Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (/plɑːŋk/; 23 April 1858
– 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery
of energy quanta won him the
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as
a physicist rests primarily on his role as the originator of quantum
theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and
subatomic processes. In 1948 the German scientific institution the
Kaiser Wilhelm Society
Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president), was
Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society (MPS). The MPS now includes 83
institutions representing a wide range of scientific directions.
1 Early life and career
1.1 Academic career
1.3 Professor at Berlin University
1.4 Black-body radiation
1.5 Einstein and the theory of relativity
1.6 First World War
1.7 Post-war and the Weimar Republic
1.8 Quantum mechanics
Nazi dictatorship and the Second World War
2 Religious views
4 See also
7 External links
Early life and career
Planck came from a traditional, intellectual family. His paternal
great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in
Göttingen; his father was a law professor in
Kiel and Munich.
Max Planck's signature at ten years of age
Planck was born in Kiel, Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and
his second wife, Emma Patzig. He was baptized with the name of Karl
Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck; of his given names, Marx (a now obsolete
variant of Markus or maybe simply an error for Max, which is actually
short for Maximilian) was indicated as the "appellation name".
However, by the age of ten he signed with the name Max and used this
for the rest of his life.
He was the 6th child in the family, though two of his siblings were
from his father's first marriage. Among his earliest memories was the
marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into
Kiel during the Second
Schleswig War in 1864. In 1867 the family moved to Munich, and Planck
enrolled in the Maximilians gymnasium school, where he came under the
tutelage of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in
the youth, and taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as
mathematics. It was from Müller that Planck first learned the
principle of conservation of energy. Planck graduated early, at age
17. This is how Planck first came in contact with the field of
Planck was gifted when it came to music. He took singing lessons and
played piano, organ and cello, and composed songs and operas. However,
instead of music he chose to study physics.
Planck as a young man, 1878
Munich physics professor
Philipp von Jolly advised Planck against
going into physics, saying, "in this field, almost everything is
already discovered, and all that remains is to fill a few holes."
Planck replied that he did not wish to discover new things, but only
to understand the known fundamentals of the field, and so began his
studies in 1874 at the University of Munich. Under Jolly's
supervision, Planck performed the only experiments of his scientific
career, studying the diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum,
but transferred to theoretical physics.
In 1877 he went to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin for a
year of study with physicists
Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav
Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass. He wrote that Helmholtz
was never quite prepared, spoke slowly, miscalculated endlessly, and
bored his listeners, while Kirchhoff spoke in carefully prepared
lectures which were dry and monotonous. He soon became close friends
with Helmholtz. While there he undertook a program of mostly
self-study of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose
thermodynamics as his field.
In October 1878 Planck passed his qualifying exams and in February
1879 defended his dissertation, Über den zweiten Hauptsatz der
mechanischen Wärmetheorie (On the second law of thermodynamics). He
briefly taught mathematics and physics at his former school in Munich.
In June 1880, he presented his habilitation thesis,
Gleichgewichtszustände isotroper Körper in verschiedenen
Temperaturen (Equilibrium states of isotropic bodies at different
With the completion of his habilitation thesis, Planck became an
unpaid private lecturer (Privatdozent) in Munich, waiting until he was
offered an academic position. Although he was initially ignored by the
academic community, he furthered his work on the field of heat theory
and discovered one after another the same thermodynamical formalism as
Gibbs without realizing it. Clausius's ideas on entropy occupied a
central role in his work.
In April 1885 the University of
Kiel appointed Planck as associate
professor of theoretical physics. Further work on entropy and its
treatment, especially as applied in physical chemistry, followed. He
published his Treatise on
Thermodynamics in 1897. He proposed a
thermodynamic basis for Svante Arrhenius's theory of electrolytic
In 1889 he was named the successor to Kirchhoff's position at the
Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin – presumably thanks to
Helmholtz's intercession – and by 1892 became a full professor. In
1907 Planck was offered Boltzmann's position in Vienna, but turned it
down to stay in Berlin. During 1909, as a University of Berlin
professor, he was invited to become the Ernest Kempton Adams Lecturer
Columbia University in New York City. A
series of his lectures were translated and co-published by Columbia
University professor A. P. Wills. He retired from Berlin on 10
January 1926, and was succeeded by Erwin Schrödinger.
