Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900),
generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and
Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life. He
was one of the founders of the western academic field of Indian
studies and the discipline of comparative religion. Müller wrote
both scholarly and popular works on the subject of Indology. The
Sacred Books of the East, a 50-volume set of English translations, was
prepared under his direction. He also promoted the idea of a Turanian
family of languages.
1 Early life and education
2 Academic career
3 Scholarly and literary works
3.2 Gifford Lectures
3.3 As translator
4 Views on India
4.1 Early career
4.2 Late career
5.2 Darwin disagreement
7 Personal life
8 Death and legacy
12 External links
Early life and education
Max Müller was born into a cultured family on 6 December
1823 in Dessau, the son of Wilhelm Müller, a lyric poet whose verse
Franz Schubert had set to music in his song-cycles Die schöne
Müllerin and Winterreise. His mother, Adelheid Müller (née von
Basedow), was the eldest daughter of a prime minister of
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber was a godfather.
Müller was named after his mother's elder brother, Friedrich, and
after the central character, Max, in Weber's opera Der Freischütz.
Later in life, he adopted Max as a part of his surname, believing that
the prevalence of Müller as a name made it too common. His name
was also recorded as "Maximilian" on several official documents (e.g.
university register, marriage certificate), on some
of his honours and in some other publications.
Müller entered the gymnasium (grammar school) at
Dessau when he was
six years old. In 1839, after the death of his grandfather, he was
sent to the Nicolai School at Leipzig, where he continued to his
studies of music and classics. It was during his time in
he frequently met Felix Mendelssohn.
In need of a scholarship to attend
Leipzig University, Müller
successfully sat his abitur examination at Zerbst. While preparing, he
found that the syllabus differed from what he had been taught,
necessitating that he rapidly learn mathematics, modern languages and
science. He entered
Leipzig University in 1841 to study philology,
leaving behind his early interest in music and poetry. Müller
received his degree in 1843. His final dissertation was on Spinoza's
Ethics. He also displayed an aptitude for classical languages,
learning Greek, Latin, Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Max Müller's submission for the Boden Professorship election
In 1850 Müller was appointed deputy Taylorian professor of modern
European languages at
Oxford University. In the following year, at the
suggestion of Thomas Gaisford, he was made an honorary M.A. and a
member of the college of Christ Church, Oxford. On succeeding to the
full professorship in 1854, he received the full degree of M.A. by
Decree of Convocation. In 1858 he was elected to a life fellowship at
All Souls' College.
He was defeated in the 1860 election for the Boden Professor of
Sanskrit, which was a "keen disappointment" to him. Müller was far
better qualified for the post than the other candidate (Monier
Monier-Williams), but his broad theological views, his Lutheranism,
his German birth and lack of practical first-hand knowledge of India
told against him. After the election he wrote to his mother, "all the
best people voted for me, the Professors almost unanimously, but the
vulgus profanum made the majority".
Later in 1868, Müller became Oxford's first Professor of Comparative
Philology, a position founded on his behalf. He held this chair until
his death, although he retired from its active duties in 1875.
Scholarly and literary works
In 1844, prior to commencing his academic career at Oxford, Müller
Berlin with Friedrich Schelling. He began to translate the
Upanishads for Schelling, and continued to research
Franz Bopp, the first systematic scholar of the Indo-European
languages (IE). Schelling led Müller to relate the history of
language to the history of religion. At this time, Müller published
his first book, a German translation of the Hitopadesa, a collection
of Indian fables.
In 1845 Müller moved to Paris to study
Sanskrit under Eugène
Burnouf. Burnouf encouraged him to publish the complete Rigveda,
making use of the manuscripts available in England. He moved to
England in 1846 to study
Sanskrit texts in the collection of the East
India Company. He supported himself at first with creative writing,
his novel German Love being popular in its day.
Müller's connections with the East
India Company and with
Sanskritists based at
Oxford University led to a career in Britain,
where he eventually became the leading intellectual commentator on the
culture of India. At the time, Britain controlled this territory as
part of its Empire. This led to complex exchanges between Indian and
British intellectual culture, especially through Müller's links with
the Brahmo Samaj.
