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Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(8 December 1930 – 1 February 2014) was an Austrian-born Swiss[1] film and stage actor, who also wrote, directed and produced some of his own films. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the 1961 American film Judgment at Nuremberg, his second acting role in Hollywood. Born in Austria, his parents were involved in the arts and he grew up surrounded by acting and literature. While he was a child, his family fled to Switzerland
Switzerland
in 1938 when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany, and they settled in Zurich. After World War II ended, Schell took up acting or directing full-time. He appeared in numerous German films, often anti-war, before moving on to Hollywood. Schell was top billed in a number of Nazi-era themed films, as he could speak both English and German. Among those were two films for which he received Oscar nominations: The Man in the Glass Booth
The Man in the Glass Booth
(1975; best actor), where he played a character with two identities, and Julia (1977; best supporting actor), where he helps the underground in Nazi Germany. His range of acting went beyond German characters, however; and during his career, he also played personalities as diverse as Venezuelan leader Simón Bolívar, Russian emperor Peter the Great, and scientist Albert Einstein. For his role as Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
in the television film Stalin (1992) he won the Golden Globe Award. On stage, Schell acted in a number of plays, and his was considered "one of the greatest Hamlets ever." In Schell's private life, he was an accomplished pianist and conductor, performing with Claudio Abbado
Claudio Abbado
and Leonard Bernstein, and with orchestras in Berlin and Vienna. His elder sister, Maria Schell, was also a noted Hollywood
Hollywood
actress, about whom he produced the documentary My Sister Maria, in 2002.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Judgment at Nuremberg
Judgment at Nuremberg
(1961) 2.2 Independent filmmaker 2.3 World War II
World War II
themes 2.4 Character actor 2.5 Documentaries

3 Personal life 4 Death 5 Filmography 6 Other awards and nominations 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit] Schell was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Margarethe (née Noe von Nordberg), an actress who ran an acting school, and Hermann Ferdinand Schell, a Swiss poet, novelist, playwright and pharmacy owner.[2][3] His parents were Roman Catholic.[3] Schell's father was never enthusiastic about young Maximilian becoming an actor like his mother, feeling that it could not lead to "real happiness." However, Schell was surrounded by acting in his early youth:

I grew up in a theatre atmosphere and took it for granted. I remember the theatre, as a child, the way most people remember their mother's cooking. Acting was all around me, and so was poetry. I made my debut in the theatre at the age of three, in Vienna
Vienna
. . .[3]

The Schell family was forced to flee Vienna
Vienna
in 1938 to get "away from Hitler" after the Anschluss, when Austria
Austria
was annexed by Nazi Germany. They resettled in Zurich, Switzerland.[4] In Zurich, Schell "grew up reading the classics," and when he was ten, wrote his first play.[3] Schell recalls that as a child, growing up surrounded by the theatre, he took acting for granted and didn't want to become an actor at first: "What I wanted was to become a painter, a musician, or a playwright," like his father.[3] Schell later attended the University of Zurich
Zurich
for a year, where he also played soccer and was on the rowing team, along with writing for newspapers as a part-time journalist for income. Following the end of World War II, he moved to Germany where he enrolled in the University of Munich
Munich
and studied philosophy and art history. During breaks, he would sometimes return home to Zurich
Zurich
or stay at his family's farm in the country so he could write in seclusion:

My father and my uncle hunt deer there, but I do not like to hunt. I like to walk through the forest by myself. In 1948 and 1949, when I wrote part of my first novel, which I have never shown to anyone, I isolated myself in one of the hunting cabins for three months, without a telephone, without electricity, with heat only from a large open fireplace.[3]

Schell then returned to Zurich, where he served in the Swiss Army
Swiss Army
for a year, after which he re-entered the University of Zurich
Zurich
for another year, and later, the University of Basel
University of Basel
for six months. During that period, he acted professionally in small parts, in both classical and modern plays, and decided that he would from then on devote his life to acting rather than pursue academic studies:

I then decided, either you are a scientist or an artist. . . . To me it is much more important . . . to admire and feel and be stimulated and inspired. . . Art comes out of chaos, not out of a mechanical analyzing. So as soon as I made up my mind, there was no sense any more in continuing to study and in getting a degree. It is like an award; it does not mean anything in itself. . . . A university degree is just a title. I don't think an artist should have a title. It was time for me to concentrate on acting.[3]