In March 1887 Planck married Marie Merck (1861–1909), sister of a
school fellow, and moved with her into a sublet apartment in Kiel.
They had four children: Karl (1888–1916), the twins Emma
(1889–1919) and Grete (1889–1917), and Erwin (1893–1945).
After the apartment in Berlin, the Planck family lived in a villa in
Berlin-Grunewald, Wangenheimstrasse 21. Several other professors of
Berlin University lived nearby, among them theologian Adolf von
Harnack, who became a close friend of Planck. Soon the Planck home
became a social and cultural center. Numerous well-known scientists,
such as Albert Einstein,
Otto Hahn and
Lise Meitner were frequent
visitors. The tradition of jointly performing music had already been
established in the home of Helmholtz.
After several happy years, in July 1909 Marie Planck died, possibly
from tuberculosis. In March 1911 Planck married his second wife, Marga
von Hoesslin (1882–1948); in December his fifth child Hermann was
First World War
First World War Planck's second son Erwin was taken
prisoner by the French in 1914, while his oldest son Karl was killed
in action at Verdun. Grete died in 1917 while giving birth to her
first child. Her sister died the same way two years later, after
having married Grete's widower. Both granddaughters survived and were
named after their mothers. Planck endured these losses stoically.
In January 1945, Erwin, to whom he had been particularly close, was
sentenced to death by the
Nazi Volksgerichtshof because of his
participation in the failed attempt to assassinate Hitler in July
1944. Erwin was executed on 23 January 1945.
Professor at Berlin University
As a professor at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin,
Planck joined the local Physical Society. He later wrote about this
time: "In those days I was essentially the only theoretical physicist
there, whence things were not so easy for me, because I started
mentioning entropy, but this was not quite fashionable, since it was
regarded as a mathematical spook". Thanks to his initiative, the
various local Physical Societies of Germany merged in 1898 to form the
German Physical Society (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, DPG);
from 1905 to 1909 Planck was the president.
Plaque at the Humboldt University of Berlin: "Max Planck, discoverer
of the elementary quantum of action h, taught in this building from
1889 to 1928."
Planck started a six-semester course of lectures on theoretical
physics, "dry, somewhat impersonal" according to Lise Meitner, "using
no notes, never making mistakes, never faltering; the best lecturer I
ever heard" according to an English participant, James R. Partington,
who continues: "There were always many standing around the room. As
the lecture-room was well heated and rather close, some of the
listeners would from time to time drop to the floor, but this did not
disturb the lecture". Planck did not establish an actual "school"; the
number of his graduate students was only about 20, among them:
Max Abraham (1875–1922)
Max von Laue
Max von Laue (1879–1960)
Moritz Schlick (1882–1936)
Walther Meissner (1882–1974)
Fritz Reiche (1883–1960)
Walter Schottky (1886–1976)
Walther Bothe (1891–1957)
In 1894 Planck turned his attention to the problem of black-body
radiation. He had been commissioned by electric companies to create
maximum light from lightbulbs with minimum energy.
The problem had been stated by Kirchhoff in 1859: "how does the
intensity of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body (a
perfect absorber, also known as a cavity radiator) depend on the
frequency of the radiation (i.e., the color of the light) and the
temperature of the body?". The question had been explored
experimentally, but no theoretical treatment agreed with experimental
Wilhelm Wien proposed Wien's law, which correctly predicted
the behaviour at high frequencies, but failed at low frequencies. The
Rayleigh–Jeans law, another approach to the problem, created what
was later known as the "ultraviolet catastrophe", but contrary to many
textbooks this was not a motivation for Planck.