Sanskrit studies came at a time when scholars had started to
see language development in relation to cultural development. The
recent discovery of the Indo-European language group had started to
lead to much speculation about the relationship between Greco-Roman
cultures and those of more ancient peoples. In particular the Vedic
India was thought to have been the ancestor of European
Classical cultures. Scholars sought to compare the genetically related
European and Asian languages to reconstruct the earliest form of the
root-language. The Vedic language, Sanskrit, was thought to be the
oldest of the IE languages.
Müller devoted himself to the study of this language, becoming one of
Sanskrit scholars of his day. He believed that the earliest
documents of Vedic culture should be studied to provide the key to the
development of pagan European religions, and of religious belief in
general. To this end, Müller sought to understand the most ancient of
Vedic scriptures, the Rig-Veda. Müller was greatly impressed by
Ramakrishna Paramhansa, his contemporary and proponent of Vedantic
philosophy, and wrote several essays and books about him.
Portrait of the elderly
Max Müller by George Frederic Watts,
For Müller, the study of the language had to relate to the study of
the culture in which it had been used. He came to the view that the
development of languages should be tied to that of belief-systems. At
that time the Vedic scriptures were little-known in the West, though
there was increasing interest in the philosophy of the Upanishads.
Müller believed that the sophisticated Upanishadic philosophy could
be linked to the primitive henotheism of early Vedic Brahmanism from
which it evolved. He had to travel to London to look at documents held
in the collection of the British East
India Company. While there he
persuaded the company to allow him to undertake a critical edition of
the Rig-Veda, a task he pursued over many years (1849–1874). He
completed the critical edition for which he is most
remembered.. Scientific American carried his obituary
in the December 8th, 1900 edition of the magazine. It was revealed
that Max Muller had in fact usurped the full credit for the
translation of the Rig veda which was actually not his work at all,
but of another unnamed german scholar whom Muller had paid to
translate the text. To quote from his obituary in Scientific American,
"What he constantly proclaimed to be his own great work, the edition
of the "Rig Veda," was in reality not his at all. A German scholar did
the work, and Muller appropriated the credit for it."
For Müller, the culture of the Vedic peoples represented a form of
nature worship, an idea clearly influenced by Romanticism. Müller
shared many of the ideas associated with Romanticism, which coloured
his account of ancient religions, in particular his emphasis on the
formative influence on early religion of emotional communion with
natural forces. He saw the gods of the
Rig-Veda as active forces
of nature, only partly personified as imagined supernatural persons.
From this claim Müller derived his theory that mythology is "a
disease of language". By this he meant that myth transforms concepts
into beings and stories. In Müller's view, "gods" began as words
constructed to express abstract ideas, but were transformed into
imagined personalities. Thus the Indo-European father-god appears
under various names: Zeus, Jupiter, Dyaus Pita. For Müller all these
names can be traced to the word "Dyaus", which he understood to imply
"shining" or "radiance". This leads to the terms "deva", "deus",
"theos" as generic terms for a god, and to the names "Zeus" and
"Jupiter" (derived from deus-pater). In this way a metaphor becomes
personified and ossified. This aspect of Müller's thinking was later
explored similarly by Nietzsche.
1875 Vanity Fair caricature of Müller confirming that, at the age of
fifty-one, with numerous honours, he was one of the truly notable "Men
of the Day".
In 1888, Müller was appointed Gifford Lecturer at the University of
Gifford Lectures were the first in an annual series,
given at several Scottish universities, that has continued to the
present day. Over the next four years, Müller gave four series of
lectures. The titles and order of the lectures were as follows:
Natural Religion. This first course of lectures was intended as purely
introductory, and had for its object a definition of Natural Religion
in its widest sense.
Physical Religion. This second course of lectures was intended to show
how different nations had arrived at a belief in something infinite
behind the finite, in something invisible behind the visible, in many
unseen agents or gods of nature, until they reached a belief in one
god above all those gods. In short, a history of the discovery of the
infinite in nature.
Anthropological Religion. This third course was intended to show how
different nations arrived at a belief in a soul, how they named its
various faculties, and what they imagined about its fate after death.
Theosophy or Psychological Religion. The fourth and last course of
lectures was intended to examine the relation between God and the soul
("these two Infinites"), including the ideas that some of the
principal nations of the world have formed concerning this relation.
Real religion, Müller asserted, is founded on a true perception of
the relation of the soul to God and of God to the soul; Müller wanted
to prove that this was true, not only as a postulate, but as an
historical fact. The original title of the lectures was 'Psychological
Religion' but Müller felt compelled to add 'Theosophy' to it.