Schell began acting at the Basel Theatre.[5] Schell's late elder sister, Maria Schell, was also an actress, as are their two other siblings, Carl and Immy (Immaculata) Schell. Career[edit] Schell's film debut was in the German anti-war film Kinder, Mütter und ein General (Children, Mothers, and a General, 1955). It was the story of five mothers who confronted a German general at the front line, after learning that their sons, some as young as 15, had been "slated to be cannon fodder on behalf of the Third Reich." The film co-starred Klaus Kinski
Klaus Kinski
as an officer, with Schell playing the part of an officer-deserter.[6] The story, which according to one critic, "depicts the insanity of continuing to fight a war that is lost," would become a "trademark" for many of Schell's future roles: "Schell's sensitivity in his portrayal of a young deserter disillusioned with fighting became a trademark of his acting."[7] Schell subsequently acted in seven more films made in Europe before going to the U.S.[8] Among those was The Plot to Assassinate Hitler (also 1955).[9] Later in the same year he had a supporting role in Jackboot Mutiny, in which he plays "a sensitive philosopher," who uses ethics to privately debate the arguments for assassinating Hitler.[7] In 1958 Schell was invited to the United States to act in the Broadway play, "Interlock" by Ira Levin, in which Schell played the role of an aspiring concert pianist.[10] He made his Hollywood
Hollywood
debut in the World War II film, The Young Lions (1958), as the commanding German officer in another anti-war story, with Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
and Montgomery Clift. German film historian Robert C. Reimer writes that the film, directed by Edward Dmytryk, again drew on Schell's powerful German characterisation to "portray young officers disillusioned with a war that no longer made sense."[7] In 1960, Schell returned to Germany and played the title role in William Shakespeare's Hamlet
Hamlet
for German TV, a role that he would play on two more occasions in live theatre productions during his career. Along with Laurence Olivier, Schell is considered "one of the greatest Hamlets ever," according to some.[11] Schell recalled that when he played Hamlet
Hamlet
for the first time, "it was like falling in love with a woman. ... not until I acted the part of Hamlet
Hamlet
did I have a moment when I knew I was in love with acting."[3] Schell's performance of Hamlet
Hamlet
was featured as one of the last episodes of the American comedy series Mystery Science Theater 3000
Mystery Science Theater 3000
in 1999. Judgment at Nuremberg
Judgment at Nuremberg
(1961)[edit]

In Judgment at Nuremberg
Judgment at Nuremberg
(1961)

In 1959, Schell acted in the role of a defense attorney on a live TV production of Judgment at Nuremberg, a fictionalized re-creation of the Nuremberg War Trials, in an edition of Playhouse 90. His performance in the TV drama was considered so good that he and Werner Klemperer were among the only members of the original cast selected to play the same parts in the 1961 film version. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor, which was the first win for a German-speaking actor since World War II.[12] After also winning the New York Film Critics award for his role, Schell recalled the pride he felt upon receiving a letter from his older sister, Maria Schell, who was already an award-winning actress:

I received the most wonderful letter from Maria. She wrote, 'Now, when you have my letter in your hand, a beautiful day is coming for you. I will be with you, proud, because I knew such recognition would come one day, leading to something even greater and better. . . . not only because you are close to me but because I count you among the truly great actors, and it is wonderful that besides that you are my brother.' Maria and I are very close.[3]

According to Reimer, Schell gave a "bravura performance," where he tried to defend his clients, Nazi judges, "by arguing that all Germans share a collective guilt" for what happened.[7] Biographer James Curtis notes that Schell prepared for his part in the movie by "reading the entire forty-volume record of the Nuremberg trials."[13] Author Barry Monush describes the impact of Schell's acting:

Again, on the big screen, he was nothing short of electrifying as the counselor whose determination to place the blame for the Holocaust
Holocaust
on anyone else but his clients, and brings morality into question.[8][14]

Producer-director Stanley Kramer
Stanley Kramer
assembled a star-studded ensemble cast which included Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
and Burt Lancaster.[15] They "worked for nominal wages out of a desire to see the film made and for the opportunity to appear in it," notes film historian George McManus.[16] Actor William Shatner
William Shatner
remembers that prior to the actual filming, "we understood the importance of the film we were making."[17] It was nominated for eleven Academy Awards, winning two.[18] In 2011, Schell appeared at a 50th anniversary tribute to the film and his Oscar win, held in Los Angeles at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, where he spoke about his career and the film.[19] Independent filmmaker[edit] Beginning in 1968 Schell began writing, producing, directing and acting in a number of his own films: Among those were The Castle (1968), a German film based on the novel by Franz Kafka, about a man trapped in a bureaucratic nightmare. Soon after he made Erste Liebe (First Love) (1970), based on a novel by Ivan Turgenev. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Schell's next film, The Pedestrian (1974), is about a German tycoon "haunted by his Nazi past". In this film, notes one critic, "Schell probes the conscience and guilt in terms of the individual and of society, reaching to the universal heart of responsibility and moral inertia."[20] It was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film Oscar[21] and was a "great and commercial success in Germany," notes Roger Ebert.[22] Schell then produced, directed and acted as a supporting character in End of the Game
End of the Game
(1975), a German crime thriller starring Jon Voight and Jacqueline Bisset. A few years later he co-wrote and directed the Austrian film Tales from the Vienna
Vienna
Woods (1979). World War II
World War II
themes[edit]

