Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS[1] (/plɑːŋk/;[2] 23 April 1858
– 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery
of energy quanta won him the
Contents 1 Early life and career 1.1 Academic career
1.2 Family
1.3 Professor at Berlin University
1.4 Black-body radiation
1.5 Einstein and the theory of relativity
1.6 First World War
1.7 Post-war and the Weimar Republic
1.8 Quantum mechanics
1.9
2 Religious views 3 Publications 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links Early life and career[edit]
Planck came from a traditional, intellectual family. His paternal
great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in
Göttingen; his father was a law professor in
Max Planck's signature at ten years of age Planck was born in Kiel, Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and
his second wife, Emma Patzig. He was baptized with the name of Karl
Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck; of his given names, Marx (a now obsolete
variant of Markus or maybe simply an error for Max, which is actually
short for Maximilian) was indicated as the "appellation name".[4]
However, by the age of ten he signed with the name Max and used this
for the rest of his life.[5]
He was the 6th child in the family, though two of his siblings were
from his father's first marriage. Among his earliest memories was the
marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into
Planck as a young man, 1878 The
Plaque at the Humboldt University of Berlin: "Max Planck, discoverer of the elementary quantum of action h, taught in this building from 1889 to 1928." Planck started a six-semester course of lectures on theoretical physics, "dry, somewhat impersonal" according to Lise Meitner, "using no notes, never making mistakes, never faltering; the best lecturer I ever heard" according to an English participant, James R. Partington, who continues: "There were always many standing around the room. As the lecture-room was well heated and rather close, some of the listeners would from time to time drop to the floor, but this did not disturb the lecture". Planck did not establish an actual "school"; the number of his graduate students was only about 20, among them: 1897
Black-body radiation[edit]
In 1894 Planck turned his attention to the problem of black-body
radiation. He had been commissioned by electric companies to create
maximum light from lightbulbs with minimum energy.[citation needed]
The problem had been stated by Kirchhoff in 1859: "how does the
intensity of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body (a
perfect absorber, also known as a cavity radiator) depend on the
frequency of the radiation (i.e., the color of the light) and the
temperature of the body?". The question had been explored
experimentally, but no theoretical treatment agreed with experimental
values.
E = h ν displaystyle E=hnu where h is Planck's constant, also known as Planck's action quantum (introduced already in 1899), and ν is the frequency of the radiation. Note that the elementary units of energy discussed here are represented by hν and not simply by ν. Physicists now call these quanta photons, and a photon of frequency ν will have its own specific and unique energy. The total energy at that frequency is then equal to hν multiplied by the number of photons at that frequency. Planck in 1918, the year he received the
At first Planck considered that quantisation was only "a purely formal
assumption ... actually I did not think much about it..."; nowadays
this assumption, incompatible with classical physics, is regarded as
the birth of quantum physics and the greatest intellectual
accomplishment of Planck's career (
From left to right: W. Nernst, A. Einstein, M. Planck, R.A. Millikan and von Laue at a dinner given by von Laue in Berlin on 11 November 1931 At the end of the 1920s Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli had worked out the
Max Planck's grave in Göttingen In 1938, Planck celebrated his 80th birthday. The DPG held a
celebration, during which the Max-Planck medal (founded as the highest
medal by the DPG in 1928) was awarded to French physicist Louis de
Broglie. At the end of 1938, the Prussian Academy lost its remaining
independence and was taken over by Nazis (Gleichschaltung). Planck
protested by resigning his presidency. He continued to travel
frequently, giving numerous public talks, such as his talk on Religion
and Science, and five years later he was sufficiently fit to climb
3,000-metre peaks in the Alps.
During the
Planck, M. (1900a). "Über eine Verbesserung der Wienschen
Spektralgleichung". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen
Gesellschaft. 2: 202–204. Translated in ter Haar, D. (1967).
"On an Improvement of Wien's Equation for the Spectrum". The Old
Quantum Theory (PDF). Pergamon Press. pp. 79–81.
LCCN 66029628.
Planck, M. (1900b). "Zur Theorie des Gesetzes der Energieverteilung im
Normalspektrum". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen
Gesellschaft. 2: 237. Translated in ter Haar, D. (1967). "On the
Theory of the Energy Distribution Law of the Normal Spectrum". The Old
Quantum Theory (PDF). Pergamon Press. p. 82.
LCCN 66029628.
Planck, M. (1900c). "Entropie und Temperatur strahlender Wärme"
[
See also[edit] List of things named after Max Planck Photon polarization German inventors and discoverers Statue of Max Planck References[edit] ^ a b Born, M. (1948). "Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. 1858–1947".
Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6 (17): 161–188.
doi:10.1098/rsbm.1948.0024.
^ "Planck". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ The
Sources[edit] Aczel, Amir D. Entanglement, Chapter 4. (Penguin, 2003)
ISBN 978-0-452-28457-9
Heilbron, J. L. (2000). The Dilemmas of an Upright Man:
External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Max Planck. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Max Planck Works by
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