In 1881, he published a translation of the first edition of Kant's
Critique of Pure Reason. He agreed with
Schopenhauer that this edition
was the most direct and honest expression of Kant's thought. His
translation corrected several errors that were committed by previous
translators. In his Translator's Preface, Müller wrote
The bridge of thoughts and sighs that spans the whole history of the
Aryan world has its first arch in the Veda, its last in Kant's
Critique. ... While in the Veda we may study the childhood, we
may study in Kant's
Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason the perfect manhood of the
Aryan mind. ... The materials are now accessible, and the
English-speaking race, the race of the future, will have in Kant's
Aryan heirloom, as precious as the Veda—a work that
may be criticised, but can never be ignored.
Müller continued to be influenced by the Kantian Transcendentalist
model of spirituality, and was opposed to Darwinian ideas of human
development. He argued that "language forms an impassable barrier
between man and beast."
He was also influenced by the work Thought and Reality, of the Russian
philosopher African Spir.
Views on India
In his career, Müller several times expressed the view that a
"reformation" within Hinduism needed to occur, comparable to the
Christian Reformation. In his view, "if there is one thing which a
comparative study of religions places in the clearest light, it is the
inevitable decay to which every religion is exposed... Whenever
we can trace back a religion to its first beginnings, we find it free
from many blemishes that affected it in its later states".
He used his links with the
Brahmo Samaj to encourage such a
reformation on the lines pioneered by Ram Mohan Roy. Müller believed
that the Brahmos would engender an Indian form of Christianity and
that they were in practice "Christians, without being Roman Catholics,
Anglicans or Lutherans". In the Lutheran tradition, he hoped that the
"superstition" and idolatry, which he considered to be characteristic
of modern popular Hinduism, would disappear.
The translation of the Veda will hereafter tell to a great extent on
the fate of India, and on the growth of millions of souls in that
country. It is the root of their religion, and to show them what the
root is, is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has
sprung from it during the last 3,000 years.
Müller hoped that increased funding for education in
promote a new form of literature combining Western and Indian
traditions. In 1868 he wrote to George Campbell, the newly appointed
Secretary of State for India:
India has been conquered once, but
India must be conquered again, and
that second conquest should be a conquest by education. Much has been
done for education of late, but if the funds were tripled and
quadrupled, that would hardly be enough (...) By encouraging a study
of their own ancient literature, as part of their education, a
national feeling of pride and self-respect will be reawakened among
those who influence the large masses of the people. A new national
literature may spring up, impregnated with Western ideas, yet
retaining its native spirit and character (...) A new national
literature will bring with it a new national life, and new moral
vigour. As to religion, that will take care of itself. The
missionaries have done far more than they themselves seem to be aware
of, nay, much of the work which is theirs they would probably
disclaim. The Christianity of our nineteenth century will hardly be
the Christianity of India. But the ancient religion of
doomed—and if Christianity does not step in, whose fault will it be?
— Max Müller, (1868)
In his sixties and seventies, Müller gave a series of lectures, which
reflected a more nuanced view in favour of Hinduism and the ancient
literature from India. In his "What can
India teach us?" lecture at
University of Cambridge, he championed ancient
Sanskrit literature and
India as follows:
If I were to look over the whole world to find out the country most
richly endowed with all the wealth, power, and beauty that nature can
bestow—in some parts a very paradise on earth—I should point to
India. If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most full
developed some of its choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the
greatest problems of life, and has found solutions of some of them
which well deserve the attention even of those who have studied Plato
and Kant—I should point to India. And if I were to ask myself from
what literature we, here in Europe, we who have been nurtured almost
exclusively on the thoughts of Greeks and Romans, and of one Semitic
race, the Jewish, may draw that corrective which is most wanted in
order to make our inner life more perfect, more comprehensive, more
universal, in fact more truly human, a life, not for this life only,
but a transfigured and eternal life—again I should point to India.