Planck's first proposed solution to the problem in 1899 followed from
what Planck called the "principle of elementary disorder", which
allowed him to derive Wien's law from a number of assumptions about
the entropy of an ideal oscillator, creating what was referred-to as
the Wien–Planck law. Soon it was found that experimental evidence
did not confirm the new law at all, to Planck's frustration. Planck
revised his approach, deriving the first version of the famous Planck
black-body radiation law, which described the experimentally observed
black-body spectrum well. It was first proposed in a meeting of the
DPG on 19 October 1900 and published in 1901. This first derivation
did not include energy quantisation, and did not use statistical
mechanics, to which he held an aversion. In November 1900, Planck
revised this first approach, relying on Boltzmann's statistical
interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics as a way of gaining
a more fundamental understanding of the principles behind his
radiation law. As Planck was deeply suspicious of the philosophical
and physical implications of such an interpretation of Boltzmann's
approach, his recourse to them was, as he later put it, "an act of
despair ... I was ready to sacrifice any of my previous convictions
The central assumption behind his new derivation, presented to the DPG
on 14 December 1900, was the supposition, now known as the Planck
postulate, that electromagnetic energy could be emitted only in
quantized form, in other words, the energy could only be a multiple of
an elementary unit:
where h is Planck's constant, also known as Planck's action quantum
(introduced already in 1899), and ν is the frequency of the
radiation. Note that the elementary units of energy discussed here are
represented by hν and not simply by ν. Physicists now call these
quanta photons, and a photon of frequency ν will have its own
specific and unique energy. The total energy at that frequency is then
equal to hν multiplied by the number of photons at that frequency.
Planck in 1918, the year he received the
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics for
his work on quantum theory
At first Planck considered that quantisation was only "a purely formal
assumption ... actually I did not think much about it..."; nowadays
this assumption, incompatible with classical physics, is regarded as
the birth of quantum physics and the greatest intellectual
accomplishment of Planck's career (
Ludwig Boltzmann had been
discussing in a theoretical paper in 1877 the possibility that the
energy states of a physical system could be discrete). The discovery
Planck's constant enabled him to define a new universal set of
physical units (such as the
Planck length and the Planck mass), all
based on fundamental physical constants upon which much of quantum
theory is based. In recognition of Planck's fundamental contribution
to a new branch of physics, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
for 1918 (he actually received the award in 1919).
Subsequently, Planck tried to grasp the meaning of energy quanta, but
to no avail. "My unavailing attempts to somehow reintegrate the action
quantum into classical theory extended over several years and caused
me much trouble." Even several years later, other physicists like
Rayleigh, Jeans, and Lorentz set
Planck's constant to zero in order to
align with classical physics, but Planck knew well that this constant
had a precise nonzero value. "I am unable to understand Jeans'
stubbornness – he is an example of a theoretician as should never be
existing, the same as
Hegel was for philosophy. So much the worse for
the facts if they don't fit."
Max Born wrote about Planck: "He was, by nature, a conservative mind;
he had nothing of the revolutionary and was thoroughly skeptical about
speculations. Yet his belief in the compelling force of logical
reasoning from facts was so strong that he did not flinch from
announcing the most revolutionary idea which ever has shaken
Einstein and the theory of relativity
In 1905, the three epochal papers by
Albert Einstein were published in
the journal Annalen der Physik. Planck was among the few who
immediately recognized the significance of the special theory of
relativity. Thanks to his influence, this theory was soon widely
accepted in Germany. Planck also contributed considerably to extend
the special theory of relativity. For example, he recast the theory in
terms of classical action.
Einstein's hypothesis of light quanta (photons), based on Heinrich
Hertz's 1887 discovery (and further investigation by Philipp Lenard)
of the photoelectric effect, was initially rejected by Planck. He was
unwilling to discard completely Maxwell's theory of electrodynamics.
"The theory of light would be thrown back not by decades, but by
centuries, into the age when
Christiaan Huygens dared to fight against
the mighty emission theory of
Isaac Newton ..."
In 1910, Einstein pointed out the anomalous behavior of specific heat
at low temperatures as another example of a phenomenon which defies
explanation by classical physics. Planck and Nernst, seeking to
clarify the increasing number of contradictions, organized the First
Solvay Conference (Brussels 1911). At this meeting Einstein was able
to convince Planck.
Meanwhile, Planck had been appointed dean of Berlin University,
whereby it was possible for him to call Einstein to Berlin and
establish a new professorship for him (1914). Soon the two scientists
became close friends and met frequently to play music together.
