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28 October 306 – 28 October 312 (in competition with Severus, then Galerius
Galerius
then Constantine – jointly with his father 306–8)

Predecessor Constantius Chlorus

Successor Constantine

Co-emperors Galerius
Galerius
(Eastern Emperor, 306-311) Maximinus II (Eastern Emperor, 311-312)

Born c. 278

Died (312-10-28)28 October 312 (aged 34) Rome

Wife

Valeria Maximilla

Issue Valerius Romulus, 1 other son of unknown name

Full name

Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Valerius Maxentius

Regnal name

Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Valerius Maxentius
Maxentius
Augustus

Father Maximian

Mother Eutropia

For the saint of the same name see Saint Maxentius

Maxentius
Maxentius
(Latin: Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Valerius Maxentius
Maxentius
Augustus;[1] c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 306 to 312. He was the son of former Emperor Maximian
Maximian
and the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius. The latter part of his reign was preoccupied with civil war, allying with Maximinus II against Licinius
Licinius
and Constantine. The latter defeated him at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
in 312, where Maxentius, with his army in flight, purportedly perished by drowning in the Tiber
Tiber
river.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Birth and early life 1.2 Accession 1.3 Emperor 1.4 War against Constantine

2 Overview and legacy

2.1 Discovery of Imperial insignia

3 In popular culture 4 Notes 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Life[edit] Birth and early life[edit] Maxentius' exact date of birth is unknown; it was probably around 278. He was the son of the Emperor Maximian
Maximian
and his wife Eutropia. As his father became emperor in 285, he was regarded as crown prince who would eventually follow his father on the throne. He seems not to have served, however, in any important military or administrative position during the reign of Diocletian
Diocletian
and his father. The exact date of his marriage to Valeria Maximilla, daughter of Galerius, is unknown. He had two sons, Valerius Romulus
Valerius Romulus
(ca. 295 – 309) and an unknown one. In 305, Diocletian
Diocletian
and Maximian
Maximian
abdicated, and the former caesares Constantius and Galerius
Galerius
became Augusti. Although two sons of emperors were available, Constantine and Maxentius, they were passed over for the new tetrarchy, and Severus and Maximinus Daia
Maximinus Daia
were appointed Caesars. Lactantius' Epitome states that Galerius
Galerius
hated Maxentius
Maxentius
and used his influence with Diocletian
Diocletian
to see that Maxentius
Maxentius
was ignored in the succession; perhaps Diocletian
Diocletian
also thought Maxentius
Maxentius
was not qualified for the military duties of the imperial office. Maxentius retired to an estate some miles from Rome. When Constantius died in 306, his son Constantine was crowned emperor on July 25 and subsequently accepted by Galerius
Galerius
into the tetrarchy as Caesar. This set the precedent for Maxentius' accession later in the same year. Accession[edit]

The Basilica of Maxentius
Basilica of Maxentius
in the Roman Forum. Completed by his enemy Constantine, it was one of the most impressive edifices of ancient times.