— Max Müller, (1883)
He also conjectured that the introduction of Islam in
India in the
11th century had a deep effect on the psyche and behaviour of Hindus
in another lecture, "Truthful Character of the Hindus":
The other epic poem too, the Mahabharata, is full of episodes showing
a profound regard for truth. (...) Were I to quote from all the
law-books, and from still later works, everywhere you would hear the
same key-note of truthfulness vibrating through them all. (...) I say
once more that I do not wish to represent the people of
India as two
hundred and fifty-three millions of angels, but I do wish it to be
understood and to be accepted as a fact, that the damaging charge of
untruthfulness brought against that people is utterly unfounded with
regard to ancient times. It is not only not true, but the very
opposite of the truth. As to modern times, and I date them from about
1000 after Christ (AD), I can only say that, after reading the
accounts of the terrors and horrors of Mohammedan rule, my wonder is
that so much of native virtue and truthfulness should have survived.
You might as well expect a mouse to speak the truth before a cat, as a
Hindu before a Mohammedan judge.
— Max Müller, (1884)
Swami Vivekananda, who was the foremost disciple of Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa, met Müller over a lunch on 28 May 1896. Regarding
Müller and his wife, the Swami later wrote:
The visit was really a revelation to me. That little white house, its
setting in a beautiful garden, the silver-haired sage, with a face
calm and benign, and forehead smooth as a child's in spite of seventy
winters, and every line in that face speaking of a deep-seated mine of
spirituality somewhere behind; that noble wife, the helpmate of his
life through his long and arduous task of exciting interest,
overriding opposition and contempt, and at last creating a respect for
the thoughts of the sages of ancient India—the trees, the flowers,
the calmness, and the clear sky—all these sent me back in
imagination to the glorious days of ancient India, the days of our
brahmarshis and rajarshis, the days of the great vanaprasthas, the
days of Arundhatis and Vasishthas. It was neither the philologist nor
the scholar that I saw, but a soul that is every day realizing its
oneness with the universe.
During the course of his
Gifford Lectures on the subject of "natural
religion", Müller was severely criticised for being anti-Christian.
In 1891, at a meeting of the Established Presbytery of Glasgow, Mr.
Thomson (Minister of Ladywell) moved a motion that Müller's teaching
was "subversive of the Christian faith, and fitted to spread
pantheistic and infidel views amongst the students and others" and
questioned Müller's appointment as lecturer. An even stronger
attack on Müller was made by Monsignor Alexander Munro in St Andrew's
Cathedral. Munro, an officer of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland
(and Provost of the Catholic Cathedral of Glasgow from 1884 to 1892),
declared that Müller's lectures "were nothing less than a crusade
against Divine revelation, against Jesus Christ, and against
Christianity". The blasphemous lectures were, he continued, "the
proclamation of atheism under the guise of pantheism" and "uprooted
our idea of God, for it repudiated the idea of a personal God".
Similar accusations had already led to Müller's exclusion from the
Boden chair in
Sanskrit in favour of the conservative Monier
Monier-Williams. By the 1880s Müller was being courted by Charles
Godfrey Leland, Helena Blavatsky, and other writers who were seeking
to assert the merits of "pagan" religious traditions over
Christianity. The designer
Mary Fraser Tytler
Mary Fraser Tytler stated that Müller's
book Chips from a German Workshop (a collection of his essays) was her
"Bible", which helped her to create a multi-cultural sacred
Müller distanced himself from these developments, and remained within
the Lutheran faith in which he had been brought up. According to G.
Beckerlegge, "Müller's background as a Lutheran German and his
identification with the Broad Church party" led to "suspicion by those
opposed to the political and religious positions that they felt
Müller represented", particularly his latitudinarianism.
Müller attempted to formulate a philosophy of religion that addressed
the crisis of faith engendered by the historical and critical study of
religion by German scholars on the one hand, and by the Darwinian
revolution on the other. He was wary of Darwin's work on human
evolution, and attacked his view of the development of human
faculties. His work was taken up by cultural commentators such as his
friend John Ruskin, who saw it as a productive response to the crisis
of the age (compare Matthew Arnold's "Dover Beach"). He analysed
mythologies as rationalisations of natural phenomena, primitive
beginnings that we might denominate "protoscience" within a cultural
In 1870 Müller gave a short course of three lectures for the British
Institution on language as the barrier between man and beast, which he
called "On Darwin's Philosophy of Language". Müller specifically
disagreed with Darwin's theories on the origin of language and that
the language of man could have developed from the language of animals.
In 1873, he sent a copy of his lectures to Darwin reassuring him that,
though he differed from some of Darwin's conclusions, he was one of
his "diligent readers and sincere admirers".