First World War
At the onset of the
First World War
First World War Planck endorsed the general
excitement of the public, writing that, "Besides much that is
horrible, there is also much that is unexpectedly great and beautiful:
the smooth solution of the most difficult domestic political problems
by the unification of all parties (and) ... the extolling of
everything good and noble."
Nonetheless, Planck refrained from the extremes of nationalism. In
1915, at a time when Italy was about to join the Allied Powers, he
voted successfully for a scientific paper from Italy, which received a
prize from the Prussian Academy of Sciences, where Planck was one of
four permanent presidents.
Planck also signed the infamous "Manifesto of the 93 intellectuals", a
pamphlet of polemic war propaganda (while Einstein retained a strictly
pacifistic attitude which almost led to his imprisonment, being spared
by his Swiss citizenship). But in 1915 Planck, after several meetings
with Dutch physicist Lorentz, revoked parts of the Manifesto. Then in
1916 he signed a declaration against German annexationism.[citation
Post-war and the Weimar Republic
In the turbulent post-war years, Planck, now the highest authority of
German physics, issued the slogan "persevere and continue working" to
In October 1920 he and
Fritz Haber established the Notgemeinschaft der
Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Organization of German Science),
aimed at providing financial support for scientific research. A
considerable portion of the money the organization would distribute
was raised abroad.
Planck also held leading positions at Berlin University, the Prussian
Academy of Sciences, the German Physical Society and the Kaiser
Wilhelm Society (which in 1948 became the
Max Planck Society). During
this time economic conditions in Germany were such that he was hardly
able to conduct research. In 1926 Planck became a foreign member of
the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
During the interwar period, Planck became a member of the Deutsche
Volks-Partei (German People's Party), the party of Nobel Peace Prize
laureate Gustav Stresemann, which aspired to liberal aims for domestic
policy and rather revisionistic aims for politics around the world.
Planck disagreed with the introduction of universal suffrage and later
expressed the view that the
Nazi dictatorship resulted from "the
ascent of the rule of the crowds".
From left to right: W. Nernst, A. Einstein, M. Planck, R.A. Millikan
and von Laue at a dinner given by von Laue in Berlin on 11 November
At the end of the 1920s Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli had worked out the
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, but it was rejected by
Planck, and by Schrödinger, Laue, and Einstein as well. Planck
expected that wave mechanics would soon render quantum theory—his
own child—unnecessary. This was not to be the case, however. Further
work only cemented quantum theory, even against his and Einstein's
philosophical revulsions. Planck experienced the truth of his own
earlier observation from his struggle with the older views in his
younger years: "A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing
its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its
opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is
familiar with it."
Nazi dictatorship and the Second World War
When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Planck was 74. He witnessed many
Jewish friends and colleagues expelled from their positions and
humiliated, and hundreds of scientists emigrated from
Again he tried to "persevere and continue working" and asked
scientists who were considering emigration to remain in Germany.
Nevertheless, he did help his nephew, the economist
Hermann Kranold to
London after his arrest. He hoped the crisis would
abate soon and the political situation would improve.
Otto Hahn asked Planck to gather well-known German professors in order
to issue a public proclamation against the treatment of Jewish
professors, but Planck replied, "If you are able to gather today 30
such gentlemen, then tomorrow 150 others will come and speak against
it, because they are eager to take over the positions of the
others." Under Planck's leadership, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
(KWG) avoided open conflict with the
Nazi regime, except concerning
Fritz Haber. Planck tried to discuss the issue with
Adolf Hitler but
was unsuccessful. In the following year, 1934, Haber died in exile.
One year later, Planck, having been the president of the KWG since
1930, organized in a somewhat provocative style an official
commemorative meeting for Haber. He also succeeded in secretly
enabling a number of Jewish scientists to continue working in
institutes of the KWG for several years. In 1936, his term as
president of the KWG ended, and the
Nazi government pressured him to
refrain from seeking another term.
As the political climate in Germany gradually became more hostile,
Johannes Stark, prominent exponent of
Deutsche Physik ("German
Physics", also called "Aryan Physics") attacked Planck, Sommerfeld and
Heisenberg for continuing to teach the theories of Einstein, calling
them "white Jews". The "Hauptamt Wissenschaft" (
Nazi government office
for science) started an investigation of Planck's ancestry, claiming
that he was "1/16 Jewish"; however, Planck himself denied this.