Drawing of Schell after he won an Oscar for Judgment at Nuremberg (1961). Artist: Nicholas Volpe

During his career, as one of the few German-speaking actors working in English-language films, Schell was top billed in a number of Nazi-era themed films, including Counterpoint (1968), The Odessa File
File
(1974), The Man in the Glass Booth
The Man in the Glass Booth
(1975), A Bridge Too Far (1977), Cross of Iron (1977) and Julia (1977). For the latter film, directed by Fred Zinnemann, Schell was again nominated for an Oscar for his supporting role as an anti-Nazi activist.[23] In a number of films Schell played the role of a Jewish character: as Otto Frank, Anne Frank's father, in The Diary of Anne Frank (1980); as the modern Zionist father in The Chosen (1981); in 1996, he played an Auschwitz
Auschwitz
survivor in Through Roses, a German film, written and directed by Jürgen Flimm;[23][24] and in Left Luggage (1998) he played the father of a Jewish family. In The Man in the Glass Booth
The Man in the Glass Booth
(1975), adapted from the stage play by Robert Shaw, Schell played both a Nazi officer and a Jewish Holocaust survivor, in a character with a double identity. Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
describes the main character, Albert Goldman, as "mad, and immensely complicated, and he is hidden in a maze of identities so thick that no one knows for sure who he really is."[22][25] Schell, who at that period in his career saw himself primarily as a director, felt compelled to accept the part when it was offered to him:

It's just that once in a long while a role comes along that I simply can't turn down. This was a role like that — how could I say no to it?[22]

Schell's acting in the film has been compared favorably to his other leading roles, with film historian Annette Insdorf writing, " Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
is even more compelling as the quick-tempered, quicksilver Goldman than in his previous Holocaust-related roles, including Judgment at Nuremberg
Judgment at Nuremberg
and The Condemned of Altona". She gives a number of examples of Schell's acting intensity, including the courtroom scenes, where Schell's character, after supposedly being exposed as a German officer, "attacks Jewish meekness" in his defense, and "boasts that the Jews were sheep who didn't believe what was happening." The film eventually suggests that Schell's character is in fact a Jew, but one whose sanity has been compromised by "survivor guilt."[26] Schell was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor and the Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actor for his performance. Character actor[edit]

Schell in 2006

To avoid being typecast, Schell also played more diverse characters in numerous films throughout his career: he played a museum treasure thief in Topkapi (1964); a Venezuelan leader in Simón Bolívar (1969); a 19th-century ship captain in Krakatoa, East of Java
Krakatoa, East of Java
(1969); a Captain Nemo-esque scientist/starship commander in the science fiction film, The Black Hole
The Black Hole
(1979); the Russian emperor in the television miniseries, Peter the Great
Peter the Great
(1986), opposite Laurence Olivier, Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
and Trevor Howard, which won an Emmy Award; a comedy role with Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
in The Freshman (1990); Reese Witherspoon's surrogate grandfather in A Far Off Place; a treacherous Cardinal in John Carpenter's Vampires
John Carpenter's Vampires
(1998); as Frederick the Great in a TV film, Young Catherine
Young Catherine
(1991); as Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
in the TV series, Stalin (1992), for which he won the Golden Globe Award;[27] a Russian KGB colonel in Candles in the Dark (1993); the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
in Abraham (1994); and Tea Leoni's father in the science fiction thriller, Deep Impact (1998). From the 1990s until late in his career, Schell appeared in many German-language made-for-TV films, such as the 2003 film Alles Glück dieser Erde (All the Luck in the World) opposite Uschi Glas
Uschi Glas
and in the television miniseries The Return of the Dancing Master
The Return of the Dancing Master
(2004), which was based on Henning Mankell's novel. In 2006 he appeared in the stage play of Arthur Miller's Resurrection Blues, directed by Robert Altman, which played in London at the Old Vic.[28] In 2007, he played the role of Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
on the German television series Giganten (Giants), which enacted the lives of people important in German history.[7][29]

With his sister, actress Maria Schell, in 1959

Documentaries[edit] Schell also served as a writer, producer and director for a variety of films, including the problematic documentary film Marlene (1984), with the unwilling participation of Marlene Dietrich. It was nominated for an Oscar, received the New York Film Critics Award and the German Film Award. Originally, Dietrich, then 83 years of age, had agreed to allow Schell to interview and film her in the privacy of her apartment. However, after he began filming, she changed her mind and refused to allow any actual video footage of her be shown. During a videotaped interview, Schell described the difficulties he had while making the film.[30] Schell creatively showed only silhouettes of her along with old film clips during their interview soundtrack.[7] According to one review, "the true originality of the movie is the way it pursues the clash of temperament between interviewer and star. . . . he draws her out, taunting her into a fascinating display of egotism, lying and contentiousness."[31][32] In 2002, Schell produced his most intimate film, My Sister Maria, a documentary about his sister, noted actress Maria Schell.[33] In the film, he chronicles her life, career and eventual diminished capacity due to illness.[34][35] The film, made three years before her death, shows her mental and physical frailty, leading to her withdrawing from the world.[7] In 2002, upon the completion of the film, they both received Bambi Awards, and were honored for their lifetime achievements and in recognition of the film.[11] Personal life[edit]

Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
and Schell during a TV series in 1983

During the 1960s Schell had a three-year-long affair with Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiari, former wife of the last Shah of Iran. He also was rumored to have been engaged to the first African American Supermodel Donyale Luna in the mid 1960s. In 1985 he met the Russian actress Natalya Andrejchenko, whom he married in June 1986; their daughter Nastassja was born in 1989.[36] After 2002, separated from his wife (whom he divorced in 2005), Schell had a relationship with the Austrian art historian Elisabeth Michitsch. From 2008 he was romantically involved with German opera singer Iva Mihanovic; they eventually married on 20 August 2013. Schell was a semi-professional pianist for much of his life. He had a piano when he lived in Munich
Munich
and said that he would play for hours at a time for his own pleasure and to help him relax: "I find I need to rest. An actor must have pauses in between work, to renew himself, to read, to walk, to chop wood."[3] Conductor Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
claimed that Schell was a "remarkably good pianist." In 1982, on a program filmed for the U.S. television network PBS, before Bernstein conducted the Vienna
Vienna
Philharmonic playing Beethoven symphonies, Schell read from Beethoven's letters to the audience. In 1983, he and Bernstein co-hosted an 11-part TV series, Bernstein/Beethoven, featuring nine live symphonies, along with discussions between Bernstein and Schell about Beethoven's works.[37] On other occasions, Schell worked with Italian conductor Claudio Abbado and the Berlin Philharmonic, which included a performance in Chicago of Igor Stravinsky's Oedipus Rex, and another in Jerusalem, of Arnold Schoenberg's A Survivor from Warsaw.[4] Schell also produced and directed a number of live operas, including Richard Wagner's Lohengrin for the Los Angeles Opera. He worked on the film project Beethoven's Fidelio, with Plácido Domingo
Plácido Domingo
and Kent Nagano.[11] Schell was a guest professor at the University of Southern California and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Spertus Institute for Jewish Learning and Leadership in Chicago.[11] Death[edit] Schell died age 83 on 1 February 2014, in Innsbruck, Austria
Austria
after a "sudden and serious illness".[38] The German television news service Tagesschau reported that he had been receiving treatment for pneumonia.[39] His grave is in Preitenegg/Carinthia (Austria) where the family home was and where he and his sister lived until the end. Filmography[edit]

Title Year Role Notes

Kinder, Mütter und ein General 1955 Deserteur

The Plot to Assassinate Hitler 1955 Member of the Kreisau Circle

Ripening Youth 1955 Jürgen Sengebusch

The Girl from Flanders 1956 Alexander Haller

The Marriage of Doctor Danwitz 1956 Dr. Oswald Hauser

A Heart Returns Home 1956 Wolfgang Thomas

The Last Ones Shall Be First 1957 Lorenz Darrandt

The Young Lions 1958 Captain Hardenberg

Ein wunderbarer Sommer 1958 Josef Ospel

Hamlet 1961 Hamlet Television film. Used in an episode of Mystery Science Theater 3000

Judgment at Nuremberg 1961 Hans Rolfe Academy Award for Best Actor Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated – Laurel Award for Top Male Dramatic Performance

Five Finger Exercise 1962 Walter

The Condemned of Altona 1962 Franz von Gerlach

The Reluctant Saint 1962 Giuseppe

Topkapı 1964 Walter Harper

Return from the Ashes 1965 Stanislaus Pilgrin

The Doctor and the Devil 1965

The Deadly Affair 1966 Dieter Frey

The Desperate Ones 1967 Marek

Counterpoint 1967 General Schiller

The Castle 1968 'K.'

