Contents 1 Early life 2 Career 2.1
3 Later life 4 Personal and family 5 Awards and honors 6 Bibliography 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Early life[edit]
Solvay Conference, 1927. Born is second from the right in the second
row, between
For the 12 years Born and Franck were at Göttingen, from 1921 to
1933, Born had a collaborator with shared views on basic scientific
concepts — a benefit for teaching and research. Born's collaborative
approach with experimental physicists was similar to that of Arnold
Sommerfeld at the University of Munich, who was ordinarius professor
of theoretical physics and Director of the Institute of Theoretical
Physics — also a prime mover in the development of quantum theory.
Born and Sommerfeld collaborated with experimental physicists to test
and advance their theories. In 1922, when lecturing in the United
States at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Sommerfeld sent his
student
p q − q p = h 2 π i I displaystyle pq-qp= h over 2pi i I where p and q were matrices for location and momentum, and I is the
identity matrix. Note that the left hand side of the equation is not
zero because matrix multiplication is not commutative.[37] This
formulation was entirely attributable to Born, who also established
that all the elements not on the diagonal of the matrix were zero.
Born considered that his paper with Jordan contained "the most
important principles of quantum mechanics including its extension to
electrodynamics."[37] The paper put Heisenberg's approach on a solid
mathematical basis. [41]
Born was surprised to discover that
This quotation is often paraphrased as 'God does not play dice'.[44]
In 1928, Einstein nominated Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan for the Nobel
Prize in Physics,[45] [46] but Heisenberg alone won the 1932 Prize
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has
led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen",[47] while
Schrödinger and Dirac shared the 1933 Prize "for the discovery of new
productive forms of atomic theory".[47] On 25 November 1933, Born
received a letter from Heisenberg in which he said he had been delayed
in writing due to a "bad conscience" that he alone had received the
Prize "for work done in
Born's gravestone in
In January 1933, the
I believe that ideas such as absolute certitude, absolute exactness, final truth, etc. are figments of the imagination which should not be admissible in any field of science. On the other hand, any assertion of probability is either right or wrong from the standpoint of the theory on which it is based. This loosening of thinking (Lockerung des Denkens) seems to me to be the greatest blessing which modern science has given to us. For the belief in a single truth and in being the possessor thereof is the root cause of all evil in the world.[68] In retirement, he continued scientific work, and produced new editions
of his books. In 1955 he became one of signatories to the
Russell-Einstein Manifesto. He died at age 87 in hospital in
1934 –
1954 – Nobel Prize Banquet Speech[75] 1954 – Born Nobel Prize Lecture[76] 1956 –
Bibliography[edit] During his life, Born wrote several semi-popular and technical books. His volumes on topics like atomic physics and optics were very well received. They are considered classics in their fields, and are still in print. The following is a listing of his major works:
Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices, with Kun Huang. (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1954)[86] Die Relativitätstheorie Einsteins und ihre physikalischen Grundlagen (Springer, 1920) – Based on Born's lectures at the University of Frankfurt am Main.[87] Available in English under the title Einstein's Theory of Relativity.[88] Vorlesungen über Atommechanik (Springer, 1925)[84] Mechanics of the Atom (George Bell & Sons, 1927) – Translated by J. W. Fisher and revised by D. R. Hartree.[89] Problems of Atomic Dynamics (
Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation,
Interference and Diffraction of Light,[94] with Emil Wolf. (Pergamon,
1959) – This book is not an English translation of Optik, but rather
a substantially new book. Shortly after World War II, a number of
scientists suggested that Born update and translate his work into
English. Since there had been many advances in optics in the
intervening years, updating was warranted. In 1951,
Moderne Physik (1933) – Based on seven lectures given at the Technischen Hochschule Berlin.[97] Atomic Physics (Blackie, London, 1935) – Authorized translation of Moderne Physik by John Dougall, with updates.[98] The Restless Universe[99] (Blackie and Son Limited, 1935) – A
popularised rendition of the workshop of nature, translated by
Winifred Margaret Deans. Born's nephew, Otto Königsberger, whose
successful career as an architect in
The Born–Einstein Letters: Correspondence between Albert Einstein and Max and Hedwig Born from 1916–1955, with commentaries by Max Born (Macmillan, 1971).[105] Mein Leben: Die Erinnerungen des Nobelpreisträgers (Munich: Nymphenburger, 1975). Born's published memoirs. My Life: Recollections of a Nobel Laureate (Scribner, 1978).[106] Translation of Mein Leben. For a full list of his published papers, see HistCite. For his published works, see Published Works – Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften Akademiebibliothek. See also[edit] List of things named after Max Born Notes[edit] ^ a b
References[edit] Bernstein, Jeremy (2005). "
External links[edit] Find more aboutMax Bornat's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource American
v t e Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1901–1925 1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz 1926–1950 1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell 1951–1975 1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater 1976–2000 1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby 2001– present 2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27126854 LCCN: n50050350 ISNI: 0000 0001 1023 110X GND: 118513621 SELIBR: 178728 SUDOC: 03158733X BNF: cb122772830 (data) MGP: 18245 NLA: 35020387 NDL: 00433892 NKC: ola2002153872 BNE: XX867 |