The MAURYA EMPIRE was a geographically extensive
Iron Age historical
power founded by
Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India
between c. 322 and 187 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha
Indo-Gangetic Plain in the eastern side of the Indian
subcontinent , the empire had its capital city at
Patna ). The empire was the largest to have ever existed in the
Indian subcontinent , spanning over 5 million square kilometres (1.9
million square miles) at its zenith under
Chandragupta Maurya raised an army and with the assistance of
Chanakya (also known as Kauṭilya), overthrew the
Nanda Empire in
c. 322 BCE and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central
and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions caused by the
withdrawal westward of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great 's armies. By 316 BCE the
empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering
the satraps left by Alexander. Chandragupta then defeated the
invasion led by
Seleucus I , a Macedonian general from Alexander's
army, gaining additional territory west of the
Indus River .
Empire was one of the largest empires of the world in its
time. At its greatest extent, the empire stretched to the north along
the natural boundaries of the
Himalayas , to the east into
Assam , to
the west into
Pakistan and southeast
Iran ) and
Hindu Kush mountains of what is now
Afghanistan . The
expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors
Bindusara , but it excluded a small portion of
unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga (modern
until it was conquered by Ashoka. It declined for about 50 years
after Ashoka's rule ended, and it dissolved in 185 BCE with the
foundation of the
Shunga dynasty in Magadha.
Chandragupta Maurya and his successors, internal and external
trade, agriculture, and economic activities all thrived and expanded
India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system
of finance, administration, and security. After the
Kalinga War , the
Empire experienced nearly half a century of peace and security under
India also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious
transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge.
Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of
Jainism increased social and
religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's
Buddhism has been said to have been the foundation of the
reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of
Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into Sri
Lanka , Southeast
West Asia and Mediterranean Europe .
The population of the empire has been estimated to be about 50–60
million, making the
Mauryan Empire one of the most populous empires of
Antiquity. Archaeologically, the period of
Mauryan rule in South
Asia falls into the era of
Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). The
Arthashastra and the Edicts of
Ashoka are the primary sources of
written records of
Mauryan times. The Lion Capital of
Sarnath has been made the national emblem of India.
* 1 History
Chandragupta Maurya and
* 1.2 Conquest of
* 1.6 Decline
* 1.6.1 Shunga coup (185 BCE)
* 1.6.2 Establishment of the
Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE)
* 2 Administration
* 3 Economy
* 4 Religion
* 5 Architectural remains
* 6 Natural history
* 7 Contacts with the
* 7.1 Foundation of the
* 7.2 Reconquest of the Northwest (c. 317–316 BCE)
* 7.3 Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE)
* 7.3.1 Marital alliance
* 7.3.2 Exchange of presents
* 7.4 Greek population in
* 7.5 Buddhist missions to the West (c. 250 BCE)
* 7.6 Subhagasena and
Antiochos III (206 BCE)
* 8 Timeline
* 9 In literature
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 11.1 Sources
* 12 External links
CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA AND CHANAKYA
Chandragupta Maurya See also: List of
Empire was founded by
Chandragupta Maurya , with help from
Chanakya , at
Takshashila . According to several legends, Chanakya
Magadha , a kingdom that was large and militarily
powerful and feared by its neighbors, but was insulted by its king
Dhana Nanda , of the
Nanda dynasty .
Chanakya swore revenge and vowed
to destroy the
Nanda Empire. Meanwhile, the conquering armies of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great refused to cross the
Beas River and advance
further eastward, deterred by the prospect of battling
Alexander returned to
Babylon and re-deployed most of his troops west
Indus River . Soon after
Alexander died in
Babylon in 323 BCE,
his empire fragmented, and local kings declared their independence,
leaving several smaller disunited satraps.
The Greek generals Eudemus and Peithon ruled until around 317 BCE,
Chandragupta Maurya (with the help of Chanakya, who was now his
advisor) utterly defeated the Macedonians and consolidated the region
under the control of his new seat of power in Magadha.
Chandragupta Maurya's rise to power is shrouded in mystery and
controversy. On one hand, a number of ancient Indian accounts, such as
Mudrarakshasa (Poem of Rakshasa – Rakshasa was the prime
minister of Magadha) by
Vishakhadatta , describe his royal ancestry
and even link him with the
Nanda family. A kshatriya clan known as the
Maurya 's are referred to in the earliest
Buddhist texts ,
Mahaparinibbana Sutta . However, any conclusions are hard to make
without further historical evidence. Chandragupta first emerges in
Greek accounts as "Sandrokottos". As a young man he is said to have
met Alexander. He is also said to have met the
Nanda king, angered
him, and made a narrow escape. Chanakya's original intentions were to
train a guerilla army under Chandragupta's command. The Mudrarakshasa
Vishakhadatta as well as the
Parishishtaparvan talk of
Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, sometimes
CONQUEST OF MAGADHA
Chandragupta Maurya ,
Nanda Dynasty , and
Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the
throne of Magadha. Using his intelligence network, Chandragupta
gathered many young men from across
Magadha and other provinces, men
upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana Nanda, plus
the resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of
battles. These men included the former general of Taxila, accomplished
students of Chanakya, the representative of King
Porus of Kakayee, his
Malayketu , and the rulers of small states. The Macedonians
Yavana in Indian sources) may then have
participated, together with other groups, in the armed uprising of
Chandragupta Maurya against the
Nanda dynasty . The
Visakhadutta as well as the
Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of
Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, often
Porus . This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a
composite and powerful army made up of Yavanas (Greeks),
Kiratas (Nepalese), Parasikas (Persians) and
Bahlikas (Bactrians) who took
Pataliputra (also called Kusumapura,
"The City of Flowers"): "Kusumapura was besieged from every
direction by the forces of Parvata and Chandragupta: Shakas, Yavanas,
Kiratas, Kambojas, Parasikas,
Bahlikas and others, assembled on the
advice of Chanakya" in
With the help of these elements from
Central Asia , Chandragupta was
apparently able to defeat the
Nanda /Nandin rulers of
Magadha so as to
found the powerful
Empire in northern India.