When rumours reached the capital that the emperors tried to subject the Roman population to the capitation tax, like every other city of the empire, and wanted to dissolve the remains of the Praetorian Guard which were still stationed at Rome, riots broke out. A group of officers of the city's garrisons ( Zosimus calls them Marcellianus, Marcellus and Lucianus) turned to Maxentius
Maxentius
to accept the imperial purple, probably judging that the official recognition which was granted to Constantine would not be withheld from Maxentius, son of an emperor as well. Maxentius
Maxentius
accepted the honour, promised donations to the city's troops, and was publicly acclaimed emperor on October 28, 306. The usurpation obviously went largely without bloodshed (Zosimus names only one victim); the prefect of Rome
Rome
went over to Maxentius
Maxentius
and retained his office. Apparently the conspirators turned to Maximian
Maximian
as well, who had retired to a palace in Lucania, but he declined to resume power for the time being. Maxentius
Maxentius
managed to be recognized as emperor in central and southern Italy, the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and Sicily, and the African provinces. Northern Italy
Italy
remained under the control of the western Augustus
Augustus
Severus, who resided in Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(Milan). Maxentius
Maxentius
refrained from using the titles Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar at first and styled himself princeps invictus ("undefeated prince"), in the hope of obtaining recognition of his reign by the senior emperor Galerius. However, the latter refused to do so. Apart from his alleged antipathy towards Maxentius, Galerius
Galerius
probably wanted to deter others from following the examples of Constantine and Maxentius
Maxentius
and declaring themselves emperors. Constantine firmly controlled his father's army and territories, and Galerius
Galerius
could pretend that his accession was part of the regular succession in the tetrarchy, but neither was the case with Maxentius: he would be the fifth emperor, and he had only few troops at his command. Galerius
Galerius
reckoned that it would be not too difficult to quell the usurpation, and early in 307, the Augustus Severus marched on Rome
Rome
with a large army. The majority of this army consisted of soldiers who had fought under Maxentius' father Maximian
Maximian
for years, and as Severus reached Rome, the majority of his army went over to Maxentius, rightful heir of their former commander, who dealt out a large amount of money. When Maximian himself finally left his retreat and returned to Rome
Rome
to assume the imperial office once again and support his son, Severus with the rest of his army retreated to Ravenna. Shortly after he surrendered to Maximian, who promised that his life be spared. After the defeat of Severus, Maxentius
Maxentius
took possession of northern Italy
Italy
up to the Alps
Alps
and the Istrian peninsula to the east, and assumed the title of Augustus, which (in his eyes) had become vacant with the surrender of Severus. Emperor[edit]

Maxentius
Maxentius
as Augustus
Augustus
on a follis.

The joint rule of Maxentius
Maxentius
and Maximian
Maximian
in Rome
Rome
was tested further when Galerius
Galerius
himself marched to Italy
Italy
in the summer of 307 with an even larger army. While negotiating with the invader, Maxentius
Maxentius
could repeat what he did to Severus: by the promise of large sums of money, and the authority of Maximian, many soldiers of Galerius
Galerius
defected to him. Galerius
Galerius
was forced to withdraw, plundering Italy
Italy
on his way. Some time during the invasion, Severus was put to death by Maxentius, probably at Tres Tabernae near Rome
Rome
(the exact circumstances of his death are not certain). After the failed campaign of Galerius, Maxentius' reign over Italy
Italy
and Africa was firmly established. Beginning in 307 already, he tried to arrange friendly contacts with Constantine, and in the summer of that year, Maximian
Maximian
traveled to Gaul, where Constantine married his daughter Fausta
Fausta
and was in turn appointed Augustus
Augustus
by the senior emperor. However, Constantine tried to avoid breaking with Galerius, and did not openly support Maxentius during the invasion. In 308, probably April, Maximian
Maximian
tried to depose his son in an assembly of soldiers in Rome; surprisingly to him, the present troops remained faithful to his son, and he had to flee to Constantine. In the conference of Carnuntum, in the autumn of that same year, Maxentius
Maxentius
was once again denied recognition as legitimate emperor, and Licinius
Licinius
was appointed Augustus
Augustus
with the task of regaining the usurper's domain. Late in 308, Domitius Alexander
Domitius Alexander
was acclaimed emperor in Carthage, and the African provinces seceded from Maxentian rule. This produced a dangerous situation for Maxentius, as Africa was critical to Rome's food supply.

