century', where groups of one hundred short sayings are used as meditations during prayer. Disputatio cum Pyrrho (Dispute with Pyrrhus) PG91 288-353 – anti-monotholete treatise in conversation with Patriarch
Pyrrhus of Constantinople Epistulae
(Letters) PG91 364-649 Expositio orationis dominicae (Commentary on the Lord's Prayer) Expositio in psalmum LIX(Commentary on Psalm 59) Liber Asceticus (On the Ascetic Life) - a discussion on the monastic rule of life. Mystagogia (Mystagogy) PG91 658-718 – A commentary and meditation on the Eucharistic
liturgy. Maximi Epistola ad Anastasium monachum discipulum (Letter of Maximus to Anastasius the Monk
and Disciple) Opuscula theologica et polemica (Small Theological and Polemical Works) PG91 9-285 Quaestiones et dubia (Questions and Doubtful Passages) Quaestiones ad Thalassium (Questions Addressed to Thalassius) – a lengthy exposition on various Scriptural texts. This was later translated by Eriugena. Questiones ad Theopemptum (Questions Addressed to Theopemptus) Testimonia et syllogismi (Testimonies and Syllogisms)

Attributed Texts

Scholia – commentary on the earlier writings of Pseudo-Dionysius. The original edition in Latin of Balthasar Corderius (Antwerp 1634) attributes all of the Scholia to Maximus, but the authorship has been questioned with Hans Urs von Balthasar
Hans Urs von Balthasar
(1940, 1961) attributing some of the Scholia to John of Scythopolis.[27] Life of the Virgin – earliest complete biography of Mary, the mother of Jesus.[28] This is an attributed work and now believed not to be by Maximus the Confessor. Jankowiak and Booth argue that "none of Maximus' characteristics preoccupations appear in the Life, and in turn none of the Lifes central themes appear in the fleeting Marian reflections contained within his genuine corpus". They also write that there is no Greek manuscript witnessing the text, no evidence that any key thinkers who draw on Maximus where aware of the Life's existence and that no record of the Life as a work exists prior to the second half of the tenth century. [29]


