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Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
(Greek: Μάξιμος Πλανούδης, Máximos Planoúdēs; c. 1260 – c. 1305)[1] was a Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek monk, scholar, anthologist, translator, grammarian and theologian at Constantinople. Through his translations from Latin
Latin
into Greek and from Greek into Latin
Latin
he brought the Greek East and the Latin
Latin
West into closer contact with one another. He is now best known as a compiler of the Greek Anthology.[2]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Notes 3 References 4 External links

Biography[edit] Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
lived during the reigns of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors Michael VIII and Andronikos II. He was born at Nicomedia
Nicomedia
in Bithynia in 1260, but the greater part of his life was spent in Constantinople, where as a monk he devoted himself to study and teaching. On entering the monastery he changed his original name Manuel to Maximus. Planudes possessed a knowledge of Latin
Latin
remarkable at a time when Rome and Italy
Italy
were regarded with some hostility by the Greeks of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. To this accomplishment he probably owed his selection as one of the ambassadors sent by emperor Andronikos II in 1327 to remonstrate with the Venetians for their attack upon the Genoese settlement in Galata
Galata
near Constantinople. A more important result was that Planudes, especially by his translations, paved the way for the revival of the study of Greek language
Greek language
and literature in western Europe.

The early-14th century map of the British Isles
British Isles
from the Codex Vatopedinus 655,[3] sometimes associated with Planudes.

He was the author of numerous works, including: a Greek grammar in the form of question and answer, like the Erotemata of Manuel Moschopulus, with an appendix on the so-called "Political verse"; a treatise on syntax; a biography of Aesop
Aesop
and a prose version of the fables; scholia on certain Greek authors; two hexameter poems, one a eulogy of Claudius Ptolemaeus— whose Geography was rediscovered by Planudes, who translated it into Latin— the other an account of the sudden change of an ox into a mouse; a treatise on the method of calculating in use amongst the Indians (ed. C. J. Gerhardt, Halle, 1865); and scholia to the first two books of the Arithmetic of Diophantus. His numerous translations from the Latin
Latin
included Cicero's Somnium Scipionis with the commentary of Macrobius; Ovid's Heroides
Heroides
and Metamorphoses; Boethius' De consolatione philosophiae; and Augustine's De trinitate. Traditionally, a translation of Julius Caesar's De Bello Gallico has been attributed to Planudes, but this is a much repeated mistake.[4][5] These translations were not only useful to Greek speakers but were also widely used in western Europe as textbooks for the study of Greek. It is, however, for his edition of the Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
that he is best known. This edition, the Anthology of Planudes
Anthology of Planudes
or Planudean Anthology, is shorter than the Heidelberg text (the Palatine Anthology), and largely overlaps it, but contains 380 epigrams not present in it, normally published with the others, either as a sixteenth book or as an appendix.[6] J. W. Mackail in his book Select Epigrams from the Greek Anthology, has this to add of him:[7]

Among his works were translations into Greek of Augustine's City of God and Caesar's Gallic War. The restored Greek Empire of the Palaeologi was then fast dropping to pieces. The Genoese colony of Pera usurped the trade of Constantinople
Constantinople
and acted as an independent state; and it brings us very near the modern world to remember that Planudes was the contemporary of Petrarch.

Notes[edit]

^ Fisher, ODB, "Planoudes"; older sources give 1330; the transliteration varies; the Oxford Classical Dictionary (2009) uses Planudes ^ " Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
( Byzantine
Byzantine
scholar and theologian)". Britannica Encyclopedia. 21 July 1998. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ British Library. Add. MS 19391, f 19v-20. ^ Daly, L.W. (1946). "The Greek Version of Caesar's Gallic War". Transactions of the American Philological Association. 77: 78–82.  ^ Heller, H. (1857). "De graeco metaphraste commentariorum Caesaris". Philologus. 12: 107–149.  ^ Douglas and Cameron OCD, s.v. "anthology" ^ Select Epigrams from the Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
by J. W. Mackail

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Planudes, Maximus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Editions include: Fabricius, Bibliotheca graeca, ed. Harles, xi. 682; theological writings in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cxlvii; correspondence, ed. M Treu (1890), with a valuable commentary K. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897) J. E. Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship (1906), vol. i E. A. Fisher, 'Planoudes, Maximos', in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed. A. P. Kazhdan (1991. Oxford U.P.) (also Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press) A. Douglas, E. Cameron, 'Anthology', in The Oxford Classical Dictionary, ed. S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth (2009. Oxford U.P.) (also Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press)

External links[edit]

 Greek Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ἀνθολογία διαφόρων ἐπιγραμμάτων Planudes from Charles Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1867), v. 3, pp. 384–390 Select Epigrams from the Greek Anthology
Greek Anthology
by J. W. Mackail (Project Gutenberg) The Greek Anthology, books 1–6, translated by W. R. Paton, with facing Greek text (Loeb Classical Library, 1916)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 9857802 LCCN: n80056872 ISNI: 0000 0001 2120 1395 GND: 118942719 SELIBR: 84125 SUDOC: 028246942 BNF: cb12012227q (data) BIBSYS: 95004138 NKC: jn20031222010 BNE: XX1072

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