Heidi 1968 Richard Sessemann Television film

Krakatoa, East of Java 1968 Captain Hanson

Simón Bolívar 1969 Simón Bolívar

Erste Liebe 1970 Father San Sebastián International Film Festival
San Sebastián International Film Festival
Silver Seashell Nominated – Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film[40]

Paulina 1880 (fr) 1972 Michele Cantarini

Pope Joan 1972 Adrian

The Pedestrian 1973 Andreas Giese Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Foreign Language Film Nominated – Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

The Odessa File 1974 Eduard Roschmann

The Rehearsal 1974

The Man in the Glass Booth 1975 Arthur Goldman Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated – Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actor - Motion Picture Drama

Der Richter und sein Henker 1975 Robert Schmied on Audiotape Voice, Uncredited role San Sebastián International Film Festival
San Sebastián International Film Festival
Silver Seashell

The Day That Shook the World 1975 Djuro Sarac

St. Ives 1976 Dr. John Constable

Cross of Iron 1977 Hauptmann von Stransky

A Bridge Too Far 1977 SS-Obergruppenführer
SS-Obergruppenführer
and General of the Waffen-SS Wilhelm Bittrich

Julia 1977 Johann New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor Nominated – Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Supporting Actor Nominated – National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor

Players 1979 Marco

Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald 1979 Theatre Visitor Uncredited

Avalanche Express 1979 Col. Nikolai Bunin

Together? 1979 Giovanni

The Black Hole 1979 Dr. Hans Reinhardt

The Diary of Anne Frank 1980 Otto Frank Television film

Arch of Triumph 1980

The Chosen 1981 Professor David Malter

The Phantom of the Opera (de) 1983 Sándor Korvin/The Phantom of the Opera Television film

Les Îles (fr) 1983 Fabrice

Man Under Suspicion 1984 Lawyer Landau

The Assisi Underground 1985 Col. Müller Television film 175 minutes

Peter the Great 1986 Peter the Great TV miniseries

Laughter in the Dark 1986

An American Place 1988 Alfred Steiglitz

The Rose Garden 1989 Aaron

The Freshman 1990 Larry London

Young Catherine

Frederick the Great

Miss Rose White 1992 Mordecai Weiss Television film Nominated – Primetime Emmy Award
Emmy Award
for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie

Stalin 1992 Vladimir Lenin Television film CableACE Award for Supporting Actor in a Movie or Miniseries Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Supporting Actor - Series, Miniseries or Television Film Nominated – Primetime Emmy Award
Emmy Award
for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie

A Far Off Place 1993 Colonel Mopani Theron

Justice 1993 Isaak Kohler

Candles in the Dark 1993 Colonel Arkush Television film Also director

Abraham 1994 Pharaoh Television film

Little Odessa 1994 Arkady Shapira

The Thorn Birds: The Missing Years 1996 Cardinal Vittorio TV miniseries

The Vampyre Wars 1996 Rodan

Through Roses 1997 Carl Stern

Telling Lies in America 1997 Dr. Istvan Jonas

The Eighteenth Angel 1998 Father Simeon

Left Luggage 1998 Mr. Silberschmidt

Vampires 1998 Cardinal Alba

Deep Impact 1998 Jason Lerner

Joan of Arc 1999 Brother Jean le Maistre TV miniseries

Wer liebt, dem wachsen Flügel... 1999 Hochberg

I Love You, Baby 2000 Walter Ekland

Fisimatenten 2001 Poser

Festival in Cannes 2001 Viktor Kovner

Coast to Coast 2003 Casimir Television film

The House of Sleeping Beauties 2006 Kogi

The Shell Seekers 2006 Lawrence Sterne TV miniseries

The Brothers Bloom 2008 Diamond Dog

Flores negras 2009 Jacob Krinsten

Les brigands 2015 Mr. Escher (final film role; filmed in 2013)

Other awards and nominations[edit]

1961: Won the Academy Award for Best Actor
Academy Award for Best Actor
for the American film "Judgment at Nuremberg". 1965: Ondas Award (Best Actor) 1979: Golden Hugo Award for Tales from the Vienna
Vienna
Woods 1980: German Film Award in Silver (program-filling feature film) for Tales from the Vienna
Vienna
Woods 1984: German Film Award, Film Award for the role Morning in Alabama 1985: Golden Globe nomination (documentary) for Marlene 1985: Merit Cross 1st Class of the Federal Republic of Germany (Verdienstkreuz 1. Klasse) 1985: Nominated for Academy Award for Documentary Feature
Academy Award for Documentary Feature
for Marlene 1990: Honorary Award of the German Film Award 1992: Emmy Award
Emmy Award
nomination (Best Actor) in the TV film Miss Rose White 1999: Method Fest for Lifetime Achievement 1999: Platinum Romy
Platinum Romy
for Lifetime Achievement 2000: Satellite Award, Mary Pickford Award for Lifetime Achievement 2002: Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class[41] 2002: Bambi Award 2006: Honorary Award of the Bavarian Film Awards for artistic mastery and humanism 2008: Diva Award for Lifetime Achievement 2009: Premio Roma 2009: Bambi Award for Lifetime Achievement 2011: Honorary Award of the Bernhard Wicki Film Award - The Bridge[42]

See also[edit]

List of German-speaking Academy Award winners and nominees

References[edit]