Preparing to invade Pataliputra,
Maurya came up with a strategy. A
battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from the city to
a distant battlefield to engage with Maurya's forces. Maurya's general
and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. He also
managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom, which
culminated in the death of the heir to the throne.
Chanakya managed to
win over popular sentiment. Ultimately
Nanda resigned, handing power
to Chandragupta, and went into exile and was never heard of again.
Chanakya contacted the prime minister, Rakshasas, and made him
understand that his loyalty was to Magadha, not to the
insisting that he continue in office.
Chanakya also reiterated that
choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect
Magadha and destroy the city. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning,
Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of
Magadha. Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor, and Chanakya
assumed the position of an elder statesman.
The approximate extent of the
Magadha state in the 5th century BCE.
Empire when it was first founded by
Chandragupta Maurya c.
320 BCE, after conquering the
Nanda Empire when he was only about 20
Chandragupta extended the borders of the
Persia after defeating Seleucus c. 305 BCE.
Bindusara extended the borders of the empire southward into the
Deccan Plateau c. 300 BCE.
Ashoka extended into Kalinga during the
Kalinga War c. 265 BCE, and
established superiority over the southern kingdoms.
Chandragupta Maurya The
Pataliputra capital ,
showing Greek and Persian influence, early
4th-3rd century BC.
Chandragupta campaigned against the Macedonians when Seleucus I
Nicator, in the process of creating the
Seleucid Empire out of the
eastern conquests of
Alexander the Great, tried to reconquer the
northwestern parts of
India in 305 BCE. Seleucus failed
Seleucid–Mauryan war ), the two rulers finally concluded a peace
treaty: a marital treaty (
Epigamia ) was concluded, in which the
Greeks offered their
Princess for alliance and help from him.
Chandragupta snatched the satrapies of
Paropamisade (Kamboja and
Kandhahar ) and
Balochistan ), and
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator received 500 war elephants that were to have a
decisive role in his victory against western
Hellenistic kings at the
Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. Diplomatic relations were established and
several Greeks, such as the historian
Dionysius resided at the
Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with an
administration at Pataliputra, which, according to Megasthenes, was
"surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers".
Aelian , although not expressly quoting
Megasthenes nor mentionning
Pataliputra, described Indian palaces as superior in splendor to
Ectabana . . The architecture of the city seems to
have had many similarities with Persian cities of the period.
Bindusara extended the rule of the
towards southern India. The famous Tamil poet Mamulanar of the Sangam
literature described how the
Deccan Plateau was invaded by the Maurya
army. He also had a Greek ambassador at his court, named Megasthenes
Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta, who
live simply, honestly, and do not know writing: "The Indians all live
frugally, especially when in camp. They dislike a great undisciplined
multitude, and consequently they observe good order. Theft is of very
Megasthenes says that those who were in the camp of
Sandrakottos, wherein lay 400,000 men, found that the thefts reported
on any one day did not exceed the value of two hundred drachmae, and
this among a people who have no written laws, but are ignorant of
writing, and must therefore in all the business of life trust to
memory. They live, nevertheless, happily enough, being simple in their
manners and frugal. They never drink wine except at sacrifices. Their
beverage is a liquor composed from rice instead of barley, and their
food is principally a rice-pottage."
Strabo XV. i. 53–56, quoting
Bindusara was the son of the first
Mauryan emperor Chandragupta
Maurya and his queen Durdhara. During his reign, the empire expanded
southwards. According to the Rajavalikatha , a
Jain work, the original
name of this emperor was Simhasena. According to a legend mentioned in
Jain texts, Chandragupta's
Guru and advisor
Chanakya used to feed
the emperor small doses of poison with his food to build his immunity
against possible assassination attempts by his enemies. One day,
Chandragupta, not knowing about the poison, shared his food with his
pregnant wife, who was 7 days away from delivery. The queen collapsed
and died within few minutes.
Chanakya entered the room at the very
moment she collapsed, and, in order to save the child in the womb, he
immediately cut open the dead queen's belly and took the baby out. By
that time a drop of poison had already reached the baby and touched
its head, due to which the child got a permanent blueish spot (a
"bindu") on his forehead. Thus, the newborn was named "Bindusara".
Bindusara, just 22 years old, inherited a large empire that consisted
of what is now, Northern, Central and Eastern parts of
with parts of
Afghanistan and Baluchistan .
Bindusara extended this
empire to the southern part of India, as far as what is now known as
Karnataka . He brought sixteen states under the
Mauryan Empire and
thus conquered almost all of the Indian peninsula (he is said to have
conquered the 'land between the two seas' – the peninsular region
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal and the
Arabian Sea ).
conquer the friendly Tamil kingdoms of the Cholas , ruled by King
Ilamcetcenni , the
Pandyas , and Cheras . Apart from these southern
states, Kalinga (modern Odisha) was the only kingdom in
didn't form the part of Bindusara's empire. It was later conquered by
Ashoka , who served as the viceroy of
Ujjaini during his
Bindusara's life has not been documented as well as that of his
father Chandragupta or of his son Ashoka.
Chanakya continued to serve
as prime minister during his reign. According to the medieval Tibetan
scholar Taranatha who visited India,
destroy the nobles and kings of the sixteen kingdoms and thus to
become absolute master of the territory between the eastern and
western oceans." During his rule, the citizens of
twice. The reason for the first revolt was the maladministration of
Susima , his eldest son. The reason for the second revolt is unknown,
Bindusara could not suppress it in his lifetime. It was crushed by
Ashoka after Bindusara's death.