Müller's work contributed to the developing interest in Aryan
culture, which often set Indo-European ('Aryan') traditions in
opposition to Semitic religions. He was "deeply saddened by the fact
that these classifications later came to be expressed in racist
terms", as this was far from his intention. For Müller the
discovery of common Indian and European ancestry was a powerful
argument against racism, arguing that "an ethnologist who speaks of
Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as
a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a
brachycephalic grammar" and that "the blackest Hindus represent an
earlier stage of
Aryan speech and thought than the fairest
Müller put forward and promoted the theory of a "Turanian" family of
languages or speech, comprising the Finnic, Samoyedic, "Tataric"
(Turkic), Mongolic, and Tungusic languages. According to
Müller these five languages were those "spoken in Asia or Europe not
included under the Arian (sic) and Semitic families, with the
exception perhaps of the Chinese and its dialects". In addition, they
were "nomadic languages," in contrast to the other two families (Aryan
and Semitic), which he called State or political languages.
The idea of a Turanian family of languages was not accepted by
everyone at the time. Although the term "Turanian" quickly became
an archaism (unlike "Aryan"), it did not disappear completely. The
idea was absorbed later into nationalist ideologies in Hungary and
Müller c. 1898, wearing his Habit vert costume with the insignia of
Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite and the Bavarian Maximilian Order for
Science and Art
In 1869 Müller was elected to the French Académie des Inscriptions
et Belles-Lettres as a foreign correspondent (associé étranger).
In June 1874 Müller was awarded the
Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite (civil class),
much to his surprise. Soon after, when he was commanded to dine at
Windsor, he wrote to Prince Leopold to ask if he might wear his Order,
and the wire came back, "Not may, but must."
In 1875 Müller was awarded the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science
and Art. The award is given to acknowledge excellent and outstanding
achievements in the field of science and art. In a letter to his
mother dated 19 December, Müller wrote that the award was more showy
than the Pour le Mérite, "but that is the best".
In 1896 Müller was appointed a member of the Privy Council.
Müller became a naturalized British citizen in 1855, at the age of
He married Georgina Adelaide Grenfell on 3 August 1859. The couple had
four children – Ada, Mary, Beatrice and Wilhelm Max – of whom two
Georgina (died 1919) had his papers and correspondence bound; they are
at the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
Death and legacy
Müller's health began deteriorating in 1898 and he died at his home
Oxford on 28 October 1900. He was interred at
Holywell Cemetery on
1 November 1900.
After his death a memorial fund was opened at
Oxford for "the
promotion of learning and research in all matters relating to the
history and archaeology, the languages, literatures, and religions of
The Goethe Institutes in
India are named
Max Müller Bhavan
Max Müller Bhavan in his
honour, as is a street (Max Mueller Marg) in New Delhi.
Müller's biographies include those by Lourens van den Bosch (2002),
Jon R. Stone (2002) and
Nirad C. Chaudhuri
Nirad C. Chaudhuri (1974), the last of which
was awarded the
Sahitya Akademi Award for English by Sahitya Akademi,
India's National Academy of Letters. Stephen G. Alter's (2005) work
contains a chapter on Müller's rivalry with the American linguist
William Dwight Whitney.
Müller's scholarly works, published separately as well as an
18-volume Collected Works, include:
Max Müller (1844). Hitopadesa: eine alte
indische Fabelsammlung. Brockhaus.
Max Müller (1859). A History of Ancient
So Far as it Illustrates the Primitive Religion of the Brahmans.
Williams and Norgate.
Max Müller (1866). Lectures on the Science of Language:
Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in April, May,
& June 1861. Longmans, Green.
Lectures on the Science of Language were translated into Russian in
1866 and published at the first Russian scientific linguistic magazine
Chips from a German Workshop (1867–75, 5 vols.)
Introduction to the Science of Religion (1873)
Max Muller (1878). Lectures on the origin and growth of religion as
illustrated by the religions of India.
Max Müller (1881).
Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason (German: Kritik
der reinen Vernunft, KrV), by Immanuel Kant, translated by Friedrich
Max Müller (1883). India: what Can it Teach Us?: A Course
of Lectures Delivered Before the University of Cambridge. Longmans,
Biographical Essays (1884)
Upanishads. Wordsworth Editions. 1 January 2000.
