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Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
(20 July 1847 – 8 February 1935) was a German-Jewish painter and printmaker, and one of the leading proponents of Impressionism
Impressionism
in Germany.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Commemoration 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External links

Biography[edit]

Martha Liebermann by Anders Zorn, 1896

The son of a Jewish fabric manufacturer turned banker [1] from Berlin, Liebermann grew up in an imposing town house alongside the Brandenburg Gate.[2] He first studied law and philosophy at the University of Berlin, but later studied painting and drawing in Weimar
Weimar
in 1869, in Paris
Paris
in 1872, and in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1876–77. During the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
(1870–71), Liebermann served as a medic with the Order of St. John near Metz. After living and working for some time in Munich, he finally returned to Berlin
Berlin
in 1884, where he remained for the rest of his life. He was married in 1884 to Martha Marckwald (1857–1943).[3][4] He used his own inherited wealth to assemble an impressive collection of French Impressionist works. He later chose scenes of the bourgeoisie, as well as aspects of his garden near Lake Wannsee, as motifs for his paintings. In Berlin, he became a famous painter of portraits; his work is especially close in spirit to Édouard Manet. In his work he steered away from religious subject matter, with one cautionary exception being an early painting, The 12-Year-Old Jesus in the Temple With the Scholars (1879). His painting of a Semitic-looking boy Jesus conferring with Jewish scholars sparked debate.[1] At the International Art Show in Munich
Munich
it stirred up a storm for its supposed blasphemy, with one critic describing Jesus as "the ugliest, most impertinent Jewish boy imaginable."[2] Noted for his portraits (he did more than 200 commissioned ones over the years, including of Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
and Paul von Hindenburg), Liebermann also painted himself from time to time.[2] On the occasion of his 50th birthday, Liebermann was given a solo exhibition at the Prussian Academy of Arts
Prussian Academy of Arts
in Berlin, and the following year he was elected to the academy.[1] From 1899 to 1911 he led the premier avant-garde formation in Germany, the Berlin Secession. In his various capacities as a leader in the artistic community, Liebermann spoke out often for the separation of art and politics. In the formulation of arts reporter and critic Grace Glueck he "pushed for the right of artists to do their own thing, unconcerned with politics or ideology".[2] His interest in French Realism was offputting to conservatives, for whom such openness suggested what they thought of as Jewish cosmopolitanism.[2] He did contribute regularly to a newspaper put out by artists during World War I.[1] Beginning in 1920 he was president of the Prussian Academy of Arts. In 1933 he resigned when the academy decided to no longer exhibit works by Jewish artists, before he would have been forced to do so under laws restricting the rights of Jews.[1] While watching the Nazis celebrate their victory by marching through the Brandenburg Gate, Liebermann was reported to have commented: "Ich kann gar nicht soviel fressen, wie ich kotzen möchte." ("I could not possibly eat as much as I would like to throw up.").[1] In 1909 Liebermann bought property in Wannsee, a wealthy suburb of summer homes on the outskirts of Berlin, and designed a villa with gardens there. From the 1910s until his death, images of the gardens dominated his work.[1] Liebermann recruited also Lovis Corinth, Ernst Oppler and Max Slevogt
Max Slevogt
for the Berlin
Berlin
Secession, together they were the most famous painters of the German Impressionism. On his 80th birthday, in 1927, Liebermann was celebrated with a large exhibition, declared an honorary citizen of Berlin
Berlin
and hailed in a cover story in Berlin's leading illustrated magazine.[1] Liebermann died on February 8, 1935, at his home on Berlin's Pariser Platz, near the Brandenburg Gate. According to Käthe Kollwitz, he fell asleep about 7 p.m. and was gone.[5] Although Liebermann had been famous, his death was not reported in the media, now controlled by the Nazis, and there were no representatives of the Academy of the Arts or the city at his funeral in the Jewish Cemetery on Schönhauser Allee. However, despite official strictures by the Gestapo, more than 100 friends and relatives attended the funeral. Among the mourners were Kollwitz, Hans Purrmann, Otto Nagel, Ferdinand Sauerbruch, Bruno Cassirer, Georg Kolbe, Max J. Friedländer and Adolph Goldschmidt.[6] Commemoration[edit]

Ich lasse dich nicht, Du segnest mich denn (Genesis 32:27.) Liebermann's grave in Berlin

In 2005/2006, the Skirball Cultural Center
Skirball Cultural Center
in Los Angeles and the Jewish Museum in New York mounted the first major museum exhibition in the United States of Liebermann's work.[2] On 30 April 2006 the Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
Society opened a permanent museum in the Liebermann family's villa in the Wannsee
Wannsee
district of Berlin.[7] The artist's wife, Martha Liebermann, was forced to sell the villa in 1940. On 5 March 1943, at the age of 85 and bedridden from a stroke, she was notified to get ready for deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp.[8] Instead, she committed suicide in the family home, Haus Liebermann, hours before police arrived to take her away. There is a stolperstein for her in front of their former home by the Brandenburg Gate
Brandenburg Gate
in Berlin.[8] In 2011, the Israel Museum
Israel Museum
returned a painting to the Max Liebermann estate, decades after the masterpiece was looted from a Jewish museum in Nazi Germany. Liebermann had loaned his painting to the Jewish Museum in Berlin
Berlin
in the 1930s. The work, along with many others, disappeared from the museum during World War II.[9] His painting Riders on the Beach was found as part of the 2012 Nazi loot discovery.[10]

Gallery[edit]

Jesus in the Temple (detail), 1879.