Circus of Maxentius
Circus of Maxentius
in ancient times

Maxentius' eldest son Valerius Romulus
Valerius Romulus
died in 309, at the age of about fourteen, was deified and buried in a mausoleum in the Villa of Maxentius
Maxentius
at the Via Appia. Nearby, Maxentius
Maxentius
also constructed the Circus of Maxentius. After the death of Maximian
Maximian
in 309 or 310, relations with Constantine rapidly deteriorated, and Maxentius
Maxentius
allied with Maximinus to counter an alliance between Constantine and Licinius. He allegedly tried to secure the province of Raetia
Raetia
north of the Alps, thereby dividing the realms of Constantine and Licinius (reported by Zosimus); the plan was not carried out, as Constantine acted first. In 310, Maxentius
Maxentius
lost Istria
Istria
to Licinius, who could not continue the campaign, however, by the middle of 310 Galerius
Galerius
had become too ill to involve himself in imperial politics[2] and he died soon after April 30, 311.[3] Galerius' death destabilized what remained of the Tetrarchic system.[4] On hearing the news, Maximinus mobilized against Licinius, and seized Asia Minor before meeting Licinius
Licinius
on the Bosphorus to arrange terms for peace.[5] In the meantime, Maxentius fortified northern Italy
Italy
against potential invasions and sent a small army to Africa under the command of his praetorian prefect Rufius Volusianus
Volusianus
which defeated and executed the usurper Domitius Alexander in 310 or 311. Maxentius
Maxentius
used the opportunity to seize the wealth of his supporters, and to bring large amounts of grain to Rome. He also strengthened his support among the Christians of Italy
Italy
by allowing them to elect a new Bishop of Rome, Eusebius.[6] Maxentius
Maxentius
was far from secure, however. His early support was dissolving into open protest;[7] by 312, he was a man barely tolerated, not one actively supported.[8] Without the revenues of the empire, Maxentius
Maxentius
was forced to resume taxation in Italy
Italy
to support his army and his building projects in Rome.[9] The election of a bishop did not aid much, either, as Diocletian's persecution had split the Italian church into competing factions over the issue of apostasy (see Donatism). The Christians of Italy
Italy
could easily see that Constantine was more sympathetic to their plight than Maxentius.[10] In the summer of 311, Maxentius
Maxentius
mobilized against Constantine while Licinius
Licinius
was occupied with affairs in the East. He declared war on Constantine, vowing to avenge his father's "murder".[11] Constantine, in an attempt to prevent Maxentius
Maxentius
from forming a hostile alliance with Licinius,[12] forged his own alliance with the man over the winter of 311–12 by offering to him his sister Constantia in marriage. Maximin considered Constantine's arrangement with Licinius an affront to his authority. In response, he sent ambassadors to Rome, offering political recognition to Maxentius
Maxentius
in exchange for military support.[13] Two alliances, Maximin and Maxentius, Constantine and Licinius, lined up against one another. The emperors prepared for war.[14] War against Constantine[edit]

v t e

Battles of Constantine I

Turin Verona Milvian Bridge Cibalae Mardia Adrianople Hellespont Chrysopolis

See also: Civil wars of the Tetrarchy
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy
(306–324 AD) Maxentius
Maxentius
expected an attack along his eastern flank from Licinius, and stationed an army in Verona.[15] Constantine had smaller forces than his opponent: with his forces withdrawn from Africa, with the praetorian and Imperial Horse Guard, and with the troops he had taken from Severus, Maxentius
Maxentius
had an army equal to approximately 100,000 soldiers to use against his opponents in the north.[citation needed] Many of these he used to garrison fortified towns across the region, keeping most stationed with him in Verona. Against this, Constantine could only bring a force of between twenty-five and forty thousand men.[citation needed] The bulk of his troops simply could not be withdrawn from the Rhine frontiers without negative consequences.[16] It was against the recommendations of his advisers and generals, against popular expectation, that Constantine anticipated Maxentius, and struck first.[12] As early as weather permitted,[12] late in the spring of 312,[17] Constantine crossed the Alps
Alps
with a quarter of his total army,[citation needed] a force equivalent to something less than forty thousand men.[12] Having crossed the Cottian Alps
Alps
at the Mont Cenis pass,[17] he first came to Segusium (Susa, Italy), a heavily fortified town containing a military garrison, which shut its gates to him. Constantine ordered his forces to set its gates on fire and scale its walls, and took the town quickly. Constantine forbade the plunder of the town, and advanced into northern Italy.[18] At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum (Turin, Italy), Constantine encountered a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry,[19] labeled clibanarii or cataphracti in the ancient sources. In the ensuing battle Constantine spread his forces into a line, allowing Maxentius' cavalry to ride into the middle of his forces. As his forces broadly encircled the enemy cavalry, Constantine's own cavalry charged at the sides of the Maxentian cataphracts, beating them with iron-tipped clubs. Many Maxentian cavalrymen were dismounted, while most others were variously incapacitated by the blows. Constantine then commanded his foot soldiers to advance against the surviving Maxentian infantry, cutting them down as they fled.[20] Victory, the panegyrist who speaks of the events declares, came easily.[21] Turin
Turin
refused to give refuge to the retreating forces of Maxentius. It opened its gates to Constantine instead. Other cities of the north Italian plain, recognizing Constantine's quick and clement victories, sent him embassies of congratulation for his victory. He moved on to Milan, where he was met with open gates and jubilant rejoicing. He resided there until the middle of the summer of 312 before moving on.[22]

The Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
by Giulio Romano

It was expected that Maxentius
Maxentius
would try the same strategy as against Severus and Galerius
Galerius
earlier; that is, remaining in the well-defended city of Rome, and sit out a siege which would cost his enemy much more. For somewhat uncertain reasons, he abandoned this plan, however, and offered battle to Constantine near the Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312. Ancient sources usually attribute this action to superstition or (if pro-Constantinian) divine providence. Maxentius
Maxentius
of course had consulted soothsayers before battle, as was customary practice, and it can be assumed that they reported favourable omens, especially as the day of battle would be his dies imperii, the day of his accession to the throne (which was October 28, 306). What else may have motivated him, is open to speculation. The armies of Maxentius
Maxentius
and Constantine met north of the city, some distance outside the walls, beyond the Tiber
Tiber
river on the Via Flaminia. Christian tradition, especially Lactantius
Lactantius
and Eusebius of Caesarea, claims that Constantine fought under the labarum in that battle, revealed to him in a dream. Of the battle itself, not much is known – Constantine's forces defeated Maxentius's troops, who retreated to the Tiber, and in the chaos of the fleeing army trying to cross the river, Maxentius
Maxentius
fell into the water and drowned. His body was found the next day and paraded through the city, and later sent to Africa, as a sign that he had surely perished. Overview and legacy[edit]

A Nummus of Maxentius

After Constantine's victory, Maxentius
Maxentius
was systematically vilified and presented as a cruel, bloodthirsty and incompetent tyrant. While he was not counted under the persecutors of the Christians by early sources like Lactantius, under the influence of the official propaganda later Christian tradition framed Maxentius
Maxentius
as hostile to Christianity as well. This image has left its traces in all of our sources and has dominated the view of Maxentius
Maxentius
well into the 20th century, when a more extensive use and analysis of non-literary sources like coins and inscriptions have led to a more balanced image. Maxentius
Maxentius
was a prolific builder, whose achievements were overshadowed by Constantine's issue of a damnatio memoriae against him. Many buildings in Rome
Rome
that are commonly associated with Constantine, such as the great basilica in the forum Romanum, were in fact built by Maxentius.[23] Discovery of Imperial insignia[edit] In December 2006, Italian archaeologists announced that an excavation under a shrine near the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
had unearthed several items in wooden boxes, which they identified as the imperial regalia, possibly belonging to Maxentius.[24] The items in these boxes, which were wrapped in linen and what appears to be silk, include 3 complete lances, 4 javelins, what appears to be a base for standards, and three glass and chalcedony spheres. The most important find was a scepter of a flower holding a blue-green globe, which is believed to have belonged to the Emperor himself because of its intricate workmanship, and has been dated to his rule.[25] These are the only known imperial insignia so far recovered, which hitherto had only been known from representations on coins and in relief sculptures. Clementina Panella, the archaeologist who made the discovery states that "These artifacts clearly belonged to the emperor, especially the scepter, which is very elaborate. It's not an item you would let someone else have." Panella notes that the insignia were likely hidden by Maxentius' supporters in an attempt to preserve the emperor's memory after he was defeated at the Battle of Milvian Bridge by Constantine.[26] The items have been restored and are on temporary display at the Museo Nazionale Romano
Museo Nazionale Romano
at the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. In popular culture[edit] Maxentius
Maxentius
is the main antagonist of the 1961 film Constantine and the Cross. The character is played by Massimo Serato. Maxentius
Maxentius
is portrayed in the 5th episode of Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. In the 2014 film Katherine of Alexandria, Maxentius
Maxentius
was portrayed by Julien Vialon.