Max Planck's grave in Göttingen
In 1938, Planck celebrated his 80th birthday. The DPG held a
celebration, during which the Max-Planck medal (founded as the highest
medal by the DPG in 1928) was awarded to French physicist Louis de
Broglie. At the end of 1938, the Prussian Academy lost its remaining
independence and was taken over by Nazis (Gleichschaltung). Planck
protested by resigning his presidency. He continued to travel
frequently, giving numerous public talks, such as his talk on Religion
and Science, and five years later he was sufficiently fit to climb
3,000-metre peaks in the Alps.
Second World War
Second World War the increasing number of Allied bombing
missions against Berlin forced Planck and his wife to temporarily
leave the city and live in the countryside. In 1942 he wrote: "In me
an ardent desire has grown to persevere this crisis and live long
enough to be able to witness the turning point, the beginning of a new
rise." In February 1944 his home in Berlin was completely destroyed by
an air raid, annihilating all his scientific records and
correspondence. His rural retreat was threatened by the rapid advance
of the Allied armies from both sides.
In 1945, Planck's son Erwin was arrested following the attempted
assassination of Hitler in the 20 July plot. Erwin consequently died
at the hands of the Gestapo; his death destroyed much of Max Planck's
will to live. After the end of the war Planck, his second wife,
and his son by her were brought to a relative in Göttingen, where
Planck died on 4 October 1947. His grave is situated in the old
Stadtfriedhof (City Cemetery) in Göttingen.
Planck was a member of the Lutheran Church in Germany. However,
Planck was very tolerant towards alternative views and religions.
In a lecture in 1937 entitled "Religion und Naturwissenschaft" he
suggested the importance of these symbols and rituals related directly
with a believer's ability to worship God, but that one must be mindful
that the symbols provide an imperfect illustration of divinity. He
criticized atheism for being focused on the derision of such symbols,
while at the same time warned of the over-estimation of the importance
of such symbols by believers.
He was favorable to all religions, but he himself chose Christianity.
He did, however, regret the Church's demands for unquestioning belief,
which served to repel questioners. For example, he believed "the faith
in miracles must yield, step by step, before the steady and firm
advance of the facts of science, and its total defeat is undoubtedly a
matter of time." 
Max Planck said in 1944, "As a man who has devoted his whole life to
the most clear headed science, to the study of matter, I can tell you
as a result of my research about atoms this much: There is no matter
as such. All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force
which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most
minute solar system of the atom together. We must assume behind this
force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind. This mind is
the matrix of all matter."
Planck regarded the scientist as a man of imagination and Christian
faith. He said: "Both religion and science require a belief in God.
For believers, God is in the beginning, and for physicists He is at
the end of all considerations… To the former He is the foundation,
to the latter, the crown of the edifice of every generalized world
On the other hand, Planck wrote, "...'to believe' means 'to recognize
as a truth,' and the knowledge of nature, continually advancing on
incontestably safe tracks, has made it utterly impossible for a person
possessing some training in natural science to recognize as founded on
truth the many reports of extraordinary occurrences contradicting the
laws of nature, of miracles which are still commonly regarded as
essential supports and confirmations of religious doctrines, and which
formerly used to be accepted as facts pure and simple, without doubt
or criticism. The belief in miracles must retreat step by step before
relentlessly and reliably progressing science and we cannot doubt that
sooner or later it must vanish completely."
Later in life, Planck was still culturally a Christian but his views
on God were that of a deist.
In his 1937 lecture "Religion and Naturwissenschaft," Planck expressed
the view that God is everywhere present, and held that "the holiness
of the unintelligible Godhead is conveyed by the holiness of symbols."
Atheists, he thought, attach too much importance to what are merely
symbols. Planck was a churchwarden from 1920 until his death, and
believed in an almighty, all-knowing, beneficent God (though not
necessarily a personal one). Both science and religion wage a
"tireless battle against skepticism and dogmatism, against unbelief
and superstition" with the goal "toward God!"