Ambassadors from the
Seleucid Empire (such as
Deimachus ) and Egypt
visited his courts. He maintained good relations with the Hellenic
Unlike his father Chandragupta (who at a later stage converted to
Bindusara believed in the
Ajivika sect. Bindusara's guru
Pingalavatsa (Janasana) was a
Brahmin of the
Bindusara's wife, Queen Subhadrangi (Queen Aggamahesi) was a
also of the
Ajivika sect from Champa (present Bhagalpur district).
Bindusara is credited with giving several grants to Brahmin
Bindusara died in 272 BCE (some records say 268 BCE) and was
succeeded by his son
Ashoka Aśoka pillar at Sarnath. ca. 250 BCE.
Ashoka pillar at Vaishali . Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edict
Ashoka (238 BCE), in Brahmi , sandstone,
British Museum .
As a young prince,
Ashoka (r. 272 – 232 BCE) was a brilliant
commander who crushed revolts in
Ujjain and Takshashila. As monarch he
was ambitious and aggressive, re-asserting the Empire's superiority in
southern and western India. But it was his conquest of Kalinga
(262–261 BCE) which proved to be the pivotal event of his life.
Although Ashoka's army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of
royal soldiers and civilian units, an estimated 100,000 soldiers and
civilians were killed in the furious warfare, including over 10,000 of
Ashoka's own men. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely
affected by the destruction and fallout of war. When he personally
witnessed the devastation,
Ashoka began feeling remorse. Although the
annexation of Kalinga was completed,
Ashoka embraced the teachings of
Buddhism , and renounced war and violence. He sent out missionaries to
Asia and spread
Buddhism to other countries.
Ashoka implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and
violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many
thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard
labour and servitude). While he maintained a large and powerful army,
to keep the peace and maintain authority,
Ashoka expanded friendly
relations with states across
Asia and Europe, and he sponsored
Buddhist missions. He undertook a massive public works building
campaign across the country. Over 40 years of peace, harmony and
Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs
in Indian history. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in
The Edicts of
Ashoka , set in stone, are found throughout the
Subcontinent. Ranging from as far west as
Afghanistan and as far south
as Andhra (
Nellore District ), Ashoka's edicts state his policies and
accomplishments. Although predominantly written in Prakrit, two of
them were written in Greek , and one in both Greek and
Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks,
Kambojas , and Gandharas as
peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. They also attest to
Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as
the Mediterranean. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the
Hellenic world at the time such as Amtiyoko (Antiochus ), Tulamaya
(Ptolemy ), Amtikini (Antigonos ), Maka (Magas ) and Alikasudaro
Alexander ) as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism. The Edicts also
accurately locate their territory "600 yojanas away" (a yojanas being
about 7 miles), corresponding to the distance between the center of
Greece (roughly 4,000 miles).
Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings.
Brihadratha , the last ruler of the
Mauryan dynasty , held territories
that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor
Brihadratha was assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade by
Pushyamitra Shunga , commander-in-chief of his
guard, who then took over the throne and established the Shunga
Shunga Coup (185 BCE)
Buddhist records such as the
Ashokavadana write that the
Brihadratha and the rise of the Shunga empire led to
a wave of religious persecution for
Buddhists , and a resurgence of
Hinduism . According to
Sir John Marshall , Pushyamitra may have been
the main author of the persecutions, although later Shunga kings seem
to have been more supportive of Buddhism. Other historians, such as
Etienne Lamotte and
Romila Thapar , among others, have argued that
archaeological evidence in favour of the allegations of persecution of
Buddhists are lacking, and that the extent and magnitude of the
atrocities have been exaggerated.
Establishment Of The
Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE)
The fall of the Mauryas left the
Khyber Pass unguarded, and a wave of
foreign invasion followed. The Greco-Bactrian king, Demetrius ,
capitalized on the break-up, and he conquered southern
parts of northwestern
India around 180 BCE, forming the Indo-Greek
Kingdom . The
Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus
region, and make forays into central India, for about a century. Under
Buddhism flourished, and one of their kings, Menander , became a
famous figure of Buddhism; he was to establish a new capital of
Sagala, the modern city of
Sialkot . However, the extent of their
domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate.
Numismatic evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the
subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ. Although the extent of
their successes against indigenous powers such as the Shungas ,
Satavahanas , and Kalingas are unclear, what is clear is that Scythian
Indo-Scythians , brought about the demise of the
Indo-Greeks from around 70 BCE and retained lands in the trans-Indus,
the region of Mathura , and Gujarat.
Statuettes of the
Empire was divided into four provinces, with the imperial capital
Pataliputra . From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial
Tosali (in the east),
Ujjain (in the west), Suvarnagiri
(in the south), and
Taxila (in the north). The head of the provincial
administration was the Kumara (royal prince), who governed the
provinces as king's representative. The kumara was assisted by
Mahamatyas and council of ministers. This organizational structure was
reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his
Mantriparishad (Council of Ministers).
Historians theorise that the organisation of the
Empire was in line
with the extensive bureaucracy described by
Kautilya in the
Arthashastra : a sophisticated civil service governed everything from
municipal hygiene to international trade. The expansion and defense of
the empire was made possible by what appears to have been one of the
largest armies in the world during the
Iron Age . According to
Megasthenes, the empire wielded a military of 600,000 infantry, 30,000
cavalry, 8,000 chariots and 9,000 war elephants besides followers and
attendants. A vast espionage system collected intelligence for both
internal and external security purposes. Having renounced offensive
warfare and expansionism,
Ashoka nevertheless continued to maintain
this large army, to protect the
Empire and instil stability and peace
across West and South Asia.