The German classics from the fourth to the nineteenth century.
The Science of Thought (1887, 2 vols.)
Studies in Buddhism. Asian Educational Services. 1999.
Six Systems of Hindu Philosophy (1899)
Gifford Lectures of 1888–92 (Collected Works, vols. 1–4)
Natural Religion (1889)
Physical Religion (1891)
Anthropological Religion (1892)
Theosophy, or Psychological Religion (1893)
Auld Lang Syne (1898, 2 vols.), a memoir
My Autobiography: A Fragment (1901) 
Friedrich Max Müller; G. A. M (Georgina Adelaide Müller) (1902). The
Life and Letters of the Right Honourable Friedrich Max Müller.
^ a b c d Sara Abraham and Brannon Hancock, doctoral students of
University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow Friedrich Max Muller. Gifford
^ a b c d e R. C. C. Fynes (May 2007), Müller, Friedrich Max
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford
University Press, 2004; online edn, , accessed 17 March 2013]
(subscription or UK public library membership required)
^ a b Académiciens depuis 1663. Académie des Inscriptions et
^ Charles Johnston (1900) An Estimate of Max Muller (1823–1900). The
American Monthly Review of Reviews, Vol XXII, July–December. The
Review of Reviews Company: New York, pp.703–706.
^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement.
^ Müller, Georgina (1902), The Life and Letters of Right Honorable
Friedrich Max Müller. Vol 1. London: Longman, pp. 241–242
^ Müller (1902) The Life and Letters, p. 244
^ George Sandeman. The Harmsworth Encyclopaedia: Everybody's Book of
Reference : containing 50,000 articles, profusely illustrated,
Volume 6. The Amalgamated Press. p. 4042. Originally from
New York Public Library
^ Margaret Thomas (2011). Fifty Key Thinkers on Language and
Linguistics. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 0415373026.
Vedanta Society of New York: Ramakrishna". Archived from the
original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
^ B. R. Modak. Sayana, Volume 203. Sahitya Akademi. p. 33.
^ "Scientific American. v.50." Retrieved 25 August 2016.
^ Mittal, Sushil; Thursby, Gene (10 September 2007). "Studying
Hinduism: Key Concepts and Methods". Taylor & Francis. Retrieved
25 August 2016 – via Google Books.
^ Müller, F. Max (1895), Theosophy or Psychological Religion. London:
Longmans, Green and Co., pp.89–90.
^ J.Lection (1882). The Athenaeum. p. 629. At times Prof. Muller
has succeeded in correcting an error and in coming closer to his
original or has modified the harshness of Mr. Meiklejohn's style; but
in other passages we prefer the latter, and of certain general changes
made by Prof. Max Muller. Original from Priceton University
^ Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, Last Essays by the Right Hon.
Max Müller ... First Series: Essays on Language,
Folklore and Other Subjects; pub. by Longmans, Green and Company,
1901, accessed August 2017
^ The Twentieth Century, Volume 23. p. 745. according to Mr. Max
Muller, Kant established against Darwin by proving that there is
transcendentalist side to human knowledge which affords.
Original from Cornell University
^ Müller, F. Max. Three Lectures on the Science of Language, etc.,
with a Supplement, My Predecessors. 3rd ed. Chicago, 1899, p. 9.
^ Menant, M. D. (1907) "Influence of Max Muller's Hibbert Lectures in
India," The American Journal of Theology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.
^ Jacques Waardenburg (1999). Classical Approaches to the Study of
Religion: Aims, Methods, and Theories of Research, Volume 1. Walter de
Gruyter. p. 87. ISBN 9783110163285.
^ Sharada Sugirtharajah, Imagining hinduism: a postcolonial
perspective, Routledge, 2003, pp. 60–61.
^ Edwin Bryant (2001). The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The
Aryan Migration Debate.
Oxford University Press. p. 289.
^ Eliot Weinberger (2000). Karmic Traces, 1993–1999. New Directions
Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 9780811214568.