^ Johnstone, Iain (1977). The Arnhem Report: The story behind A Bridge Too Far. ISBN 0352397756. I'm Swiss, but I was born in Austria.  ^ Maximillian Schell Film Reference biography ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ross, Lillian and Helen. The Player: A Profile of an Art, Simon & Schuster (1961) pp. 231-239 ^ a b "Artists of Holocaust
Holocaust
Symphony: 'The Train' ", Nov. 22, 2004 ^ Maximillian Schell bio at Yahoo! Movies ^ "Kinder, Mutter und Ein General (1955)", New York Times, accessed, Sept. 29, 2013 ^ a b c d e f g Reimer, Robert C. and Carol J., The A to Z of German Cinema, Rowman and Littlefield (2008) pp. 258-260 ^ a b Monush, Barry. The Encyclopedia of Hollywood
Hollywood
Film Actors, Applause Theatre and Cinema Books (2003) pp. 666-667 ^ The Plot to Assassinate Hitler, IMDB ^ Interlock, Playbill, Feb. 6, 1958 ^ a b c d "Maximilian Schell: The Actor of the Millenium", Bohème Magazine Online, 2003 ^ " Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
winning Best Actor Award for Judgment at Nurmeberg on YouTube, video clip, 2 minutes ^ Curtis, James. Spencer Tracy: A Biography, Random House (2011) p. 783 ^ Video clip: "Speech by Schell in "Judgment at Nuremberg" on YouTube ^ movie trailer: "Judgment at Nuremberg" on YouTube ^ Mcmanus, George. A Conservative Christian Reviews the Greatest Movies Ever Made, Xulon Press (2003) p. 94 ^ Shatner, William. Up Till Now: The Autobiography, Macmillan (2008) p. 76 ^ "Awards for Judgment at Nuremberg
Judgment at Nuremberg
IMDB ^ "OSCAR ALUMNI: Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
to Appear at Academy Tribute Tuesday", The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter, Oct. 11, 2011 ^ New York Magazine, April 22, 1974 p. 14 ^ "The 46th Academy Awards (1974) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 3 December 2011.  ^ a b c Ebert, Roger. "Interview with Maximilian Schell", August 17, 1975 ^ a b Bock, Hans-Michael; Bergfelder, Tim. The Concise Cinegraph: Encyclopedia of German Cinema, Berghahn Books (2009) p. 417 ^ Through Roses, IMDB ^ "The Man in the Glass Booth" on YouTube, video trailer, 2.5 minutes ^ Insdorf, Annette. Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust, 3rd ed., Cambridge Univ. Press (2003) p. 171 ^ " Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
Wins Best Supporting Actor Award" on YouTube, video, 2 minutes ^ Resurrection Blues review ^ " Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
- Giants" on YouTube, 10 min. video clip ^ " Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
on Marlene Dietrich" on YouTube, 6 minute video ^ New York Magazine, Dec. 1, 1986 p. 166 ^ Video clip: Marlene on YouTube, 1984 documentary ^ "My Sister Maria" trailer on YouTube, video, 1 minute ^ Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
biography, IMDB ^ My Sister Maria, IMDB ^ The Guardian ^ Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
and Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
discussing Beethoven's 6th and 7th Symphony on YouTube, video clip, 9 minutes ^ "Oscar-Winning Actor Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
Dies at 83". Associated Press in the New York Times. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014. Schell's agent, Patricia Baumbauer, said Saturday he died overnight at a hospital in Innsbruck
Innsbruck
following a "sudden and serious illness," the Austria
Austria
Press Agency reported.  ^ Maximillian Schell is Dead at Tagesschau (German language). Retrieved 1 February 2014 ^ "The 43rd Academy Awards (1971) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 26 November 2011.  ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 1495. Retrieved 17 January 2013.  ^ "Honorary members of the Bernhard Wicki Memorial Fund"

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maximilian Schell.

Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
on IMDb Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database

Awards for Maximilian Schell

v t e

Academy Award for Best Actor

1928–1950

Emil Jannings
Emil Jannings
(1928) Warner Baxter
Warner Baxter
(1929) George Arliss
George Arliss
(1930) Lionel Barrymore
Lionel Barrymore
(1931) Fredric March
Fredric March
/ Wallace Beery
Wallace Beery
(1932) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
(1933) Clark Gable
Clark Gable
(1934) Victor McLaglen
Victor McLaglen
(1935) Paul Muni
Paul Muni
(1936) Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1937) Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1938) Robert Donat
Robert Donat
(1939) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1940) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1941) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1942) Paul Lukas
Paul Lukas
(1943) Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
(1944) Ray Milland
Ray Milland
(1945) Fredric March
Fredric March
(1946) Ronald Colman
Ronald Colman
(1947) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1948) Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
(1949) José Ferrer
José Ferrer
(1950)