Planck, M. (1900a). "Über eine Verbesserung der Wienschen
Spektralgleichung". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen
Gesellschaft. 2: 202–204. Translated in ter Haar, D. (1967).
"On an Improvement of Wien's Equation for the Spectrum". The Old
Quantum Theory (PDF). Pergamon Press. pp. 79–81.
Planck, M. (1900b). "Zur Theorie des Gesetzes der Energieverteilung im
Normalspektrum". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen
Gesellschaft. 2: 237. Translated in ter Haar, D. (1967). "On the
Theory of the Energy Distribution Law of the Normal Spectrum". The Old
Quantum Theory (PDF). Pergamon Press. p. 82.
Planck, M. (1900c). "Entropie und Temperatur strahlender Wärme"
Entropy and Temperature of Radiant Heat]. Annalen der Physik. 306
(4): 719–737. Bibcode:1900AnP...306..719P.
Planck, M. (1900d). "Über irreversible Strahlungsvorgänge" [On
Irreversible Radiation Processes]. Annalen der Physik. 306 (1):
Planck, M. (1901). "Über das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im
Normalspektrum". Annalen der Physik. 309 (3): 553–563.
Translated in Ando, K. "On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the
Normal Spectrum" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October
2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
Planck, M. (1903). Treatise on Thermodynamics. Ogg, A. (transl.).
London: Longmans, Green & Co. OL 7246691M.
Planck, M. (1906). Vorlesungen über die Theorie der Wärmestrahlung.
Leipzig: J.A. Barth. LCCN 07004527.
Planck, M. (1914). The Theory of Heat Radiation. Masius, M. (transl.)
(2nd ed.). P. Blakiston's Son & Co. OL 7154661M.
Planck, M. (1915). Eight Lectures on Theoretical Physics. Wills, A. P.
(transl.). Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-69730-4.
Planck, M. (1943). "Zur Geschichte der Auffindung des physikalischen
Wirkungsquantums". Naturwissenschaften. 31 (14–15): 153–159.
List of things named after Max Planck
German inventors and discoverers
Statue of Max Planck
^ a b Born, M. (1948). "Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. 1858–1947".
Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6 (17): 161–188.
^ "Planck". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics 1918. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on
^ Christoph Seidler, Gestatten, Marx Planck Archived 29 June 2011 at
the Wayback Machine., Spiegel Online, 24 April 2008
^ Press release of the
Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society about Max Planck's name.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Max Planck
^ Lightman, Alan P. (2005). The discoveries: great breakthroughs in
twentieth-century science, including the original papers. Toronto:
Alfred A. Knopf Canada. p. 8. ISBN 0-676-97789-8.
^ Planck, Max (1897). Vorlesungen über Thermodynamik. Leipzig: Verlag
Von Veit & Company. Retrieved 27 June 2012. English
translation: Planck, Max (1903). Treatise on Thermodynamics. London:
Longmans, Green, and Company. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
Max Planck - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize
Organisation. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
^ Jacques Hadamard (1915). Four lectures on mathematics: delivered at
Columbia University in 1911.
Columbia University Press. pp. 7–.
Retrieved 5 July 2011.
Max Planck — Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin". www.hu-berlin.de.
Retrieved 15 May 2016.
Erwin Schrödinger — Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin".
www.hu-berlin.de. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
^ Jürgen Heideking; Christof Mauch (5 October 1998). American
Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary
History. Westview Press. pp. 361–. ISBN 978-0-8133-3636-7.
Retrieved 5 July 2011.
^ Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker; Elektrotechnischer Verein
(Berlin, Germany) (1948). "ETZ: Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift: Ausg.
A." ETZ: Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift (in German). VDE-Verlag. 69
(A). , Snipped extract
Max Planck - The Mathematics Genealogy Project".
www.genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
^ a b For a solid approach to the complexity of Planck's intellectual
motivations for the quantum, for his reluctant acceptance of its
implications, see Helge Kragh, Max Planck: the reluctant
Physics World. December 2000.
^ Kragh, Helge (1 December 2000), Max Planck: the reluctant
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics 1918". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved
^ Heilbron, 2000, page 8
^ Einstein and the Quantum, A.Douglas Stone, Princeton University
Press, Princeton and Oxford, chapter 9, Tripping the light heuristic,
^ Heilbron, 2000, page 72
^ Evans, James; Thorndike, Alan S. (2007).