Maurya statuette, 2nd century BCE.
For the first time in
South Asia , political unity and military
security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and
commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. The previous
situation involving hundreds of kingdoms, many small armies, powerful
regional chieftains, and internecine warfare, gave way to a
disciplined central authority. Farmers were freed of tax and crop
collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally
administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the
principles in the Arthashastra.
Chandragupta Maurya established a
single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and
administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for
merchants, farmers and traders. The
Mauryan army wiped out many gangs
of bandits, regional private armies, and powerful chieftains who
sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. Although
regimental in revenue collection,
Maurya also sponsored many public
works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in
India expanded greatly due to new-found political unity and internal
peace. Silver punch mark coin of the
Maurya empire, with symbols
of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.
Mauryan coin with
arched hill symbol on reverse.
Mauryan Empire coin. Circa late
4th-2nd century BCE.
Under the Indo-Greek friendship treaty, and during Ashoka's reign, an
international network of trade expanded. The
Khyber Pass , on the
modern boundary of
Afghanistan , became a strategically
important port of trade and intercourse with the outside world. Greek
states and Hellenic kingdoms in
West Asia became important trade
partners of India. Trade also extended through the Malay peninsula
into Southeast Asia. India's exports included silk goods and textiles,
spices and exotic foods. The external world came across new scientific
knowledge and technology with expanding trade with the
Ashoka also sponsored the construction of thousands of roads,
waterways, canals, hospitals, rest-houses and other public works. The
easing of many over-rigorous administrative practices, including those
regarding taxation and crop collection, helped increase productivity
and economic activity across the Empire.
In many ways, the economic situation in the
Mauryan Empire is
analogous to the Roman
Empire of several centuries later. Both had
extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to
corporations . While Rome had organizational entities which were
largely used for public state-driven projects,
numerous private commercial entities. These existed purely for private
commerce and developed before the
Mauryan Empire itself. (See also
Economic history of India
Economic history of India .)
Hinduism was the major religion at the time of inception of the
empire, Hindu priests and ministers such as
Chanakya used to be an
important part of the emperor's court. James Hastings writes that they
are devotees of Narayana (
Vishnu ), although Shilanka, speaking of the
Ekandandins in another connection, identifies them as Shaivas
Shiva ). Scholar James Hastings identifies the name
"Mankhaliputta" or "Mankhali" with the bamboo staff. Scholar Jitendra
N. Banerjea compares them to the Pasupatas Shaivas . Another scholar,
Charpentier, believes that the Ajivikas worshiped
Makkhali Goshala. As
Chanakya wrote in his text
"Humbly bowing down before the almighty Lord Sri Vishnu, the Lord of
the three worlds, I recite maxims of the science of political ethics
(niti) selected from the various satras (scriptures)".
Even after embracing Buddhism,
Ashoka retained the membership of
Hindu Brahmana priests and ministers in his court.
began embracing the philosophy of ahimsa , and given the increased
prosperity and improved law enforcement, crime and internal conflicts
reduced dramatically. Also greatly discouraged was the caste system
and orthodox discrimination, as Mauryans began to absorb the ideals
and values of
Jain and Buddhist teachings.
The stupa , which contained the relics of Buddha, at the center
Sanchi complex was originally built by the
Maurya Empire, but
the balustrade around it is
Sunga , and the decorative gateways are
from the later
Satavahana period. The
Dharmarajika stupa in
Taxila , modern
Pakistan , is also thought to have been established by
Magadha , the centre of the empire, was also the birthplace of
Ashoka initially practised
Hinduism but later embraced
Buddhism; following the
Kalinga War , he renounced expansionism and
aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the
Arthashastra on the use
of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection
and against rebels.
Ashoka sent a mission led by his son Mahinda and
Sri Lanka , whose king Tissa was so charmed
with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism
the state religion.
Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions to
West Asia ,
South East Asia
South East Asia , and commissioned the construction of
monasteries and schools, as well as the publication of Buddhist
literature across the empire. He is believed to have built as many as
84,000 stupas across India, such as
Mahabodhi Temple , and
he increased the popularity of
North Asia including
Ashoka helped convene the Third
Buddhist Council of India's and South Asia's Buddhist orders near his
capital, a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of
the Buddhist religion. Indian merchants embraced
Buddhism and played a
large role in spreading the religion across the
Shravanabelagola where Chandragupta is said to
Chandragupta Maurya embraced
Jainism after retiring, when he
renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering
Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of the
Bhadrabahu . It is said that in his last days, he observed the
rigorous but self-purifying
Jain ritual of santhara (fast unto death),
Shravana Belgola in
Karnataka . However, his successor,
Bindusara, was a follower of another ascetic movement,
and distanced himself from
Jain and Buddhist movements.
Samprati , the
Ashoka , also embraced Jainism.
Samprati was influenced by
the teachings of
Jain monks and he is known to have built 125,000
derasars across India. Some of them are still found in the towns of
Ahmedabad, Viramgam, Ujjain, and Palitana. It is also said that just
Samprati sent messengers and preachers to
Greece , Persia
Middle East for the spread of Jainism, but, to date, no
research has been done in this area.
Jainism became a vital force under the
Samprati are credited for the spread of
India . Lakhs of temples and stupas were erected during their
reign. However, due to lack of royal patronage, its own strict
principles, and the rise of Shankaracharya and
Ramanuja , Jainism,
once a major religion of southern India, began to decline.
Main articles: Edicts of
Stupa , and
Mauryan architecture in the
Barabar Mounts . Grotto of Lomas Rishi.
3rd century BCE.