^ Allen, Pauline; Neil, Bronwen (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Maximus the Confessor. Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-19-967383-4.  ^ The following account is based on the lengthy tenth-century biography catalogued as BHG 1234 and printed in Migne's Patrologia Graeca (90, 68A1-109B9). In recent years, however, this account has been called into question on the basis of new scholarly research. The author, or rather compiler, of BHG 1234 turns out to have used one of the biographies of Theodore the Studite
Theodore the Studite
(BHG 1755) to fill the gaps in the information he had on Maximus (See W. Lackner, Zu Quellen und Datierung der Maximosvita (BHG3 1234), in Analecta Bollandiana 85 [1967], p. 285-316). The information the compiler of BHG 1234 did have he drew from the passions extant at the time, in which nothing is said about Maximus' early years (See B. Roosen, Maximi Confessoris Vitae et Passiones Graecae. The Development of a Hagiographic Dossier, in Byzantion 80 [2010], forthcoming). On the basis of mostly internal evidence from Maximus' writings, C. Boudignon advocates a Palestinian birth for Maximus instead (See C. Boudignon, Maxime le Confesseur était-il constantinopolitain?, in B. Janssens – B. Roosen – P. Van Deun [ed.], Philomathestatos. Studies in Greek and Byzantine Texts Presented to Jacques Noret for his Sixty-Fifth Birthday [= Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 137], Leuven – Paris – Dudley, MA, 2004, p. 11-43; and id., Le pouvoir de l'anathème ou Maxime le Confesseur et les moines palestiniens du VIIe siècle, in A. Camplani – G. Filoramo, Foundations of Power and Conflicts of Authority in Late-Antique Monasticism. Proceedings of the International Seminar, Turin, December 2–4, 2004 [= Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 157], Leuven – Paris – Dudley, MA, 2007, p. 245-274). If this is true, it confirms the value of the Maronite biography, even though it is clearly anti-Maximian. ^ Constas, Nicholas (2014). Nicholas Constas, ed. On Difficulties in the Church Fathers: The Ambigua, Volume 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library Series, Volume 28. ISBN 978-0-674-72666-6.  ^  M. Gildas (1913). "St. Maximus of Constantinople". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  "This great man was of a noble family of Constantinople." ^ Berthold, George C. (1997). "Maximus Confessor". In Everett Ferguson. Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-1663-1.  ^ Pringle, Denys (1981). The Defence of Byzantine Africa from Justinian to the Arab Conquest: An Account of the Military History and Archaeology of the African Provinces in the Sixth and Seventh Century. Oxford, United Kingdom: British Archaeological Reports. p. 46. ISBN 0-86054-119-3.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Maximus of Constantinople". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. : "The first action of St. Maximus that we know of in this affair is a letter sent by him to Pyrrhus, then an abbot at Chrysopolis ..." ^ Philip Schaff, History of the Christian
Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D. 590–1073 (online edition)§111, accessed 15 January 2007. ^ "Maximus the Confessor", in The Westminster Dictionary of Church History, ed. Jerald Brauer (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971) (ISBN 0-664-21285-9). This is generally known as the First or Second Lateran Synod, and is not recognized as an Ecumenical Council. ^ For example, Gerald Berthold, "Maximus Confessor" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, (New York:Garland, 1997) (ISBN 0-8153-1663-1). ^ David
Hughes Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of the Saints (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1987) (ISBN 0-19-869149-1) p.288. This made Martin the last Bishop of Rome
Bishop of Rome
to be venerated as a martyr. ^ Walter Kaegi (2010). Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780521196772.  ^ Hans Urs von Balthasar
Hans Urs von Balthasar
(2003). Cosmic Liturgy: The Universe According to Maximus the Confessor. Ignatius Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780898707588.  ^ Gerald Berthold, "Maximus Confessor" in Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, (New York:Garland, 1997) (ISBN 0-8153-1663-1). ^ George C. Berthold (1985), Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings, p. 31. Paulist Press, ISBN 0-8091-2659-1. ^ For example, see Catholic Forum Archived 2007-06-25 at the Wayback Machine.. The injuries Maximus sustained while being tortured and the conditions of his exile both contributed to his death, causing Maximus to be considered a martyr by many. ^ For example, from the biography provided by the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in America: "Three candles appeared over the grave of St Maximus and burned miraculously. This was a sign that St Maximus was a beacon of Orthodoxy
during his lifetime, and continues to shine forth as an example of virtue for all. Many healings occurred at his tomb." ^ The Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints (Prot. Num. VAR. 7479/14) considers the Pope's declaration in Spe Salvi an informal one. ^ a b  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Maximus of Constantinople". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ "Maximos, St., Confessor" in the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. F.L. Cross (London: Oxford Press, 1958) (ISBN 0-19-211522-7). One sees this especially in Maximus' Mystagogy and Ambigua. ^ "Maximus the Confessor" in Michael O'Carroll, Trinitas: A Theological Encyclopedia of the Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
(Delaware:Michael Glazier, Inc, 1987) (ISBN 0-8146-5595-5). ^ "Maximos, St., Confessor" in the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. F.L. Cross (London: Oxford Press, 1958) (ISBN 0-19-211522-7). ^ Hieromonk Artemije Radosavljević, Τὸ Μυστήριον τῆς Σωτηρίας κατὰ τὸν Ἅγιον Μάξιμον τὸν Ὁμολογητήν. Αθήνα, 1975. English version: Bishop Artemije Radosavljević Why Did God Become Man? The Unconditionality of the Divine Incarnation. Deification as the End and Fulfillment of Salvation According to St. Maximos the Confessor — Source: Τὸ Μυστήριον... [The mystery of salvation according to St. Maximos the Confessor] (Athens: 1975), pp. 180–196 ^ "Apokatastasis Archived 2006-06-20 at Archive.is" Theandros: An Online Journal of Orthodox Christian
Theology and Philosophy. Accessed Aug. 12, 2007.  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Apocatastasis". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Hans Urs von Balthasar, Cosmic Liturgy: The Universe According to Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
(Ignatius Press, 2003), 355–356. ISBN 0-89870-758-7. ^ Médaille, John C., The Daring Hope of Hans Urs Von Balthasar, archived from the original on 26 June 2002, retrieved 15 June 2017  ^ Cosmic liturgy: the universe according to Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
– Page 393 Hans Urs von Balthasar
Hans Urs von Balthasar
1961 English translation 2003 ^ Stephen J. Shoemaker, trans., Maximus the Confessor, The Life of the Virgin: Translated, with an Introduction and Notes Archived 2012-05-22 at the Wayback Machine. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012) (ISBN 0300175043); Maximus's Mary, by Sally Cuneen, Commonweal Magazine, December 04, 2009 ^ Jankowiak, M & Booth, P. (2015). "A New Date-List of the Works of Maximus the Confessor" in The Oxford Handbook of Maximus the Confessor. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 72–3. ISBN 978-0-19-967383-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Further reading[edit]

Collections of Maximus' writings[edit]

Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings (Classics of Western Spirituality). Ed. George C. Berthold. Paulist Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8091-2659-1. On the Cosmic Mystery of Jesus
Christ: Selected Writings from St. Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
(St. Vladimir's Seminary Press "Popular Patristics" Series). Ed. & Trans Paul M. Blowers, Robert Louis Wilken. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2004. ISBN 0-88141-249-X. St. Maximus the Confessor: The Ascetic Life, The Four Centuries on Charity (Ancient Christian
Writers). Ed. Polycarp
Sherwood. Paulist Press, 1955. ISBN 0-8091-0258-7. Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
(The Early Church Fathers) Intro. & Trans. Andrew Louth. Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-11846-8 Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
and his Companions (Documents from Exile) (Oxford Early Christian
Texts). Ed. and Trans. Pauline Allen, Bronwen Neil. Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-829991-5. On Difficulties in the Church Fathers: The Ambigua: Volume I, Maximos the Confessor. Ed. and Trans. Nicholas Constas. London: Harvard University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-674-72666-6. On Difficulties in the Church Fathers: The Ambigua: Volume II, Maximos the Confessor. Ed. and Trans. Nicholas Constas. London: Harvard University Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0-674-73083-0. The Philokalia: The Complete Test compiled by St Nikodimos of the Holy Mountain and St Makarios of Corinth: Volume II. Ed. and Trans. G.E.H. Palmer, Philip Sherrard, Kallistos Ware. London: Faber and Faber, 1981. ISBN 978-0-571-15466-1.

On the theology of Saint

Allen, Pauline; Neil, Bronwen (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Maximus the Confessor. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967383-4.  Balthasar, Hans Urs (von). Cosmic Liturgy: The Universe According to Maximus the Confessor. Ignatius Press, 2003. ISBN 0-89870-758-7. Cooper, Adam
G. The body in St Maximus Confessor: Holy Flesh, Wholly Deified. Oxford Early Christian
Studies. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-927570-X. Lauritzen, Frederick. Pagan energies in Maximus the Confessor: the influence of Proclus on the Ad Thomam 5 in Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies 52.2 (2012)[1] Loudovikos, Nikolaos, Protopresbyter. He Eucharistiake Ontologia: Ta Eucharistiaka Themelia Tou Einai, Hos En Koinonia Ginnesthai, Sten Eschatologike Ontologia Tou Hagiou Maximou Tou Homologete. Published in Greek. Translated Title: Eucharistic
Ontology: The Eucharistic Fundaments of Being as Becoming in Communion, in the Eschatological Ontology of St. Maximus the Confessor. Ekdoseis Domos, Athens, Greece, 1992. ISBN 960-7217-72-1. Mitralexis, Sotiris. Ever-Moving Repose: A Contemporary Reading of Maximus the Confessor's Theory of Time. Veritas. Cascade, 2017. ISBN 9781532607035. Mitralexis, Sotiris, Georgios Steiris, Marcin Podbielski, Sebastian Lalla. Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
as a European Philosopher Veritas. Cascade, 2017. ISBN 9781498295581. Nichols, Aidan. Byzantine Gospel: Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
in Modern Scholarship. T. & T. Clark Publishers, 1994. ISBN 0-567-09651-3. Hieromonk Artemije Radosavljević, Τὸ Μυστήριον τῆς Σωτηρίας κατὰ τὸν Ἅγιον Μάξιμον τὸν Ὁμολογητήν. Αθήνα, 1975. English version: Bishop Artemije Radosavljević Why Did God Become Man? The Unconditionality of the Divine Incarnation. Deification as the End and Fulfillment of Salvation According to St. Maximos the Confessor — Source: Τὸ Μυστήριον... [The mystery of salvation according to St. Maximos the Confessor] (Athens: 1975), pp. 180–196 Thunberg, Lars. Microcosm and Mediator: The Theological Anthropology of Maximus the Confessor. Second Edition. Open Court, 1995. ISBN 0-8126-9211-X Tollefsen, Torstein Theodor. The Christocentric Cosmology of St Maximus the Confessor. Oxford Early Christian
Studies. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-923714-2. Törönen, Melchisedec. Union and Distinction in the Thought of Maximus the Confessor. Oxford Early Christian
Studies. Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0199296118 Tympas, G. C. (2014). Carl Jung and Maximus the Confessor
Maximus the Confessor
on Psychic Development. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-62517-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Maximus the Confessor

 Greek Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Μάξιμος ὁ Ὁμολογητής Selected works of Saint
Maximus Confessor  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Maximus of Constantinople". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Maximus Confessor in the Catholic Forum Maximus Confessor in the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in America Greek Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes Summary of Maximus' biography of Mary (mother of Jesus) by Commonweal magazine Uploaded online academic papers on Maximus the Confessor Marek Jankowiak, Phil Booth, A New Date-List of the Works of Maximus the Confessor

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Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus


Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah


Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

v t e

History of Catholic theology

General history

History of the Catholic Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic Church History of Christianity History of Christian

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius
the Areopagite Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint
Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel
Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

Catholicism portal Pope

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 106970843 LCCN: n79055110 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 7938 GND: 118732188 SELIBR: 205976 SUDOC: 027514668 NDL: 01079737 BNE: XX1145