Quantum mechanics at the
crossroads: new perspectives from history, philosophy and physics.
Springer. p. 31. ISBN 3-540-32663-4. Extract of page
^ "Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858–1947)". Royal Netherlands
Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
^ Scully, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O. (2007). The demon and the
quantum: from the pythagorean mystics to Maxwell's demon and quantum
mystery. Wiley-VCH. p. 90. ISBN 3-527-40688-3. ,
Chapter 7, p 90
^ Quoted in Thomas Kuhn,
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1970
ed.): p. 150.
^ "Johanna Kranold Stein". Ithaca Journal. Legacy.com. Retrieved 10
^ In a slightly different translation, Hahn remembers Planck saying:
"If you bring together 30 such men today, then tomorrow 150 will come
to denounce them because they want to take their places." This
translated quote is found in: Heilbron, 2000, p. 150. Heilbron, at the
end of the paragraph, on p. 151, cites the following references to
Otto Hahn Einige persönliche Erinnerungen an Max
Planck MPG, Mitteilungen (1957) p. 244, and
Otto Hahn My Life (Herder
and Herder, 1970) p. 140.
^ Heilbron, 2000, page 191
^ "Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck". Archived from the original on 12 May
2008. Retrieved 2010-06-17. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
^ Max Planck's Grave at Göttingen, Germany, Youtube, retrieved
^ Erich Dinkler, Planck, Max, in Die Religion in Geschichte und
Gegenwart, Third Edition, Volume V, Tübingen (Germany), 1961, col.
^ The Religious Affiliation of Physicist Max Planck. adherents.com.
Retrieved on 2011-07-05.
^ The Life Max Planck. encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-07.
^ "The religion of Max Planck, physicist". www.adherents.com.
^ Das Wesen der Materie [The Nature of Matter], speech at Florence,
Italy (1944) (from Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft,
Abt. Va, Rep. 11 Planck, Nr. 1797)
^ Religion and Natural Science (Lecture Given 1937) Scientific
Autobiography and Other Papers, trans. F. Gaynor (New York, 1949), pp.
184 (from http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Max_Planck)
^ Max Planck, Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers
^ J. L. Heilbron (1986). The Dilemmas of an Upright Man: Max Planck
and the Fortunes of German Science. Harvard University Press.
p. 198. ISBN 9780674004399. On the other side, Church
spokesmen could scarcely become enthusiastic about Planck's deism,
which omitted all reference to established religions and had no more
doctrinal content than Einstein's Judaism. It seemed useful therefore
to paint the lily, to improve the lesson of Planck's life for the use
of proselytizers and to associate the deanthropomorphizer of science
with a belief in a traditional Godhead.
^ "The religion of Max Planck, physicist". www.adherents.com.
Aczel, Amir D. Entanglement, Chapter 4. (Penguin, 2003)
Heilbron, J. L. (2000). The Dilemmas of an Upright Man:
Max Planck and
the Fortunes of German Science. Harvard University Press.