The greatest monument of this period, executed in the reign of
Chandragupta Maurya, was the old palace at the site of
Excavations at the site of
Kumhrar nearby have unearthed the remains
of the palace. The palace is thought to have been an aggregate of
buildings, the most important of which was an immense pillared hall
supported on a high substratum of timbers. The pillars were set in
regular rows, thus dividing the hall into a number of smaller square
bays. The number of columns is 80, each about 7 meters high. According
to the eyewitness account of
Megasthenes , the palace was chiefly
constructed of timber, and was considered to exceed in splendour and
magnificence the palaces of
Susa and Ecbatana, its gilded pillars
being adorned with golden vines and silver birds. The buildings stood
in an extensive park studded with fish ponds and furnished with a
great variety of ornamental trees and shrubs. Kauṭilya's
Arthashastra also gives the method of palace construction from this
period. Later fragments of stone pillars, including one nearly
complete, with their round tapering shafts and smooth polish, indicate
Ashoka was responsible for the construction of the stone columns
which replaced the earlier wooden ones. An early stupa , 6 meters
in diameter, with fallen umbrella on side. Chakpat, near
Maurya empire , 3rd century BCE.
During the Ashokan period, stonework was of a highly diversified
order and comprised lofty free-standing pillars, railings of stupas ,
lion thrones and other colossal figures. The use of stone had reached
such great perfection during this time that even small fragments of
stone art were given a high lustrous polish resembling fine enamel.
This period marked the beginning of the Buddhist school of
Ashoka was responsible for the construction of several
stupas , which were large halls, capped with domes and bearing symbols
of Buddha. The most important ones are located at
Nagarjunakonda . The most widespread examples
Mauryan architecture are the pillars and edicts of Ashoka, often
exquisitely decorated, with more than 40 spread throughout the Indian
The peacock was a dynastic symbol of Mauryans, as depicted by
Ashoka's pillars at Nandangarh and
The two Yakshas , possibly 3rd century BCE, found in Pataliputra
The protection of animals in
India became serious business by the
time of the
Maurya dynasty; being the first empire to provide a
unified political entity in India, the attitude of the Mauryas towards
forests, their denizens, and fauna in general is of interest.
The Mauryas firstly looked at forests as resources. For them, the
most important forest product was the elephant. Military might in
those times depended not only upon horses and men but also
battle-elephants; these played a role in the defeat of Seleucus , one
Alexander 's former generals. The Mauryas sought to preserve
supplies of elephants since it was cheaper and took less time to
catch, tame and train wild elephants than to raise them.
Arthashastra contains not only maxims on ancient statecraft, but also
unambiguously specifies the responsibilities of officials such as the
Protector of the Elephant Forests.
On the border of the forest, he should establish a forest for
elephants guarded by foresters. The Office of the Chief Elephant
Forester should with the help of guards protect the elephants in any
terrain. The slaying of an elephant is punishable by death.
The Mauryas also designated separate forests to protect supplies of
timber, as well as lions and tigers for skins. Elsewhere the Protector
of Animals also worked to eliminate thieves, tigers and other
predators to render the woods safe for grazing cattle.
The Mauryas valued certain forest tracts in strategic or economic
terms and instituted curbs and control measures over them. They
regarded all forest tribes with distrust and controlled them with
bribery and political subjugation. They employed some of them, the
food-gatherers or aranyaca to guard borders and trap animals. The
sometimes tense and conflict-ridden relationship nevertheless enabled
the Mauryas to guard their vast empire.
Buddhism in the latter part of his reign, he
brought about significant changes in his style of governance, which
included providing protection to fauna, and even relinquished the
royal hunt. He was the first ruler in history to advocate conservation
measures for wildlife and even had rules inscribed in stone edicts.
The edicts proclaim that many followed the king's example in giving up
the slaughter of animals; one of them proudly states:
Our king killed very few animals. — Edict on Fifth Pillar
However, the edicts of
Ashoka reflect more the desire of rulers than
actual events; the mention of a 100 'panas' (coins) fine for poaching
deer in royal hunting preserves shows that rule-breakers did exist.
The legal restrictions conflicted with the practices freely exercised
by the common people in hunting, felling, fishing and setting fires in
CONTACTS WITH THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan.
3rd Century BCE
FOUNDATION OF THE EMPIRE
Relations with the
Hellenistic world may have started from the very
beginning of the
Plutarch reports that Chandragupta
Maurya met with
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great , probably around
Taxila in the
northwest: "Sandrocottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander
himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that
Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since
its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low
RECONQUEST OF THE NORTHWEST (C. 317–316 BCE)
Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India, in the
territories formerly ruled by the Greeks, where he fought the satraps
(described as "Prefects" in Western sources) left in place after
Alexander (Justin), among whom may have been Eudemus , ruler in the
Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE or Peithon, son of
Agenor , ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his
Babylon in 316 BCE. "India, after the death of
Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of
servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had
transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking
the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from
foreign domination" Justin XV.4.12–13 "Later, as he was preparing
war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to
him and took him on his back as if tame, and he became a remarkable
fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos
India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory."
CONFLICT AND ALLIANCE WITH SELEUCUS (305 BCE)
Seleucid–Mauryan war A map showing the north
western border of
Maurya Empire, including its various neighboring
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator , the Macedonian satrap of the Asian portion of
Alexander's former empire, conquered and put under his own authority
eastern territories as far as
Bactria and the Indus (
Appian , History
of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305 BCE he entered into a
confrontation with Emperor Chandragupta: "Always lying in wait for
the neighbouring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he
acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis,
Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and
other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as
the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most
Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from
Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus".