1951–1975

Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
(1951) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1952) William Holden
William Holden
(1953) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1954) Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
(1955) Yul Brynner
Yul Brynner
(1956) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1957) David Niven
David Niven
(1958) Charlton Heston
Charlton Heston
(1959) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1960) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1961) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1962) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1963) Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
(1964) Lee Marvin
Lee Marvin
(1965) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1966) Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
(1967) Cliff Robertson
Cliff Robertson
(1968) John Wayne
John Wayne
(1969) George C. Scott1 (1970) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1971) Marlon Brando1 (1972) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1973) Art Carney
Art Carney
(1974) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1975)

1976–2000

Peter Finch
Peter Finch
(1976) Richard Dreyfuss
Richard Dreyfuss
(1977) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1978) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1979) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1980) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1981) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(1982) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1983) F. Murray Abraham
F. Murray Abraham
(1984) William Hurt
William Hurt
(1985) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1986) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(1987) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1988) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(1989) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1990) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1991) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(1992) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(1993) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(1994) Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
(1995) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1996) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1997) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(1998) Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(1999) Russell Crowe
Russell Crowe
(2000)

2001–present

Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(2001) Adrien Brody
Adrien Brody
(2002) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2003) Jamie Foxx
Jamie Foxx
(2004) Philip Seymour Hoffman
Philip Seymour Hoffman
(2005) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(2006) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) Jeff Bridges
Jeff Bridges
(2009) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2010) Jean Dujardin
Jean Dujardin
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) Matthew McConaughey
Matthew McConaughey
(2013) Eddie Redmayne
Eddie Redmayne
(2014) Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
(2015) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2016) Gary Oldman
Gary Oldman
(2017)

1 refused award that year

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama

Paul Lukas
Paul Lukas
(1943) Alexander Knox
Alexander Knox
(1944) Ray Milland
Ray Milland
(1945) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1946) Ronald Colman
Ronald Colman
(1947) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1948) Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
(1949) José Ferrer
José Ferrer
(1950) Fredric March
Fredric March
(1951) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1952) Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1953) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1954) Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
(1955) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1956) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1957) David Niven
David Niven
(1958) Anthony Franciosa
Anthony Franciosa
(1959) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1960) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1961) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1962) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1963) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(1964) Omar Sharif
Omar Sharif
(1965) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1966) Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
(1967) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(1968) John Wayne
John Wayne
(1969) George C. Scott
George C. Scott
(1970) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1971) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1972) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(1973) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1974) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1975) Peter Finch
Peter Finch
(1976) Richard Burton
Richard Burton
(1977) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1978) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1979) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1980) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1981) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(1982) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
/ Tom Courtenay
Tom Courtenay
(1983) F. Murray Abraham
F. Murray Abraham
(1984) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1985) Bob Hoskins
Bob Hoskins
(1986) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(1987) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1988) Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
(1989) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1990) Nick Nolte
Nick Nolte
(1991) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(1992) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(1993) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(1994) Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
(1995) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1996) Peter Fonda
Peter Fonda
(1997) Jim Carrey
Jim Carrey
(1998) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1999) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2000) Russell Crowe
Russell Crowe
(2001) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(2002) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2003) Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
(2004) Philip Seymour Hoffman
Philip Seymour Hoffman
(2005) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(2006) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2007) Mickey Rourke
Mickey Rourke
(2008) Jeff Bridges
Jeff Bridges
(2009) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2010) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) Matthew McConaughey
Matthew McConaughey
(2013) Eddie Redmayne
Eddie Redmayne
(2014) Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
(2015) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2016) Gary Oldman
Gary Oldman
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film

James Brolin
James Brolin
(1970) Edward Asner (1971) James Brolin
James Brolin
(1972) McLean Stevenson
McLean Stevenson
(1973) Harvey Korman
Harvey Korman
(1974) Edward Asner/ Tim Conway
Tim Conway
(1975) Edward Asner (1976) Norman Fell
Norman Fell
(1978) Danny DeVito/ Vic Tayback
Vic Tayback
(1979) Pat Harrington Jr./ Vic Tayback
Vic Tayback
(1980) John Hillerman
John Hillerman
(1981) Lionel Stander
Lionel Stander
(1982) Richard Kiley
Richard Kiley
(1983) Paul Le Mat (1984) Edward James Olmos
Edward James Olmos
(1985) Jan Niklas (1986) Rutger Hauer
Rutger Hauer
(1987) Barry Bostwick/ John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1988) Dean Stockwell
Dean Stockwell
(1989) Charles Durning
Charles Durning
(1990) Louis Gossett, Jr.
Louis Gossett, Jr.
(1991) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1992) Beau Bridges
Beau Bridges
(1993) Edward James Olmos
Edward James Olmos
(1994) Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
(1995) Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
(1996) George C. Scott
George C. Scott
(1997) Don Cheadle/ Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1998) Peter Fonda
Peter Fonda
(1999) Robert Downey Jr.
Robert Downey Jr.
(2000) Stanley Tucci
Stanley Tucci
(2001) Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
(2002) Jeffrey Wright
Jeffrey Wright
(2003) William Shatner
William Shatner
(2004) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(2005) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(2006) Jeremy Piven
Jeremy Piven
(2007) Tom Wilkinson
Tom Wilkinson
(2008) John Lithgow
John Lithgow
(2009) Chris Colfer
Chris Colfer
(2010) Peter Dinklage
Peter Dinklage
(2011) Ed Harris
Ed Harris
(2012) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(2013) Matt Bomer
Matt Bomer
(2014) Christian Slater
Christian Slater
(2015) Hugh Laurie
Hugh Laurie
(2016) Alexander Skarsgård
Alexander Skarsgård
(2017)