Pickover, Clifford A. Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the
Great Minds Behind Them, Oxford University Press, 2008,
Medawar, Jean: Pyke, David (2012). Hitler's Gift: The True Story of
the Scientists Expelled by the
Nazi Regime (Paperback). New York:
Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-709-4. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link)
Rosenthal-Schneider, Ilse Reality and Scientific Truth: Discussions
with Einstein, von Laue, and Planck (Wayne State University, 1980)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Max Planck.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Max Planck
Max Planck at Project Gutenberg
Max Planck at Faded Page (Canada)
Works by or about
Max Planck at Internet Archive
Max Planck at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Annotated bibliography for
Max Planck from the Alsos Digital Library
for Nuclear Issues
Max Planck – Encyclopædia Britannica article
Max Planck Biography – www.nobel-prize-winners.com
Max Planck Institutes of Natural Science and Astrophysics
Cinematic self-portrait of Max Planck, Berlin-Brandenburgische
Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1942
Life–Work–Personality – Exhibition on the 50th anniversary of
Copley Medallists (1901–1950)
Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs (1901)
Joseph Lister (1902)
Eduard Suess (1903)
William Crookes (1904)
Dmitri Mendeleev (1905)
Élie Metchnikoff (1906)
Albert A. Michelson
Albert A. Michelson (1907)
Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace (1908)
George William Hill
George William Hill (1909)
Francis Galton (1910)
George Darwin (1911)
Felix Klein (1912)
Ray Lankester (1913)
J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson (1914)
Ivan Pavlov (1915)
James Dewar (1916)
Pierre Paul Émile Roux
Pierre Paul Émile Roux (1917)
Hendrik Lorentz (1918)
William Bayliss (1919)
Horace Tabberer Brown
Horace Tabberer Brown (1920)
Joseph Larmor (1921)
Ernest Rutherford (1922)
Horace Lamb (1923)
Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer (1924)
Albert Einstein (1925)
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1926)
Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington (1927)
Charles Algernon Parsons
Charles Algernon Parsons (1928)
Max Planck (1929)
William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg (1930)
Arthur Schuster (1931)
George Ellery Hale
George Ellery Hale (1932)
Theobald Smith (1933)
John Scott Haldane
John Scott Haldane (1934)
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1935)
Arthur Evans (1936)
Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale (1937)
Niels Bohr (1938)
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1939)
Paul Langevin (1940)
Thomas Lewis (1941)
Robert Robinson (1942)
Joseph Barcroft (1943)
Geoffrey Ingram Taylor (1944)
Oswald Avery (1945)
Edgar Douglas Adrian (1946)
G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy (1947)
Archibald Hill (1948)
George de Hevesy
George de Hevesy (1949)
James Chadwick (1950)
Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics
1902 Lorentz / Zeeman
1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie
1906 J. J. Thomson
1909 Marconi / Braun
1910 Van der Waals
1913 Kamerlingh Onnes
1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg
1922 N. Bohr
1924 M. Siegbahn
1925 Franck / Hertz
1927 Compton / C. Wilson
1928 O. Richardson
1929 De Broglie
1933 Schrödinger / Dirac
1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson
1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson
1951 Cockcroft / Walton
1952 Bloch / Purcell
1954 Born / Bothe
1955 Lamb / Kusch
1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain
1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee
1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm
1959 Segrè / Chamberlain
1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer
1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen
1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov
1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman
1970 Alfvén / Néel
1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer
1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson
1974 Ryle / Hewish
1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater
1976 Richter / Ting
1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck
1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson
1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg
1980 Cronin / Fitch
1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn
1982 K. Wilson
1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler
1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer
1985 von Klitzing
1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer
1987 Bednorz / Müller
1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger
1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul
1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor
1991 de Gennes
1993 Hulse / J. Taylor
1994 Brockhouse / Shull
1995 Perl / Reines
1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson
1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips
1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui
1999 't Hooft / Veltman
2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby
2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman
2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi
2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett
2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek
2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch
2006 Mather / Smoot
2007 Fert / Grünberg
2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa
2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith
2010 Geim / Novoselov
2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt
2012 Wineland / Haroche
2013 Englert / Higgs
2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura
2015 Kajita / McDonald
2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz
2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne
Scientists whose names are used in physical constants
Isaac Newton (gravitational constant)
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (Coulomb's constant)
Amedeo Avogadro (Avogadro constant)
Michael Faraday (Faraday constant)
Johann Josef Loschmidt
Johann Jakob Balmer
Joseph Stefan (Stefan–Boltzmann constant)
Ludwig Boltzmann (Boltzmann constant, Stefan–Boltzmann constant)
Johannes Rydberg (Rydberg constant)
Joseph John Thomson
Max Planck (Planck constant, reduced Planck constant, Planck length,
Niels Bohr (Bohr radius)
Edwin Hubble (Hubble constant)
Brian David Josephson
Klaus von Klitzing
List of scientists whose names are used as SI units
List of scientists whose names are used as SI units and non SI units
Planck's natural units
Base Planck units
Derived Planck units
Planck angular frequency
ISNI: 0000 0001 1024 5894
BNF: cb12108412n (data)