Appian , History of
Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
Though no accounts of the conflict remain, it is clear that Seleucus
fared poorly against the Indian Emperor as he failed to conquer any
territory, and in fact was forced to surrender much that was already
his. Regardless, Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a
settlement and through a treaty sealed in 305 BCE, Seleucus, according
to Strabo, ceded a number of territories to Chandragupta, including
large parts of what is now
Afghanistan and parts of
It is generally thought that Chandragupta married Seleucus\'s
daughter, or a Greek Macedonian princess , a gift from Seleucus to
formalise an alliance. In a return gesture, Chandragupta sent 500 war
elephants , a military asset which would play a decisive role at
Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. In addition to this treaty, Seleucus
dispatched an ambassador,
Megasthenes , to Chandragupta, and later
Deimakos to his son
Bindusara , at the
Mauryan court at Pataliputra
Bihar state ). Later,
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus , the
Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of
Ashoka , is also recorded
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the
Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast
territory west of the Indus, including the
Hindu Kush , modern-day
Afghanistan , and the
Balochistan province of
Archaeologically, concrete indications of
Mauryan rule, such as the
inscriptions of the Edicts of
Ashoka , are known as far as
"He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus ,
king of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they
came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage
"After having made a treaty with him (Sandrakotos) and put in order
the Orient situation, Seleucos went to war against Antigonus ."
Junianus Justinus , Historiarum Philippicarum, libri XLIV,
The treaty on "
Epigamia " implies lawful marriage between Greeks and
Indians was recognized at the State level, although it is unclear
whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people, or both..
Exchange Of Presents
Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty,
Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when
Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: "And
Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in
such matters . And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of
the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to
Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful
degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish
Athenaeus of Naucratis , "
The deipnosophists " Book I, chapter
Bindusara 'Amitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded
in Classical sources as having exchanged presents with
Antiochus I :
"But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really,
Aristophanes says, "There's really nothing nicer than dried figs"),
that even Amitrochates, the king of the Indians, wrote to Antiochus ,
entreating him (it is Hegesander who tells this story) to buy and send
him some sweet wine, and some dried figs, and a sophist ; and that
Antiochus wrote to him in answer, "The dry figs and the sweet wine we
will send you; but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in
Athenaeus , "
Deipnosophistae " XIV.67
GREEK POPULATION IN INDIA
The Greek population apparently remained in the northwest of the
Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule. In his Edicts of
Ashoka , set
in stone, some of them written in Greek,
Ashoka relates that the Greek
population within his realm was absorbed, integrated, and converted to
Buddhism: "Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the
the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras
and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods'
Dharma ". Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika). The
Kandahar Edict of
Ashoka , a bilingual edict (Greek and
Aramaic ) by
king Ashoka, from
Kabul Museum. (Click image for
Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek, and a full Edict,
written in both Greek and Aramaic, has been discovered in
It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using
sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict,
Ashoka uses the word
Piety ") as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous
Dharma " of his other Edicts written in
Prakrit : "Ten years (of
reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the
Eusebeia ) to men; and from
this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives
throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing)
living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and
fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were)
intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their
power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in
opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every
occasion, they will live better and more happily". (Trans. by G.P.
BUDDHIST MISSIONS TO THE WEST (C. 250 BCE)
The distribution of the Edicts of
Ashoka . Buddhist
proselytism at the time of king
Ashoka (260–218 BCE).
Also, in the Edicts of
Ashoka mentions the
of the period as recipients of his Buddhist proselytism, although no
Western historical record of this event remains: "The conquest by
Dharma has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas
(5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond
there where the four kings named Ptolemy , Antigonos , Magas and
Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas , the
and as far as
Sri Lanka )." (Edicts of
Ashoka , 13th Rock
Edict, S. Dhammika).
Ashoka also encouraged the development of herbal medicine , for men
and animals, in their territories: "Everywhere within
Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's domain, and among the people
beyond the borders, the Cholas , the
Pandyas , the Satiyaputras, the
Keralaputras, as far as
Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochos
rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere
has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types
of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical
treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or
animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown.
Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them
imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted
for the benefit of humans and animals". 2nd Rock Edict
The Greeks in
India even seem to have played an active role in the
propagation of Buddhism, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka, such as
Dharmaraksita , are described in Pali sources as leading Greek ("Yona
") Buddhist monks, active in Buddhist proselytism (the
Mahavamsa , XII
SUBHAGASENA AND ANTIOCHOS III (206 BCE)
Sophagasenus was an Indian
Mauryan ruler of the 3rd century BCE,
described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagasena or
Prakrit . His name is mentioned in the list of Mauryan
princes, and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty, as a descendant
of Pradyumna. He may have been a grandson of
Ashoka , or
Kunala , the
son of Ashoka. He ruled an area south of the
Hindu Kush , possibly in
Antiochos III , the
Seleucid king, after having made peace
with Euthydemus in
Bactria , went to
India in 206 BCE and is said to
have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there:
"He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India;
renewed his friendship with
Sophagasenus the king of the Indians;
received more elephants, until he had a hundred and fifty altogether;
and having once more provisioned his troops, set out again personally
with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home
the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him". Polybius
* 322 BCE :
Chandragupta Maurya founded the
Mauryan Empire by
* 317–316 BCE :
Chandragupta Maurya conquers the Northwest of the
* 305–303 BCE :
Chandragupta Maurya gains territory from the
* 298–269 BCE : Reign of Bindusara, Chandragupta's son. He
conquers parts of Deccan, southern India.
* 269–232 BCE : The
Mauryan Empire reaches its height under
Ashoka, Chandragupta's grandson.
* 261 BCE :
Ashoka conquers the kingdom of Kalinga.
* 250 BCE :
Ashoka builds Buddhist stupas and erects pillars bearing
* 184 BCE : The empire collapses when Brihadnatha, the last emperor,
is killed by
Pushyamitra Shunga , a
Mauryan general and the founder of
Shunga Empire .