v t e

Golden Orange Honorary Award

Ömer Lütfi Akad (1983) Sezer Sezin (1984) Metin Erksan (1987) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
/ Taylor Hackford
Taylor Hackford
/ Norman Jewison
Norman Jewison
(2006) Shekhar Kapur
Shekhar Kapur
/ Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
/ Hanna Schygulla
Hanna Schygulla
(2007) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
/ Mickey Rourke
Mickey Rourke
/ Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
/ Michael J. Warner (2008)

v t e

New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor

Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
(1935) Walter Huston
Walter Huston
(1936) Paul Muni
Paul Muni
(1937) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1938) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1939) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1940) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1941) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1942) Paul Lukas
Paul Lukas
(1943) Barry Fitzgerald
Barry Fitzgerald
(1944) Ray Milland
Ray Milland
(1945) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1946) William Powell
William Powell
(1947) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1948) Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
(1949) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1950) Arthur Kennedy
Arthur Kennedy
(1951) Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
(1952) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1953) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1954) Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
(1955) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1956) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1957) David Niven
David Niven
(1958) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1959) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1960) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1961) No award (1962) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(1963) Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
(1964) Oskar Werner
Oskar Werner
(1965) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1966) Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
(1967) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(1968) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1969) George C. Scott
George C. Scott
(1970) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1971) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1972) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1973) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1974) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1975) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1976) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1977) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1978) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1979) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1980) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1981) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(1982) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1983) Steve Martin
Steve Martin
(1984) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1985) Bob Hoskins
Bob Hoskins
(1986) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1987) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1988) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(1989) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1990) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1991) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1992) David Thewlis
David Thewlis
(1993) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1994) Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
(1995) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1996) Peter Fonda
Peter Fonda
(1997) Nick Nolte
Nick Nolte
(1998) Richard Farnsworth
Richard Farnsworth
(1999) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2000) Tom Wilkinson
Tom Wilkinson
(2001) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2002) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
(2003) Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
(2004) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2005) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(2006) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2009) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2010) Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2013) Timothy Spall
Timothy Spall
(2014) Michael Keaton
Michael Keaton
(2015) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2016) Timothée Chalamet
Timothée Chalamet
(2017)

v t e

New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor

Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1969) Chief Dan George
Chief Dan George
(1970) Ben Johnson (1971) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1972) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1973) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
(1974) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(1975) Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1976) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1977) Christopher Walken
Christopher Walken
(1978) Melvyn Douglas
Melvyn Douglas
(1979) Joe Pesci
Joe Pesci
(1980) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1981) John Lithgow
John Lithgow
(1982) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1983) Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
(1984) Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer
(1985) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(1986) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(1987) Dean Stockwell
Dean Stockwell
(1988) Alan Alda
Alan Alda
(1989) Bruce Davison
Bruce Davison
(1990) Samuel L. Jackson
Samuel L. Jackson
(1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
(1993) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1994) Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(1995) Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(1996) Burt Reynolds
Burt Reynolds
(1997) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
(1998) John Malkovich
John Malkovich
(1999) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2000) Steve Buscemi
Steve Buscemi
(2001) Dennis Quaid
Dennis Quaid
(2002) Eugene Levy
Eugene Levy
(2003) Clive Owen
Clive Owen
(2004) William Hurt
William Hurt
(2005) Jackie Earle Haley
Jackie Earle Haley
(2006) Javier Bardem
Javier Bardem
(2007) Josh Brolin
Josh Brolin
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Mark Ruffalo
Mark Ruffalo
(2010) Albert Brooks
Albert Brooks
(2011) Matthew McConaughey
Matthew McConaughey
(2012) Jared Leto
Jared Leto
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Mark Rylance
Mark Rylance
(2015) Mahershala Ali
Mahershala Ali
(2016) Willem Dafoe
Willem Dafoe
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19866935 LCCN: n86025468 ISNI: 0000 0000 8099 173X GND: 119528967 SUDOC: 061398845 BNF: cb13899472z (data) HDS: 9550 NLA: 40010132 NKC: jo2002105219 BNE: XX1366404 TLS: Maximilian_Schell SN

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