^ Müller, Georgina (1902) The Life and Letters of Right Honorable
Friedrich Max Müller. Vol 1. London: Longman, pp. 357–358
^ Max Müller, INDIA – LECTURE I. WHAT CAN INDIA TEACH US?, A Course
of Lectures Delivered before the University of Cambridge, Project
^ Max Müller, INDIA – LECTURE II. Truthful Character of the Hindus,
A Course of Lectures Delivered before the University of Cambridge,
^ Nikhilananda, Swami (1953), Vivekananda: A Biography (PDF), New
York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, p. 106,
ISBN 0-911206-25-6, archived from the original (PDF) on 25
January 2012, retrieved 19 March 2012
^ Müller (1902) The Life and Letters, p. 262
^ Müller, Georgina (1902) The Life and Letters of Right Honorable
Friedrich Max Müller. Vol 2. London: Longman, p. 263
^ Beckerlegge, G. (1997) "Professor Friedrich
Max Müller and the
Missionary Cause". In, John Wolffe (Ed) Religion in Victorian Britain
V Culture and Empire. Manchester University Press, p.189.
^ "More Letters of Charles Darwin – Volume 2" Page 397
^ Jorg Esleben; Jörg Esleben; Christina Kraenzle; Sukanya Kulkarni
(2008). Mapping channels between Ganges and Rhein: German-Indian
cross-cultural relations. Cambridge Scholars publication.
ISBN 9781847185877. In later years, especially before his death,
he was deeply saddened by the fact that these classifications later
came to be expressed in racist terms.
^ F. Max Müller, Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas
(1888), Kessinger Publishing reprint, 2004, p.120; Dorothy Matilda
Figueira, Aryans, Jews, Brahmins: Theorizing Authority Through Myths
of Identity, SUNY Press, 2002, p. 45
^ Müller, M. (1854) The last results of the researches respecting the
non-Iranian and non-Semitic languages of Asia or Europe, or the
Turanian family of language. (Letter of Professor Max Muller to
Oxford August 1853; on the classification of the
Turanian languages). In, Christian Bunsen (1854) Outlines of the
Philosophy of Universal History, Applied to Language and Religion. In
Two Volumes. Vol. 1. London: Brown, Green, and Longmans.
^ Müller, M. (1855) The Languages of the Seat of War in the East.
With a Survey of the Three Families of language, Semitic, Arian, and
Turanian. London: Williams and Norgate. 2nd edition
^ Müller, M. (1855) The languages of the seat of war in the East.
With a survey of the three families of language, Semitic, Arian, and
Turanian. London: Williams and Norgate, p. 86.
^ David Waterhouse (2002). The Origins of Himalayan Studies: Brian
Houghton Hodgson in Nepal and Darjeeling. p. 20/232. In 1910, a
full decade after Muller's death, the Turan Tarsasag 'Turanian
Society' was founded in order to study the history and culture of the
Hungarians and other 'Turanian' peoples.
^ Masuza, T. (2005) The Invention of World Religions, Or, How European
Universalism was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism. The
University of Chicago Press, p.229.
^ Günay Göksu Özdoğan: The case of racism-Turanism: Turkism during
single-party period, 1931–1944: a radical variant of Turkish
^ Müller, Georgina (1902). The Life and Letters of Right Honorable
Friedrich Max Müller. Vol 1. London: Longman, p. 462
^ Müller, Georgina (1902) The Life and Letters of Right Honorable
Friedrich Max Müller. Vol 1. London: Longman, p. 503
^ "No. 26754". The London Gazette. 30 June 1896. p. 3767.
^ "Max Muller Papers". Retrieved 25 August 2016.
Max Müller Memorial Fund. Faculty of Oriental Studies, University
^ About Max Mueller. Goethe-Institut / Max Mueller Bhavan.
^ Müller, F. Max (Friedrich Max) (16 October 2009). "My
Autobiography: A Fragment". Retrieved 25 August 2016 – via Project
Lourens van den Bosch (2002). Friedrich Max Müller: A Life Devoted to
Humanities. E. J. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12505-6.
Jon R. Stone (6 December 2002). The Essential Max Müller: On
Language, Mythology, and Religion. Palgrave Macmillan.
Nirad C. Chaudhuri
Nirad C. Chaudhuri (1974). Scholar Extraordinary: The Life of
Professor the Rt. Hon. Friedrich Max Müller. Chatto &
Stephen G. Alter (9 March 2005). "The Battle with Max Müller".
William Dwight Whitney
William Dwight Whitney and the Science of Language. Johns Hopkins
University Press. pp. 174–207.
Stefan Arvidsson (2006). Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and
Science. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226028606.
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