According to Vicarasreni of
Merutunga , Mauryans rose to power in 312
History of India
List of largest empires that existed in India
* ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December
2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of
world-systems research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X . Retrieved 16
Colin McEvedy ; Richard Jones (1978). Atlas of World Population
History (PDF). New York: Facts on
File . p. 182.
* ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India.
4th edition. Routledge, Pp. xii, 448. pp. xii, 448. ISBN 0-415-32920-5
* ^ Thapar, Romila (1990). A History of India, Volume 1. Penguin
Books. p. 384. ISBN 0-14-013835-8 .
* ^ Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. p. 82. ISBN
* ^ A B C Rajadhyaksha, Abhijit (2009-08-02). "The Mauryas:
Chandragupta". Historyfiles.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
Seleucus I ceded the territories of
Balochistan ), and
Gandhara ). Aria (modern
Herat ) "has been wrongly included in the
list of ceded satrapies by some scholars on the basis of wrong
assessments of the passage of
Strabo and a statement by Pliny."
(Raychaudhuri & Mukherjee 1996, p. 594). Seleucus "must have held
Aria", and furthermore, his "son Antiochos was active there fifteen
years later." (Grainger 2014, p. 109).
* ^ The account of
Strabo indicates that the western-most territory
of the empire extended from the southeastern Hindu Kush, through the
Kandahar , to coastal
Balochistan to the south of that
(Raychaudhuri Kulke & Rothermund 2004, p. 68).
* ^ The empire was once thought to have directly controlled most of
Indian subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions
are now thought to have been separated by large tribal regions
(especially in the
Deccan peninsula) that were relatively autonomous.
(Kulke & Rothermund 2004, p. 68-71, as well as Stein 1998, p. 74).
"The major part of the
Deccan was ruled by . But in the belt of land
on either side of the Nerbudda, the Godavari and the upper Mahanadi
there were, in all probability, certain areas that were technically
outside the limits of the empire proper.
Ashoka evidently draws a
distinction between the forests and the inhabiting tribes which are in
the dominions (vijita) and peoples on the border (anta avijita) for
whose benefit some of the special edicts were issued. Certain vassal
tribes are specifically mentioned." (Raychaudhuri & Mukherjee pp.
* ^ Kalinga had been conquered by the preceding
Nanda Dynasty but
subsequently broke free until it was re-conquered by Ashoka, c. 260
BCE. (Raychaudhuri & Mukherjee, pp. 204–209, pp. 270–271)
* ^ "
Buddhism in Iran, Mehrak Golestan". iranian.com. 2004-12-15.
* ^ Boesche, Roger (2003-03-01). The First Great Political Realist:
Kautilya and His Arthashastra. p. 11. ISBN 9780739106075 .
* ^ Demeny, Paul George; McNicoll, Geoffrey (May 2003).
Encyclopedia of population. ISBN 9780028656793 .
* ^ "It is doubtful if, in its present shape, is as old as the
time of the first Maurya," as it probably contains layers of text
Maurya times till as late as the 2nd century CE.
Nonetheless, "though a comparatively late work, it may be used to
confirm and supplement the information gleaned from earlier sources."
(Raychaudhuri & Mukherjee 1996, pp.246–7)
* ^ Sugandhi, Namita Sanjay (2008). Between the Patterns of
Mauryan Imperial Interaction in the Southern
Deccan. pp. 88–89. ISBN 9780549744412 .
* ^ Kosmin 2014 , p. 31.
* ^ :"Androcottus, when he was a stripling, saw
and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander
narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since its king
was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth."
* ^ :"He was of humble Indian to a change of rule." Justin XV.4.15
"Fuit hic humili quidem genere natus, sed ad regni potestatem
maiestate numinis inpulsus. Quippe cum procacitate sua Nandrum regem
offendisset, interfici a rege iussus salutem pedum ceieritate
quaesierat. (Ex qua fatigatione cum somno captus iaceret, leo ingentis
formae ad dormientem accessit sudoremque profluentem lingua ei
detersit expergefactumque blande reliquit. Hoc prodigio primum ad spem
regni inpulsus) contractis latronibus Indos ad nouitatem regni
sollicitauit." Justin XV.4.15
* ^ Sir John Marshall, "Taxila", p. 18 et passim
* ^ "asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parasika-Bahlika
parbhutibhih Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara
balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama"
* ^ The HUNAS mentioned in
Mudrarakshasa play (II) of Vishakhadatta
are same people as the HARAHUNAS of the
Mahabharata (II.32.12). They
were located in Herat/Aria according to Dr Moti Chandra and were an
earlier branch of the Hunas (See: Geographical and Economic Studies in
the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 66, Dr Moti Chandra; Also:
Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 33, Dr
D. C. Sircar.)
* ^ For Harahunas being a group of the Hunas, see also: Early
History of Iranians and Atharvaveda, Persica-9, 1980, p 118, Dr
Michael Witzel , Harvard University.
Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, Radhakumud Mookerji, Motilal
Banarsidass Publ., 1966, p.26-27
* ^ A B
Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, Radhakumud Mookerji,
Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1966, p.27
* ^ History Of The Chamar Dynasty, Raj Kumar, Gyan Publishing
House, 2008, p.51
Sanskrit original: "asti tava
Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara
balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama".
From the French translation, in "Le Ministre et la marque de
l'anneau", ISBN 2-7475-5135-0
* ^ A B Majumdar 2003 , p. 105.
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 39.
* ^ "In the royal residences in
India where the greatest of the
kings of that country live, there are so many objects for admiration
that neither Memnon 's city of
Susa with all its extravagance, nor the
Ectabana is to be compared with them. (...) In the
parks, tame peacocks and pheasants are kept."