Political offices

Preceded by Maximian
Maximian
, Constantine I
Constantine I
, Flavius Valerius Severus, Maximinus Daia, Galerius Consul of the Roman Empire 308–310 with Valerius Romulus, Diocletian, Galerius Licinius, Constantine I, Tatius Andronicus, Pompeius Probus Succeeded by Galerius
Galerius
, Maximinus Daia
Maximinus Daia
, Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus, Aradius Rufinus

Preceded by Galerius
Galerius
, Maximinus Daia
Maximinus Daia
, Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus, Aradius Rufinus Consul of the Roman Empire 312 with Constantine I, Licinius Succeeded by Constantine I, Licinius, Maximinus Daia

Notes[edit] Essays from The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine are marked with a "(CC)".

^ In Classical Latin, Maxentius' name would be inscribed as MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS AVGVSTVS. ^ Lactantius, 31–35; Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 8.16. Elliott, Christianity of Constantine, 43; Jones, 66; Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 68; Odahl, 95–96, 316. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 39; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine, 43–44; Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 68; Odahl, 95–96. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine, 45; Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 69; Odahl, 96. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 39–40; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine, 44; Odahl, 96. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 38; Odahl, 96. ^ Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 68. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 37. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 36–37; Odahl, 99. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 38–39. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 40. ^ a b c d Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine, 44–45; Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 69; Odahl, 96. ^ Odahl, 96. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41; Odahl, 99–100. ^ Odahl, 99–100. ^ a b Odahl, 101. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41; Odahl, 101. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41; Odahl, 101–02. ^ Panegyrici Latini 12(9).5–6; 4(10).21–24; Odahl, 102, 317–18. ^ Panegyrici Latini 12(9).8.1; 4(10).25.1; Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41, 305. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 41–42; Odahl, 103. ^ Cullhed, M (1994) Conservator Urbis Suae Stockholm; Kerr, L (2001) A topography of death: the buildings of the emperor Maxentius
Maxentius
on the Via Appia, Rome
Rome
In M Carruthers et al (eds) Eleventh Annual Proceedings of the Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference pp.24–33 Oxford: Oxbow ^ http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/749781864 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2009-03-16.  ^ The Times, online edition

Bibliography[edit]

Alföldi, Andrew. The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome. Translated by Harold Mattingly. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1948. Barnes, Timothy D. Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0-674-16531-1 Barnes, Timothy D. The New Empire of Diocletian
Diocletian
and Constantine. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-7837-2221-4 Drijvers, Jan Willem. "Eusebius' Vita Constantini and the Construction of the Image of Maxentius." In From Rome
Rome
to Constantinople: Studies in Honour of Averil Cameron, edited by Hagit Amirav and Bas ter Haar Romeny, 11–28. Leuven and Dudley, MA: Peeters, 2006. ISBN 978-90-429-1971-6 Elliott, T. G. The Christianity of Constantine the Great. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 1996. ISBN 0-940866-59-5 Lenski, Noel, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2 Leppin, Hartmut and Hauke Ziemssen. Maxentius. Der letzte Kaiser in Rom (Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie). Mainz: Zabern, 2007. Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1 Panella, C. et al. 2011. I segni del potere: realtà e immaginario della sovranità nella Roma imperiale. Bari: Edipuglia. ISBN 9788872286166. Potter, David S. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay: AD 180–395. New York: Routledge, 2005. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-10057-7 Paperback ISBN 0-415-10058-5 Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine. New York: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23944-3

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maxentius.

De imperatoribus Romanis on Maxentius  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). " Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Maxentius". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Coins of Maxentius
Maxentius
A brief history of Maxentius
Maxentius
illustrated with some coins

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3920874 LCCN: n85254484 ISNI: 0000 0000 9785 3587 GND: 118732145 SUDOC: 033896445 BNF: cb12470721g (dat

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