The Artist's Studio, 1902

Two Riders on the Beach, 1901

Riding Donkey at the Seashore, 1900

Restaurant Terrace in Nienstedten, 1902

Boys Bathing, 1898

Portrait of President Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
1927

Bleaching on the Lawn, 1892

Samson
Samson
and Delilah, 1902

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Leah Ollman (September 30, 2005), A dramatic life; the work, not quite so Los Angeles Times. ^ a b c d e f Glueck, Grace (March 20, 2006). "A Berlin
Berlin
Painter, Jewish and Proudly Assimilated". New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2017. ^ Kunisch, Hermann (1985). "Liebermann, Max" (in German). Neue Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 14. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin. ISBN 3-428-00195-8. p. 482-495; here: p. 482. ^ Martha Liebermann (Marckwald) geni.com. Retrieved January 2, 2018. ^ Käthe Kollwitz: Die Tagebücher 1908–1943. Hrsg. von Jutta Bohnke-Kollwitz. btb, München 2007. Eintrag vom 9. Februar 1935. ^ Saul Friedländer: Das Dritte Reich und die Juden, Beck’sche Reihe, München 2010, Seite 24 ^ "The Liebermann-Villa". Liebermann-Villa
Liebermann-Villa
on Lake Wannsee. liebermann-villa.de. Retrieved March 28, 2017. ^ a b "Ein Stein für Martha Liebermann" Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, official website. (June 9, 2005) Retrieved January 2, 2018. (in German) ^ Museum returns looted painting Los Angeles Times, September 9, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2018. ^ "Photo Gallery: Munich
Munich
Nazi Art Stash Revealed". Spiegel. November 17, 2013. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved November 17, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Max Liebermann.

Works by Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
at Internet Archive Works by Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) German masters of the nineteenth century: paintings and drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Max Liebermann (no. 50-55) Gallery of Liebermann's paintings at zeno.org Guide to the Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
Collection at the Leo Baeck Institute, New York.  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Liebermann, Max". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

v t e

Impressionism

Originators

Frédéric Bazille Eugène Boudin Gustave Caillebotte Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Edgar Degas Armand Guillaumin Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Camille Pissarro Pierre-Auguste Renoir Alfred Sisley

Patrons

Gustave Caillebotte Henry O. Havemeyer Ernest Hoschedé

Dealers

Paul Durand-Ruel Georges Petit Ambroise Vollard

American artists

William Merritt Chase Frederick Carl Frieseke Childe Hassam Willard Metcalf Lilla Cabot Perry Theodore Robinson John Henry Twachtman J. Alden Weir

Canadian artists

Henri Beau William Blair Bruce William Brymner Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté Maurice Galbraith Cullen Helen Galloway McNicoll James Wilson Morrice Robert Wakeham Pilot

Other artists

Marie Bracquemond Giovanni Battista Ciolina Lovis Corinth Antoine Guillemet Nazmi Ziya Güran Max Liebermann Laura Muntz Lyall Konstantin Korovin Henry Moret Francisco Oller Władysław Podkowiński John Peter Russell Valentin Serov Max Slevogt Joaquín Sorolla Philip Wilson Steer Eliseu Visconti

Other media

Music Literature French Impressionist Cinema

See also

American Impressionism

The Ten

California Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Canadian Impressionism Heidelberg School Amsterdam Impressionism Decorative Impressionism Post-Impressionism

Related

The Impressionists (2006 drama)

v t e

Degenerate art

Degenerate art

Degenerate Art Exhibition

Artists

Jussuf Abbo Jankel Adler Ernst Barlach Max Beckmann Marc Chagall Lovis Corinth Otto Dix Max Ernest Conrad Felixmüller Otto Freundlich Albert Gleizes Ludwig Godenschweg Otto Griebel George Grosz Erich Heckel Karl Hofer Wassily Kandinsky Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Paul Klee Oskar Kokoschka Käthe Kollwitz Wilhelm Lachnit Wilhelm Lehmbruck Max Liebermann August Macke Franz Marc Ludwig Meidner Jean Metzinger Wilhelm Morgner Otto Mueller Emil Nolde Max Pechstein Pablo Picasso Christian Rohlfs Egon Schiele Karl Schmidt-Rottluff

Related articles

2012 Munich
Munich
artworks discovery Hildebrand Gurlitt Cornelius Gurlitt Museum of Fine Arts Bern

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32004869 LCCN: n50050133 ISNI: 0000 0001 2095 8679 GND: 118572695 SUDOC: 027543501 BNF: cb11956143w (data) BPN: 62367744 BIBSYS: 90071600 ULAN: 500115690 NLA: 35686868 NKC: jn20000603750 BNE: XX1364454 KulturNav: eae5c2c3-22e4-4f35-8f1d-9c97fe05755d RKD: 49931 SNAC: w6738gr

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