"Characteristics of animals" Aelian, Characteristics of animals, book
XIII, Chapter 18, also quoted in The Cambridge History of India,
Volume 1, p411
* ^ "The architectural closeness of certain buildings in Achaemenid
India have raised much comment. The royal palace at
Pataliputra is the most striking example and has been compared with
the palaces at Susa, Ecbatana, and Persepolis" Aśoka and the decline
of the Mauryas, Volume 5, p.129, Romila Thapar, Oxford University
* ^ A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone
Age to the 12th century by Upinder Singh p.331
* ^ Kosmin 2014 , p. 32.
* ^ Wilhelm Geiger (1908). The Dīpavaṃsa and Mahāvaṃsa and
their historical development in Ceylon. Ethel M. Coomaraswamy. H. C.
Cottle, Government Printer, Ceylon. p. 40.
OCLC 559688590 .
* ^ M. Srinivasachariar (1989). History of classical Sanskrit
literature (3 ed.).
Motilal Banarsidass . p. 550. ISBN
* ^ P.109 A brief history of
India by Alain Daniélou, Kenneth
* ^ P. 138 and P. 146 History and doctrines of the Ājīvikas: a
vanished Indian religion by Arthur Llewellyn Basham
* ^ P. 24
Buddhism in comparative light by Anukul Chandra Banerjee
* ^ P. 171
Ashoka and his inscriptions, Volume 1 by Beni Madhab
Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa
* ^ Edicts of
Ashoka , 13th Rock Edict, translation S. Dhammika.
* ^ Army and Power in the Ancient World by Angelos Chaniotis
/Pierre Ducrey(Eds.), Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart, P35
* ^ According to the
* ^ Sir John Marshall, "A Guide to Sanchi", Eastern Book House,
1990, ISBN 81-85204-32-2 , pg.38
* ^ E. Lamotte: History of Indian Buddhism, Institut Orientaliste,
Louvain-la-Neuve 1988 (1958)
* ^ Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas by Romila Thapar, Oxford
University Press, 1960 P200
* ^ Gabriel A, Richard (30 November 2006), The Ancient World
:Volume 1 of Soldiers\' lives through history, Greenwood Publishing
Group, p. 28
* ^ Majumdar 2003 , p. 107.
* ^ The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India.
University of Michigan
University of Michigan .
* ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19
March 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2016. .
* ^ A B P. 266 Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 1 By James
* ^ P. 92 Paurānic and Tāntric Religion: Early Phase By Jitendra
* ^ P. 212 Age of the Nandas and Mauryas By K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
Chanakya at Hinduism.co.za Archived 16 July 2014 at the Wayback
* ^ Jerry Bentley, Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts in
Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press), 46
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , pp. 39-41.
* ^ Thapar 2004 , p. 178.
* ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004 , pp. 64-65.
* ^ Samuel 2010 , pp. 60.
* ^ Basham 1951 , p. 138, 146.
* ^ Cort 2010 , p. 199.
* ^ Tukol, T. K. ,
Jainism in South
* ^ "L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique", p23
* ^ "L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique", p22
* ^ Mookerji 1988 , p. 15.
* ^ Rangarajan, M. (2001) India's Wildlife History, pp 7.
* ^ A B C Rangarajan, M. (2001) India's Wildlife History, pp 8.
* ^ "Plutarch, Alexander, chapter 1, section 1".
* ^ "(Transitum deinde in Indiam fecit), quae post mortem
Alexandri, ueluti ceruicibus iugo seruitutis excusso, praefectos eius
occiderat. Auctor libertatis Sandrocottus fuerat, sed titulum
libertatis post uictoriam in seruitutem uerterat ; 14 siquidem
occupato regno populum quem ab externa dominatione uindicauerat ipse
seruitio premebat." Justin XV.4.12–13
* ^ "Molienti deinde bellum aduersus praefectos Alexandri
elephantus ferus infinitae magnitudinis ultro se obtulit et ueluti
domita mansuetudine eum tergo excepit duxque belli et proeliator
insignis fuit. Sic adquisito regno Sandrocottus ea tempestate, qua
Seleucus futurae magnitudinis fundamenta iaciebat, Indiam possidebat."
* ^ "Appian, The Syrian Wars 11".
* ^ Ancient India, (Kachroo, p.196)
* ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India, (Hunter, p.167)
* ^ The evolution of man and society, (Darlington, p.223)
* ^ W. W. Tarn (1940). "Two Notes on
Seleucid History: 1. Seleucus'
500 Elephants, 2. Tarmita", The Journal of Hellenic Studies 60, p.
* ^ Kosmin 2014 , p. 37.
* ^ "Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (eds. John Bostock, M.D.,
F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.)". Archived from the original on 28
* ^ Vincent A. Smith (1998). Ashoka. Asian Educational Services.
ISBN 81-206-1303-1 .
Walter Eugene Clark (1919). "The Importance of Hellenism from
the Point of View of Indic-Philology", Classical Philology 14 (4), p.
* ^ A B Kosmin 2014 , p. 35.
* ^ "Problem while searching in The Literature Collection".
* ^ "The Literature Collection: The deipnosophists, or, Banquet of
the learned of Athenæus (volume III): Book XIV".
* ^ Reference: "India: The Ancient Past" p.113, Burjor Avari,
Routledge, ISBN 0-415-35615-6
* ^ Full text of the
Mahavamsa Click chapter XII
* ^ Kailash Chand
Jain 1991 , p. 85.
* Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal
Banarsidass , ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8
* Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of
Yoga and Tantra. Indic
Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press
* Kosmin, Paul J. (2014), The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space,
Territory, and Ideology in
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press ,
* Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India
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